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New Series, Vol. XXIX 



3 baptist mission press, 







iliTEAy H. D. Sadi^iva worship in early Bengal : a study in 

history, art and religion. Contents . .. -• 171 

N'umismatio StrppLEiMEi’^T. Ko. 4|k (No. 3) Contents . . N- 3 

Proceed iHGs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1932 

(No. 2). Contents'. .. ' ... . .. „ . Hi 


[JoTJBNAi. AND Proceedings] 

Anderson, Sib John 

Speech at the Annual Meeting ' 

, >DRN, R. , , 

Muhammad Tughluq’s forced coinage .. 

Chakeayarti, Chintaharan , 

A new Indian version of the story of Solomon’s judg- 

■ ment - . 'V.'.' „ .7' 

A note on the age and authorship of the Tantras . . 

Conger, George,. P. 

Cosmic persons and human universes in Indian phiio- 
Sophy . . ' ■ . . ' ■ . . ■ , . . , f .» 

Datta, Jatindra Mohan s . 

A few types of sedentary games of Lower Bengal 


Note on a gold token of Kumaragupta I . . 

Deb, Habit Krishna 

India and the Persian empire .... . . 

St. Thomas and a Kushan King ... . ... 

Susa in Sanskrit literature , . 

. Bunn, J. A. ■ : ’ 

Late tertiary uplift in Singhbhum 

Ghosb, Sib Chabu Chandra 
'....' .Annua! Address, 1932-33 .• . ... 

Ghosh, 'Bkendbanath 

An experimental study of the asphyxiation of some air- 
breathing fishes of Bengal ^ . . . . . . 

Ghosh, Jogbndra Chandra 

Jinendra’s Nyasa in Champa- . . 

The Chhindas of Magadha and Gaudesvara Madhusena- 

N. 5 

- 13 



N. ii 












New Series 

Voi. XX!X.— 1933 


1-270, Aug., 19iJ4; 
i-cxcii, „ »? 

N. 1-N. 42, April, „ 
271-355, Oct., „ 

(Volume complete in 4 issues.) 


The pages of the Journal should immediately follow the 
Title, List of Contents, and these directions in the following 
sequence: Nos. 1 and 4, Then follow the Proceedings con- 
tained in the Official Number (No. 2), with separate 
numbering in Roman numerals. The separate title-page and 
list of contents for the Proceedings should be prefixed to it. 
Next follows the Numismatic Supplement for 1931-33, No. 
XLIV (No. 3), with separate title-page and list of contents, and 
page -numbering marked with the letter N (Numismatics). 

Plate 1 to follow page 4. 

Plates 2-3 ,, „ „ 38. 

,, 4— '12 ,, ,, ,, IbOa. 

„ 13-18,, „ „ 254. 

Plate 19 „ „ „ 274. 

20 „ „ A, 288. 

Plates 21-22,, „ „ 300. 

There are five plates in the Numismatic Supplement; 
these are separately numbered : 

Plate 1 to follow page N. 22. 

„ 2 „ , ,, N. 26. 

Plates 3-5 ,, ,,, N. 36. 

The Index to be bound at the end of the volume. 

No. 1 . , pp. 

„ 2 (Official) 

3 (Numismatic) „ 

» ^ .. . n ■ 

Aetigle No. 1 . 

Worship of the Deities Olti, JholTi and Bon BtM 
in Lower Bengal. 

By Sunder Lal Hoea. 

{PubUsJwd wUIi permission of the Director, Zoological Survey of hidia,) 

During JaiiEarv-FebruarY, 1933, I was carrying out certain 
investigations on the brackish water fauna in the neighbourhood 
of Calcutta. In the course of this work, a visit was paid to 
Tolly’s Xuilah near Gangajaora and to the southern portion 
of the Salt Lakes near Naoabad on the 2nd of February. On 
my Tvay back, a small hut built of stakes and leaves of Pakhiir- 
gachh wa>s noticed in a lonely place in the paddy-field adjoining 
the village of Gangajaora. The hut had been built in a small area, 
s]>eeialiy cleared for the pmpose. On closer insjpection, it was 
found that a low niud-platform resembling a Muhammadan 
tomb or dargah (plate 1, fig. 2) had been constructed, and that a 
portion of it was covered by the hut. On the shaded portion 
of the platform were the images of the two ^ sister deities Old 
and JJwhl (vkle infra) in a standing posture and mounted on a 
|)ieee of v'ood (plate 1, fig. 1). On the platform and in its imme- 
diate vicinity were found scattered about chirdghs or small 
earthen lamps and empty shells of cocoanuts, showing thereby 
tliat some sort of piljd had been performed here not ver}^ long 

The tw(.) sister deities were represented by beautiful clay 
figures and were dressed in fine and gorgeously coloured clothes. 
The palms of their hands had been painted deep-red. The 
right arm in both the figures was stretched outwards and the 
forearm bent upwards exactly in the same way as a policeman 
hold.s his arm to stop traffic coming from in front of him. The 
position of the other arm is different in the two figures as can 
be seen in the illustration. 

When we were studying the hut and its inmates, several 
shc^pherd boys and villagers Joined us. We were thus fortunate 
to ol)taiii the following account of the worship. 

The worship of the deities Old, Jhold and Bon Blbl^ is 
performed on a <iay convenient to the whole village in the Hindu 
month of 3Idgk (January-February). Old and Jhold are believed 

^ Dr. 8. K. Cbatterji t-hhiks that both 00 and //w/a refer to the 
goddess of eliolera {vide infra ^ p. 4). 

2 This position of tlie forearm and the hand indicates that the god- 
desses are besto%ring benediction on the people who worship them. 

1 was informed that in places where Hindus and Muhammadans 
jointly worship this goddess, it is called BlU Mmi, and the worship is 
performed by a Muhammadan priest, 

{ 1 ) 

2 Jowrnal Asiatic Soddy -of Bmgal [2f.S,. X.XIX, 

to be twO' sisters, the fomer presides over the disease of ehcdera 
aad the latter over that of smallpox. The t\u» godliiiii's ar(* 
worshipped to secure imimmitv for the entire village from these 
feU diseases.^- Bd;?. . (Mterally means tin? goddess of the 

jtiiigfes) is worshipped to -secure saiety from all. kinds of vik! 
beasts and other mishaps- while moving about in tfie jungles.- 
It has been indicated abo%^e that, there were only two imaties 
(commonly called fMkurs) when we visited the place. \\”e 
learnt that there were several others, but they must .havc‘ l>ec‘ii 
■ destroyed or removed b^vboys playing about in the :nejgldK>'iir- 
liood of the place. It would thus appear that tlie sanctity of 
the place is observed only on the day of worship. 

The p'ujd is , a common a^ffair for the entire village and 
as such it, is performed by- purchasing the necessary articles 
from a fund to which ever^- villager . subscribes according to his 
or her means and position .in life. The principal item in the 
2 n§a is the sacrifice of a goat. The animal is ‘ cleaned ^ by 
washing, is garlanded and then decorated by i-fiaeing a vermilion 
mark on its forehead. Thus adorned, it is brought in the 
presence of the deities and fed with rice and other articles. 
After the customary incantation of the mantras by the Bra liman 
priest, which had been going on since the time the gi»at was 
taken in hand for ivashing, the animal is beheaticKl ; the In-ad is 
taken away, as Ms fee, by the village blacksmith wdio usually 
is the person who actually kiUs the animal and t}u‘ jueat is 
distributed to all the \nllagers. Offerings of flowers and fruits 
are made to the deities and these are collected aftc-rwarils h\“ 
the priest. Terra-cotta lamps are burnt at the time of pujd 
winch is held about midday. At night a much larger number of 
small earthen lamps are lighted. 

I was informed that the small plot of land, on wiiieh pilgd 
is performed year after year, has been made over to the village 
in perpetuity for tMs purpose by some rich person of the village. 
Such pious acts are not uncommon among the Hindus all over 

The village of Gangajaora in the 24-Parganas is mostly 
inhabited by the Hindus of the Pod (PadmariJ or Chasi) caste. 
It is a 'fishing, cultivating, landholding and trading caste of 
Lower Bengal, found in large numbers in the 24-Parganas ' 

1 It may be noted that in Lower Bengal ‘ cholera, has a tendeiic'V to 
become epidemic twice a year, viz., at the beginning of hot weather, 

and at the end of rains Smallpox occurs on a small scale tnvr\' 

succeeding spring.’ — (O’Malley, 1914, p. 89.) 

2 It has to be remembered that this part of Lower Bengal was 
included in the Simdarbans not very long ago and was infested with 
dangerous animals. The jungle and its attendant dangers have dis- 
appeared now, but the popular belief of worshipping M/i Blbl still lingers. 
Superstitions and x^opular beliefs, like geological and archieoiogical recurcis, 
form an important basis for the study of the s^aread of human culture and 

1933] Worship of the Deities Ola, Jhola a7id Bon Bibi , 3 

^(Risley, 1891, p. 176). The social status of Pods is low and they 
always em|>loy. as their priests - members of certain . families 
from among Rarlii Brahmans. Those Brahmans, who act as 
their, priests, are held to be so far degraded by serving them 
that high class Brahmans will not take food or water from their 

The above note was given to Dr. Suniti Kumar Ghatterji 
for criticism and suggestions, and some of his views, for which 
I am grateful to him, are given below. I take this opportunity 
to express my thanks to Babu D. K. Bagchi, who accompanied 
me in the field and took the photographs reproduced here. 

' The village deity w^hose worship has been noted by 
Dr. Hora is fairly common in Deltaic Bengal, at least in the 
central and w^estern parts of it, and is known probably also in 
other parts of the province. Any destructive or beneficial 
force is recognized as a deity. Kew forces of one kind or another 
are acknowledged as soon as they arrive. Smallpox became 
recognized long ago under diverse names as Hdritl and Sitald, 
Mdtd and Mariyaymnd. Cholera as an epidemic disease is 
perhaps recent in India — at least it seems to have been not so 
prominent in ancient times. In any ease w'e do not have its 
virulent spread registered in the ancient Hindu pantheon in 
the form of a god or a goddess of a destructive force. Cholera 
seems to have come into prominence in the Bengal delta, if not 
actually into existence, as an epidemic, only a little over a 
hundred years ago.^ I have heard the late Amrit Lai 
Bose, the distinguished Bengali author and dramatist, who died 
at an advanced age in 1929, say that Oldi CayitM c^me into sudden 
popularity since that time. Old-ufhd is the Bengali name for 
cholera (from Old, an obsolete verb meaning ‘‘ to come down ”, 
and utJid ‘‘‘to rise, to come up referring to the nature of the 
disease). The Sanskrit word VisuciJcd is not used colloquially. 
Old-uthd or cholera as a death-bringing force was looked upon 
as the form of the goddess of destruction — of Ccmdl, the 
■“terrible” or ^ the “irate” one, who is but the same as Durgd 
or Uind, or Sakti: the goddess presiding over it wus called 
Oldi Caiidl, the Candl of the Old-uthd disease. Oldi Candl 
is now w'orshipped by the Hindus in Southern Bengal with the 
usual Hindu rite of pujd conducted by Brahman priests ; and 
she also receives the homage of the Muhammadans. As a 
concession to the susceptibilities of Muhammadans, who would 

^ ‘ Cholera appears to have been known hi India from the most 
ancient times, for Charaka and Susruta describe symptoms which most 
probably refer to this disease’ {Castellani and Chalmers, 1913, p. 1343). 
The earliest record of cholera as an epidemic in India is found in 1438 
when Ahmed Shah’s army is said to have been decimated by the ravages 
of this disease. In Bengal, however, it began as an epidemic, which may 
have originated in Calcutta or Jessore in 1817 and which lasted till 1823. 

Jj. H. 

4 , Journal of the As, Society q [IST. S'., XX. IX, 1933] 

not like to be found worshi|>ping' a deity ’with a frankly Hindu 
name, Otef CVr/nfi is also called Old une of tlie Persian 

expression. Blbl '‘Lady” at once sort of Isiamises her, and slic^ 
becomes a female counterpart of xmiry Ptrs or god lings td 
popular Islam, only she is far more dreaded than any Plr. 1180 
goddess is now indiiierently known as Oldi Can.dl or Old Blld. 
the Muhaminadans preferring the latter name. Tlie name 
Old-jhold as noted by Dr. Hora must be a local variation. Old- 
jhold may be explained as meaning the same thifig as Old- 
ufM. (jhold imm. jkol ‘ ‘watery mass or mess, soup”), the jhigle 
pleasing local fancy. A shrine to this goddess is not an in- 
frequent thing in the villages round Calcutta* In the suburl^ 
of Belgachiya to the north of Calcutta there is a ver\' poimlar 
Olm Camp shrine, where the proprietors are Hindus : in Xebutalfi 
off Bow’ bazar Street in the heart of the city, there is another 
Oldi Candl shrine : and in the village of Kasundiya within 
Howrah Miinicipaiity there is an 0ld-Bibt4ald Lane- on wiiicli 
stands an Old Blbl temple owned by Muhammadans.’ 


0'Ha.liev, L. S. S. — Bengal District Gazetteers, 24*Parg.a.iias la ; 

1914 ). _ ‘ 

Risiey, H. Ii.~—The Tribes and Castes of Bengal^ II (Calcutta. ; iSfil ). 
Castellaiii, A. and Chalmers, A. of Tropical Medleiia^ 

2nd Edition, p. 1343 (London: 1913). 

Fig. 1. Images of t] 

Hut used for the worship of the deities Ola, Jhola and Bdn Btht 
'.at Gangajaora. 

Article ¥o. 2, 

Sedentary Games of India. 

By Sunder Lal Hora. 

{Published loitli permission of the Director, Zoological Surmy of India.) 

Ill a series of articles that I propose to contribute to this 
Journal from time to time, I shall be describing the various 
types of sedentary games that are still prevalent in different 
parts of India. It seems to me that, in the first instance, 
the importance of the comparative study of such games, from 
the ethnological standpoint, does not he so much in the details 
of then similarities and differences as in the light it throws on 
social contact between different groups of people. Cultural 
traits may migrate in various w^ays, and these migrations may 
be due either to actual movements of people or, as so often 
happens, to contact. The tracing of the possible routes of 
migrations of these games, as in all other single traits, furnishes 
important clues regarding the general contact — metamorphism 
of different people or the displacement of one by the other. 
Whichever may be the basic reason in a particular locality 
or among particular tribes, it provides important clues and 
evidence which are of considerable value to the historical study 
of their culture. 

Before discussing the wider question of the cultural signi- 
ficance of the various games now being played in India, it seems 
desirable to record all the different types that are prevalent at 
the present time and to study the variations undergone by them 
during their distribution from place to place in this country. 
In recent years, the late Professor H. C. Das-Gupta directed 
our attention to the wealth of information that is still available 
on this subject in India in a number of articles, seven of which 
he published in our Journal. The present generation of educated 
people is almost ignorant of these local games, while the 
illiterate masses are also taking more and more interest in im- 
ported games for their amusement. The old games are thus 
dying out, and it is important to record the things which another 
generation may rarely, if ever, see. My present residence in 
the cosmopolitan town of Calcutta enables me to study the 
games played by people of the different provinces, and, more- 
over, the exigencies of my service in the Zoological Survey of 
India permit me to visit widely separated, and sometimes 
almost inaccessible, localities. Further, I am indebted to 
correspondents all over India who very kindly supply me in- 
formation about these games, 

( ) 

6 Journal of the Asiatic Bociety of ■ Bengal [X.S., XXIX, 

To iiriderstand. tlie rules of the games, sf»nie of ^vliien are- 
fairij complicated, I hare played 'them with the iufnrnmnts. 
Ill some cases the results have been yeriiied hy filayiiig the* sairei 
games with other people from the same locality or by seiHlintf 
out, full descriptions to friends- to check the statements. 

In the stwh’ of these .games I have received great lieip 
from my friend and colleague Dr, B. S. Goha. and I take tills 
opportunity to express to him my sincerest thanks. 

1. , Sebentary games played m the Teesta Talley below"' 


While on a zoological tour to the Teesta Valle in A]u'iL 

1933., a, -was made to collect a few types of seden tain- 
games played in the vaUey. During my stay for a couple of 
days at' Kalijhora, an old, man was engaged as a cooly to help 
me in the collection of zoological material. This man. thougli 
of Nepalese origin, had been born and brought up in the Teesta 
Valley. The followmg three games were explained to me by 
this old man, and in this he was assisted by the watchman 
of the P.W.D. Best House. On iny return to Calcutta an 
account of these games was prepared and sent to m\* friend 
Mr. F. D. Raj at Kalimpong, who, after making enquiries among 
the coolies,, informed me' that the account given was corn^et. 
I am grateful to Mr. Raj for the help thus rendered. 

Lam Turki , 

Description —The game is played by one peu'son. so it is 
a kind of a ' Solitaire b but usually a group of people sit together 
and play the game in turn. It is played on a board of ten 
crosspoints arranged as in the accompanying diagraiiL 

There are nine pieces of any hard substance with which the 
game is played. The actual play consists of tv-o phases. In the 
first phase, the person playing has to get all his nine pieces on 
the board, and then in the second phase, by the usual metliod of 
Jumping over, has to capture all except one. The pieces can hr* 
placed on the board in any way, except that when a piece is placed 
on a crosspoint it has not to be shifted from its place. When 
removing the pieces from the board, they are taken as in 
draughts by leaping over the piece to be captured to a v'aeant 
space in the same straight line. 

It is rather a difficult game, so the old man gave me the 
following directions for playing it correctly. While placing 
the pieces on the board, start should be made from any 
corner point and a piece deposited on the second crosspoint 
away from it in a straight line. For instance, if the start is 
made from e, then the first piece should be placed at b. In 
the next move, start is made from such a point that after 

1933 ] 

Sedentary Games of India 

■ 1 

counting three points, as indicated .above, the piece is 
placed at ' the starting point for the first move. In every 

Fio. 1.— The board used in playing the game Lam Turku 

move the point from where the start is made for the preceding 
move is filled up. In nine moves all the ineces are thus placed 
on the board. These moves may be as follows : — 

e d bf h fe^ u j d b ru f/ j h c b:U fd £• i hf 

In each move the crosspoint represented by an under- 
lined letter is occupied, and it may be noticed that each 
such ]3oint formed the starting point of the previous move. 
After the nine moves indicated above, one crosspoint I remains 
vacant. In removing the pieces from the board, efiort should 
be made to avoid going to the extreme corners. For removing 
the pieces, the following moves may be made; — 

8 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bemgal [X.S., XXIX, 

In the above-noted eight, moves, the pieces I, vine on. the 
crosspoiiits represented by the underlined letters will be re- 
moved one by one, so that in the end only one piece remains 
on the boa,rd at the ■crosspoint f. It may be noted that in 
these eight .moves, there are six in which the pieces from tiic^ 
extreme corners are moved inwards. 

The moves can be varied, but for the correct play tlje 
p.riiiciples enunciated above should be observed, otiieinvist* 
more than one piece remain on the board and the person |)layliig 
the game loses it. 

Eemarlcs. — Humphries^ described a similar game from the 
Karwi .Subdivision in the United Provinces under the name 
Kotvwa Damd but remarked that ' I had great difficult}'’ in learning 
tile, rules of thiS' game, as the man who gave me the diagram 
had forgotten them, and ihepoMcari, the only man in the village 
who knew the game at all, had not played it for years In 
the Teesta Valiev, I was informed that the game is plai'ed only 
by a few intelligent people, and is by no means comnionl}’ 

I was informed that the vernacular name of the game Lam 
TurJd literally means ‘ going straight b In winch prrihal)!}" 
reference is made to the eharacteristie straight mo\'es tliat are 
made in playing this game. 

Attention may here be directed to Kaooa. a type of 
sedentary games prevalent in the Ckmtral Prc>vince8 and dc‘scrii)C‘d 
by Das-CTiipta.- The diagram used for playing this gamc^ is 
identical with that of Lam Turki and Komm Dand. Kaooa is. 
however, a peculiar kind of tiger-play which is played by twc» 
persons, one in charge of seven kaooas and the othcT in charge 
of one ^ tiger b It viil thus be seen that though the figures 
used in all these games are absolutely identical, there is a great 
deal of difference in the actual playing of the games. 

Bhagckaf BhmgcMkar, or CJhakrachaL 

Description, — ^This is a kind of tiger -play in which two 
persons are required to play the game, one plays with four 
' tigers ’ and the other with twenty ' goats h The diagium is 
given on the opposite page. 

The four ‘ tigers ’ are placed at the four points A B C I ), 
and then one by one the ‘"goats’ are brought on the board. 
As soon as the first ‘ goat ’ is placed on the board, one of the 
tigers ’ moves to capture it. This can only happen when the 
' goat ’ is between the ‘ tiger ’ and a vacant point in a straiglit 
line. The ‘goats’ are captured as in draughts hy jumping 
over. Xo ‘goat’ is to be moved from its place on the boani 

^ Humphries, Joum. As, Boc, Bmgul (X.S.) II, p. 126 (190(5). 

2 Das-Giipta, Jonrn, As, Boc, Bmgal {l>t.B,) XX, p. 167, 1924 (192r>)- 


Sedentary Games of hidia 


till all the 20 ‘ goats ’ have been placed on the hoard one by one. 
Then the pieces can be moved forwards and backwards on 
.adjacent vacant places. The effort of the player holding tK 
' goats ’ is to checkmate the movements of the ' tigers When 
either all the ' goats ' are captured or ail the ' tigers ’ are 

€. D. 

A. B. 

Fig. 2. — The board used in playing the game Blmgchal, Bhagclmhar or 


checkmated, the play is finished. The person who performs one 
or the other of the two feats is the winner. 

Rerm^fhs . — In India there are several types of tiger-play 
in which the number of ' goats ’ may be 24, 20, 12 or 3, while 
the number of ' tiger ’ may be 1, 2, or 4. Though the underl 3 ring 
principle is the same in all these games, in actual practice the 
methods for playing each game are different. The essential 
features of the game from the Teesta Valley are : (i) the four 
' tigers ' are placed ah' the commencement of the game at the 
•extreme four corners and the ^ goats ’ are brought on the board 

Aeticlb E"o. 3..: 

A New' Indian Version of the Story of Solomon’s 

By Chintaharan Chakravarti. 

Quite a good number of stories similar to the story of 
Solomon’s judgment as told in the Bible^ are known in different 
parts of the world. ^ These stories differ, of course, in the 
matter of details, but the motif of ingenuity in the matter of 
deciding a crucial point is the same in all. In India different 
versions of the story have been known to exist among the 
various religious sects. Four versions of the story have been 
traced in the literature— Sanskrit and vernacular — of the Jains.^ 
One version belonging to the Buddhists was translated by 
Prof. Rhys Davids in his Buddhist Birth Stories} 

I have recently come across a new version of the story in 
a Tantric work entitled Burnparampardmritraf a work which 
describes legends connected with the lives of several saints who 
followed the Tantra form of worshij:). The story in question 
occurs in Chapter XXIX of the second half {uttarardha) of the 
work. It is a comparatively recent work having been com- 
posed as late as the year 1872 a.d. by one Ramakrsna. It is 
not known, definitely whether, as would seem very likely, our 
author had any traditional old story to go back upon or 
whether he only modified the versions of the story as found 
among the Buddhists and Jains and introduced novel elements. 
The matter must be left to students of comparative folklore 
for decision. It will be noticed, however, that this version 
shows some noticeable points of difference from the usual 
type of the story. The quarrel turns not on the ownership 
of the child but on the identity of its murderer. Further,, 
the test suggested by the j)rince for the solution of the j^rob- 
lem is a novel one and does not agree with the tests found 
in other versions. I now propose to give a summary of the 
story for what it is worth. It runs thus : — 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

l i. Kings, iii. 16-28. 

^ Buddhist Birth Stories^ VoL I, Rhys Davids, London, 1880, pp. xliv ff. 

S These were collected and translated by L. P. Tessitory in the 
Indian : Antiquary.,. 1913, pp. 148n. It is to be noted that Frazer in 
Ms monumental work. Folk-lore in the Old Testament (Vol. II, pp. 570-1),. 
has only referred to these four Jain versions. It seems that he was- 
not aware of the Buddhist version. 

^ Voi. I, pp. xiv~xvi. 

5 It has been published from the Venkateswar Steam Machine Press • 
of Bombay. 

{ 13 ) 


Journal of the AsiaMc Society of Bengal j N.S.. XXIX, 

“'A liermit wandering towards tlie north wont tn a hio^ 
city where Bharmasimha, . tlie good a ii d | ao ns ki i ig. ruled. He 
'had a son seTeii j^ears old. 

Ill that city liyed . a wealthy Brahman wln^ had tWf> \vivp<. 
He was, childless ; but in course of time had a soil hy his yoiiiiiicr 
wife, , The eider wife- was very good-natimHl ami looked after 
the step-child as if it were her oivii. As a matter of fact, all 
outside people, thought it to be hers: only a few liho Wfrn* 

: intimately related to the family were aware of t lie am iial relation. 
The liiishand was imtiiraliy pleased with tin* elder wife ini 
account of her. .kind hehaTioor. The younger wih uas jealous 
-of the affection shown to the childless co-witV : and o!U“ niglit 
administered poison to the child, placed It b\' the side of the 
co-wife, and went to bed herself. When she got up in the 
morning she touched the -child to make sui*e that ii was dead 
■and then.' cried out. The eider wife was ivakeneil hy the 
screams and, finding the child lifeless, was so shocked that she 
could utter no words. 

The husband and all other people shortly «‘aiutMqHHi tle^ 
seene. Seeing the husband the younger wife said uith fa]>e 
tears iii her eyes, ‘MAuifidently did 1 ]>]aee the child bp^ide 
my co-wife in the night, Xow' she must have kiikal it hy 
poison. You love her, though chiidless, iuore than yon iov** 
me. Xot knowing her mind yon have always \mni angry to- 
wards me. I shall now go along with this ciiild. ! .shall keep 
no more company with her. You may live lia|)pih with her.*' 

Hearing all these wmrds of the younger wife* the pe«iple 
«around had no suspicion in their minds and said, *' It must he 
the wa)rk of the elder wife 

Beeeiving report of the matter from a messenger the king 
, 'Summoned all concerned to his presence. The younger wife* 
narrated the' wiiole' story, to the king even before sin* was asketl 
.•an 3 i},liiiig about 

After hearing what -she had to say the .king had no doubt 
that she spoke the .truth. For wiio , else, thought lie, could 
there be to kill the child. Bo he deci-ded to puiilsli the elder 
wife. ". 

Xow, the young prince approached at that time ami said, 
She w'ho will proceed naked to the tank near hy w ith a ]nt(;her 
and, bringing water therefrom, pour it on the image of Siv|i 
before all present, will be recognized as the truthful one aii<i 
not the other The younger wife readily agreed to this \mlgar 
proposal. At that the prince asked his father to consider who 
•really w^as guilty. The king then detected his mistake and 
punished the younger wife.' 

’ It may be of some interest to relate here Imw inoderii 
scientists have recently dealt with a similar problem— the problem 
■of determining the parentage of two children quite identical in 
appearance. We quote in detail from the editorial notes of tin* 

193 ^] 

Story of Solomo7i\s Judgment 


Calcutta daily the AfnrUa Bazar Patrika of the 8th August, 
1930, where a case^ has been described in some detail. The 
note runs : — ' Scientists have worked wonders in the past, but 
who ever thought that they might be called upon to solve a 
puzzle which the Chicago anthropologists are now trjdng to do ? 
The puzzle consists in establishing the identity of two three- 
weeks-old babies born in a Chicago hospital within a few hours 
of each other. The mothers had gone home with their babies 
ten clays after they had been dehvered and one of them, 
M’S. William Watkins, discovered there that her baby had 
around its neck a piece of tape on which was written ' Bamberger b 
Rushed M. Watkins to the Bambergers and shouted, “ You 
have got the wrong baby ’b ‘" Guess not ’’ was the calm reply 
from Mr. Bamberger, for did not everybody say that the baby 
looked just .Hke him ? 

Then followed investigations and inquiiies. The 
Bambergers’ nurse had removed, it was ascertained, from the 
person of the baby they had taken home a tape which bore the 
inscription ‘ b Watkins ’b But this was to no effect, for the 
Bambergers would not be convinced of the fact that they had 
the wrong baby which everybody said looked so much like 
M. Bamberger. The hospital authorities having failed to solve 
the problem, the scientific experts are taldng a hand to do so. 
Elaborate physical examinations of the fathers and the babies 
have been made. Skulls have been measured, pigmentations of 
eyes and skins have been tested, and hairs have been examined. 
They have compared their findings, and have stated to be hopeful 
of solving the riddle. We hope they will. In the meantime, the 
Chicago Health Commissioner had issued the fiat that maternity 
hospitals should take foot-prints of new^-born babies to make 
identification infallible.’. .. . 

1 A similar case from Germany in which proceedings were started 
eleven years after the birth of the children was reported in another Cal- 
cutta daily, the *4 dmncc, of the 4th April, 19.31. 

Article ISTo. 4. 

Date of the Introduction of the Saka Year in Java. 

By Himaksu Bhusan Sar-kae. 

The most popular but fabulous early history of Java is 
contained in the following interesting account which sets up 
a sort- of mythical chronology of the early kings of Java. In 
this list ive come across the names of some heroes of the Lunar 
dynasty, which prove the influence of the great Indian epic 
among the peoples of Java. The name of the heroine of the 
Emndyana, Devi Sinta, also occurs incidentally. The story 
proceeds wdth the account that before the creation of any 
human being in Java, the presiding deity of the country was 
Visnu who w-as folio w^ed by Tritresta, son of Jala Prasi and 
grandson of Brahma. He established his government at the 
foot of Gunung Semiru (Sanskrit Sumeru) with its capital as 
Giling Wesi. His sons were Manu Manasa and Manu Madeba. 
Two exquisitely beautiful damsels, viz. Sinta and Landap 
lived at his court and the description of their incomparable 
accomplishments allured Watu Gimung of Khng to declare 
a war against him, and he w^as slain. Thus Watu Gunung, 
the adventurous hero of Kling, became the overlord of Giling 
Wesi, which he ruled for 140 years. He w^as ultimately punished 
and killed by Yisnu in the year 240. The vacant throne, 
howwer, w^as occupied by Gutaka of Kling, a protege of Bhatara 
Guru, and he ruled for 30 years. In 290, he w'as succeeded by 
his son Baden Saw^ela, who, after a reign of 20 years, was 
succeeded by Gutama. He removed the caxhtal from Giling 
Wesi to Astina, which w^as again given up for Lagrestina. 
Meanwhile, Baden Dasa Wiria, son of a Brahmana of Gunung 
Jali, established himself at the foot of the Lawu mountain 
in Java and his son Dasabahu captured Astina in 310. He was, 
however, succeeded by his son Suantana, who began to rule 
the country wisely. In course of time, a son was born to him ; 
but the mother died in child-birth, which necessitated the dis- 
covery of a w'-oman who could suckle the new^-born baby. It 
happened that on one occasion Ambu Sari, wHe of Pulasara, 
the grandson of Tritresta, wns walking with her child, when 
she came across Suantana, who was seeking for a nurse-mother 
for the new’‘-born baby. But Ambu Sari would not suckle him 
at all, unless the prince promised her the kingdom of Astina, 
w^hicli she w'anted to hand over to Abiasa, when grown up. 
The prince complied with this bargain and accordingly Abiasa 
came to the throne in 415. Dewa Brata, son of Suantana, 
became the prince of Kumbina. Abiasa married in advanced 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIS, 

years and begot three children, of whom the eldest ivas t}K> 
blind Drestarata.' Of the- other two, Panda Dewa Xata was 
very handsome, though the youngest Rama Widara was iaiiie. 
After a reign of 12 years, Abiasa transferred the seej^tre to the 
hand of Ms able second son Pandii, who married i)e\d Kiinti 
in course of time. By her, he begot three sons, viz. Kinita 
Deva, Sena, and Jinaka — and by Ms second wife, l^Iadrin, Xakuhi 
and Sadeba. As Pandn had died and his sons were minors. 
Drestarata was declared as the protector, who, instead of return- 
ing the kingdom to the sons of Pandn, really transferred it to 
his own son Siiytidhana, who thus became the king of Astina. 
The sons of Pandn were asked to settle in Amerta, wherefrom 
they sent their cousin Krsna to demand for the restitution of 
at least half of the kmgdom, ; but the proposal found iuj favour 
in the quarter of Suyudhana and lienee a ivar, the celebrated 
Brata Yndha, was declared against the sons of Drestarata in 
which Suyudhana fell fighting. Puntu DeAni thus beeaiiie king 
in 491, though two years later he gave up the royal sci‘])tri‘ to 
Parikisit, son of Abhimanyu, who was duly foliowt^l ])y Ids srai 
Udayana. Then succeeded Jaya Derma and Java l\IiNanu. 
father and son respectively, to the thrum* of Astina. A> 
pestilence now broke out, Jaya Msamds son, rlaiai ihinisa, 
removed the capital to 31ilava, where his desceudautH ndgiicd 
till Bisura Gampaka departed for Mendang Kamulaig wtierc lie 
lived as a pandit. The tim'd king after him was AJi Jaya J„5aya, 
who became sovereign of this country and named it Ihir^a 
Cirita. It is related of Mm that by orders of Bhatara Guru, 
he dictated the Brata Yoedha (:=:^ Bharata Ymhlki) in III!, 
He was followed by- Ms son, Salapar Wata, in 7r>(S. Jaya 
Langkara, Ms son, succeeded Mm to the throne and, 
committing himself to the fire, divided the Idngdoiii among Ms 
four sons. Subrata, his first son, was installed over Jangga la : the 
■ second son, Para Yara, got Kediri; data Wida, the third one* 
ruled over Singhasari, while the youngest one, SuB'ida, got 

We regard this legend as of some importance : because it 
contains some grains of facts which we can gather from to] is of 
fiction. The most important information we derive from tliis 
mythical chronology is the reference of 701 as the date <‘J 
composition of the celebrated Bhurata Yuddha. The lv<nvi- 
work itself clearly states — ' Nowan don Pmeda maldriia Sasakaki 
risang'a Kvda Suddha Candrmm — i.e. the date 1079 
year) was made annua mifabilis by the service of Mpii 8edah. 
The book was, therefore, composed in 1157 a.b., which is verifiet! 
by the Wawatekan codifier and other writers as well. It proves 
thus that the year 1157 A.n. is equivalent to the unspecified 
Javanese year 70L Or, in other words, the Javanese year 
begim in 456 a.b. Let us now see if this year tallies with facts 
known from inscriptiouB and other sources. We take up one 

1933] Date of the Introduction of the Saha Year in Jam 19 

historical figure from the above legend, viz. Udayana, who was 
ill the throne in 575 of the unspecified Javanese eraJ When 
this year is referred to 456 a.d., it will be equivalent to 1031 A.n. 
Now this Udayana was the consort of princess Mahendradatta 
of Java and their son Airlangga was born in 991 a.d. He did 
not rule in Java, but in the island of Bali his last known record 
has been known to bear the date at 1022 a.d. He was a ruling 
prince of that island,^ The small difference between 1022- 
1031 A.D. rather strengthens than militates against our theory. 

Let us now take up another figure from the above list, 
viz. Piintii Deva. In Java he is w^eU known as Dharmmavamsa, 
The date standing against his name (491), when referred to 
456 A.D., would correspond to 947 a.d. Thus Puntu Deva- 
Dharmmavamsa was ruling in 947 a.d. This is the last known 
date of Eang Sindok, w^ho ruled in East Java. We find one 
Dharmmavamsa-Anantavikrama ruling in East Java towards 
the close of the 10th century a.d. It appears that the period 
between 947-991 a.d. was a very troublesome one. As a 
matter of fact, in the Post-Sindok and Pre-Dharmmavamsa- 
Anantavikrama period, we find only one male ruler. It is 
possible that Puntu Deva-Bharmmavamsa carved out a small 
state from the kingdom of Sindok during this period. If he 
be a predecessor of Dharmmavamsa- Anantavikrama, the 
marriage of Airlangga and the daughter of D. Anantavikrama 
marks the consummation of twn rival dynasties. 

Let us take up another figure from the list of Raffles,^ 
viz. Kusuma Vicitra. The unspecified Javanese era standing 
against his name, when referred to 456 a.d., wmuld make the 
year correspond to 1094 a.d. According to the Balinese tradi- 
tion,^ he is identical wdth Raja Kusuma. Prof. Kern® doubted 
the tradition on the ground that only the word Kusuma M 
identical with both. We know, how^ever, from a Waivatehan- 
reference that Yogis vara composed the Old- Javanese Rmndya'i^a 
in 1094 A.D. Balinese tradition also makes Raja Kusuma or 
Kusuma Vicitra as the author of the.Kakawin. As all relevant 
informations verge on the year 1094 a.d., we can accept aU these 
three names as identical. It incidentally fixes the date of the 
Old-Javanese Rdmdya7).a; on which opinions of scholars are still 
sharply divided. It is also noteworthy that R. ng. Dr. Poerbat- 
jaraka, after investigating the historical data in Cantos 38 and 
39 of the Smaradahana, has come to the conclusion that Mpu 
Dharmaja composed the above work in the reign of Kamesvara I. 
As Balinese tradition regards Dharmaja as the son of Yogisvara, 

1 Raffles, History of Java, Vol. II, 1830, p. 86. 

2 N. J. Krom, Hindoe-Javaaiische Qeschiedmis^ p. 227. 

3 See the chronological table in Raffle.s, op. ciL^ p. 86. 

•i Verhand. Bat. Genoot., dl. XXII, No. 11, p. 12. 

^ Verspreide Geschriften, Vol. IX, pp. 70-71, 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [X.S., XXIX, 

lie tiiHS iiatiirailj lived in the second quarter of the idtii century 
'A.D. Kamesvara also lived in that period, W e do not, however, 
think that there is adequate ground to identify the writers of 
the LubdMka and the V rttasancaya , as Dr. Krom lias done. 
There is no independent testimony exeei 3 ting | 3 robahl\' tho 
similarity of names. So the. vTiters of the Yrfffmiileayu am! 

Smaradakami were sons of Yogfsvara. Excepting f ex- 
plainable) linguistic evidences, our opinions do not run coiintca- 
to any published data and, therefore, we can accept a .1:0 
as the date of the Old-Javanese Bcmdyana. This is also an 
interesting s^mehronism on the year 1094 a.ik 

Now the question is, what event is commemorated in timt 
way ? What is t.he signihcaiiee of the 3 'ear 456 a.d. in 
Javanese history t ■ 

We know that in Java there were current two era>. 
the Saka era and the Sahjaya era. Here we get aiiotiicr 
unspecified Javanese era. ' We are of opinion that thi^ year 
marks the advent of the Sakas in Java. It is not ]H>ssible 
that Candragupta II destroyed the Sakas root and }»raiudi. 
It is probable that they continued to hold tludr prccariniH 
existence in the neighbourhood of Gujarat and mmic a final 
attempt during the last years of KumaragiijUa I, The ihisyami- 
tras, Himas, and Mlecchas have been referred to in the iiiseript u 
of this period, and the Gupta cunpm* ' had Ijccm made totottm 
by them. The third verse of Skandagnpta’s Glrnur inscript it m 
refers to his humbling the .enemies. We believe, the 
of the Junagadh inscription were the Sakas, who, ha\ing no 
longer any foothold in India, sailed for Java, it is uotewonliv 
that the Girnar inscription of Skandagu].>ta, which nH'ord> In'- 
final triumph, is dated in 456 a.d. If the emendatirm of 
hir. Divekar regarding the Pusyainitras be accepted, v,'o i-an 
identify the Sakas vith the ' Amitras ' : if not. there is no 
objection to our identifying them with the Mlecchas. Hm 
traditions of their emigration are possibh' traceable in the 
folk-songs of Gujarat and South Marwar.^ It is als<j note- 
worthy that no inscription of Java can be dated before^ 45^*^ 
A.D. in the Saka year, while the very next inscription — that of 
King Sanjaya— is dated in 654 

An objection may be raised to our hypothesis on tlu^ 
^Dund that in 456 a,d. Gujarat was known as Lata and, accord* 
ing to Dr. D. E. Bhandarkar, this continued up to the middle 
of the lOtli century A.D. Now, another legend of Java says. 
"During the reign of the last of these princes, either tlie s<ait <jf 
government had been removed, or the country had changed 
its name, for it was then called Kujrat or Clujarat h Tht last 
of these princes . is .. Kusuma Citra. If he be identical with 
Kusuma Yicitra, then the date would fall in 1094 a.d. So, 

i Bombay Gazetteer, VoL I, pt, I, pp. 49 1 ft. 

1933] Date -of the Introduction of the Saha Year in Java 21 

within a century , the change of the name of Lata to Gujarat 
became familiar to the Javanese peoples. Besides, these legends 
or semi-historical works w^ere prepared in the Post-Majapahit 
period to give an aristocratic colour to some ruling d3niasties. 
The copyists lacked chronological ideas and it cannot be expected 
that we must always find sober history from their pen. Still, 
they contain some valuable data. 

A second objection may be raised to our hypothesis on 
the ground that the year 456 a.d. may as well commemorate 
the introduction of other eras of India. Let us discuss this 
point. It is clear enough that the first Javanese year or 456 
A.D. cannot be the Vikrama era of 58 b.o. or the Traikutaka- 
Kalacuri-Cedi era of 248-49 a.d.; because, in that case, they 
would not only confuse the whole Javanese chronology, but 
would have us believe that these Indian systems of time-reckon- 
ing, too, made their wmy to Java, which they never did, at 
least there is no proof. On the other hand, inscriptions and 
literary evidences of Java describe hi no uncertain terms the 
penetration of the Saka system in Java. It may be argued 
again that as King Sahjaya’s forefathers belonged to Kuhjara- 
kuiija of Southern India, his ancestors might be regarded as 
responsible for the introduction of the date commemorated hi 
456 A.D. In that case, the ancestry of King Sahjaya has to be 
pushed at least 27 6 j^ears back, so that the date may synchronize 
with 456 A.D. Allowing 25 years for each generation, we shall 
requhe at least 11 generations to reach the year 456. While 
we do not know whether the ancestors of King Sahjaya went to 
IVIiddle- Java in 456 a.d. and were of sufficient importance to 
impose the Saka era, we know, on the other hand, from 
Javanese literary traditions that the Sakas of Gujarat v^ent 
there in very earliest times. The name of Adji Saka as 
responsible for the introduction of Saka year in Java, as 
represented in many legends of Java, is equally significant. 
The outburst of Saivism somewhat later in Middle- Java >lso 
points to the same direction. As we know that many Saka 
satraps of W. India were followers of the 6aiva cult, the ref erence 
to Saivism in Java after 456 a.d. is the proof of a historical 
fact. The cumulative evidence we have offered above explains 
all facts knoivn from inscriptions and other sources. Our 
conclusion, therefore, is that a certain local Ȥaka chieftain of 
CTujarat, probably Aji Saka by name, being deprived of his 
country by Skandagiipta embarked for Java and introduced 
there the system of year-computation in 456 a.d. Our hypothesis 
need not be revised even if it be not Aji Saka, who is yet a 
half -mythical person. 

Aeticle No. 5. 

The Chhindas of Magadha and Gaodesvara Madhiisena. 

By JoGEKDEA ChaihDea Ghosh. 

The following is the conclnding portion of the colophon 
of the Bauddha Pancharakshdy manuscript No. 4078, as given 
in the Descriptive Catalogue of the Buddhist Manuscripts, Vol. I, 
hy H. P. Shastri : — 

^ Paramesvara-parama-saugata’-parama-mahdrdjddhirdja-sri- 
mad‘Gaudesvara~Madhusenadeva1cdndm pravarddhamdna-vijaya- 
rdjye yatr-dnJcen-dpi Baha-narapateh Bakdvddh 1211 Bhddra di 2, 

Shastri wrote an article on the old Bengali characters in the 
Vahglya Sdhitya Parishat Patrikd (Vol. XXVII, pp. 1~12), and 
with it published a facsimile of this colophon as w^ell as a reading 
of it, as given above. Therein he said that the manuscript had 
been copied in East Bengal, and that Madhusena had been 
an independent king of East Bengal. He has not, of course, 
cited any authority or given any reason for so thinking. Nor 
have "we been able to find anything in the Descriptive Catalogue 
to that efect. 

On the statement of Shastri, that this king reigned in East 
Bengal, some have taken him to be the last king of the Sena 
d^masty of Bengal. This view seems to us untenable for more 
reasons than one. We have already seen that there is no 
authority for saying that he ruled in East Bengal. On the other 
hand, there is evidence to show that at about this period there 
reigned a king named Danujamadhava. According to the 
Kulakdrikd of Harimisra, a king named Danaujamadhava 
succeeded the Sena dynasty {Be^ia-varnsad-anantaram)} A 
few years ago a charter granted in the third year of reign of a 
king_ named Banujamadhava Basarathadeva w^as discovered 
at Adabari in Vikramapura (Bacca) by Mr. N. K. Bhattasali.^ 
Both these kings have most probably correctly been identified 
with the independent king Banuja Rai. According to Ziaii-d-din 
Barni he helped emperor Ghiasuddin Balban to cut off the 
retreat of rebel Tugrii Khan bj^ water (1280 a.d.). At one 
time this Banujamadhava was considered as a Sena long, but 
after the discovery of the Adabari plate this view can no 
longer be entertained. It is distinctly stated in that charter 
that he belonged to the Beva dynasty {Dev-d7ivaya). What 
evidence w’-e have up to date shows that Banujamadhava came 

1 VoL LXV, Pt. I, p. 31. 

2 Bengali magazine Bharatavarsha, Pamka, 1332 B.S. 

( 23 ) 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [K.S., X.XIX, 

to the throne after, the Sena dynasty was over, hut tliere is no 
evidence to prove that he. was again sneeeeded by n Si/na king. 

Again there is not a scrap of evidence, either liistorical or 
traditional j that in the last quarter of the thirteenth vvninry 
there was relapse of Buddhism in East Bengal and that tin* 
last Sena king espoused Buddhism. On the otlurr haiai. it is 
said that the highest persecutions of the 3Insalmans fell on tie* 
Buddhists. As a consequence some of tiuun tied le» fanintries 
like Nepal and Tibet and others became eithtu' Hindus or 

We are, however, inclined to think that this i^iailliiistuia 
might have been coimeeted with the Buddhist Semi kings 
of Bodh-Gaya. They are styled as PWii-jmii and ArharyaJ 
We know the names of two ' kings of this liyria^'ty from 
their own inscriptions. They are Biitidhasena and his son 
Jayasena. The latter reigned in the S3rd year of Lakshiimna-* 
sena's atUa^djyaP In a fragmentary Bodh-Gaya inseri]itioii one 
Jayasena has been described as the dcJidrifa of a (dihinda mum/d 
Sri-Purnabhadra.^ He is also said therein to have addt'd 
lustre to the seat of Kumarasena (Kumdrasf-nnl^firia-iifiohilj), 
So Kumarasena was most probabty the founder tsr a ]»roinineni 
member of this line. This dchdrya Jayasena is doubt 
the same as the Plflii-paty-dcMrya Juyascma. 

Pithi does not seem to have beam the name of aii\' kingdom, 
but refers to some sacred seat of a sage^ or a deiyy, and thus 
a tirtka-sfMna (of. the fifty-two PUha-stImnas of the Hindus). 
In the present case it most probably refers to tlie Vfijrdsaafi of 
Bodh-Gaya, as has been suggested by Mr. Panday in eoniieetion 
with the Janibigha inscription.^ These Pithi -paty-flehdrym were 
something like Alohant-maharajas having sw*ay over Ecalli- 
Gaya and its, immediate surroundings. Pithi, therefore, is not 
a synonym of Magadha as has been supposed by scmie. These 
PUhi-patis were m all probahility imder the Jlagadlmlkipas, 
We need not he misled by the high-soniidmg title of Gandeirfira 
assumed by Madhusena. At this period when there was no 
st,rong overlord in Gauda, even 'petty local chiefs arrogated them- 
selves to this honoured title, or their sycophants pleased the 
vanity of their lords by this much-coveted appellation. 
Visvarupasena camiot be said to have his dominions outsidt* 
East Bengal, but he too assumed the title of GanflesvaraJ 

Some have identified. Buddhaseiia with the Ghhiii<lu king 
mentioned in the Bodh-Gaya inscription of the Biidcilia's 
.Nirvana era 1813.^ This does- not seem to be correct. Me haw 

^ Ind, Ant.^ Tol. XLVIII, pp. 43-47. 

2 Ibid, 

3 VoL IX, p. 143, 

4 J.B,O.B,S., Wol. IW Pt. in, pp. 277.78. 
s Beng. Ins., Vol. Ill, pp. 138 and 177. 

6 hid. Ant., YoL X, p. 143; 

1933] Ghhmdas of Magadha and Gaudesvara Madhusena 25 

pointed out above that PUhi-pati Jayasena was the dchdrya 
of a Chhiiida family. In that inscription a genealogy of this 
family is also given. It begins with Ballabharaja and ends 
with Sri-Purnahhadra. We think that the Ghhindas were 
then ruling in Magadha. The Chhind king referred to was 
most probably this Purnabhadra or his father Samanta. BaUa- 
bharaja might be the Vallabharaja, the father of Bevarakshita, 
mentioned in the commentary of the Bdmacharita as ' Sindhurajal} 
FifM-pafdh The latter is also identified with Bevarakshita of 
the Ghikkora family, the son-in-law' of Mathana or Mahana, 
maternal uncle of Bamapala, and father of Kumaradevi, queen 
of Govindachandra of Kanauj.^ It is not understood why 
Bevarakshita has been described as ' Sindhurdja \ There was 
no such country as Sindhu near Pithi in Magadlia. If our 
suggestion is accepted, ‘ Chhinda ’ becomes identical with 
‘ Chikkore Shidhuraja seems to be a Sanskritized form of 
Chhindaraja. Strange as it is, Ghhinda Vallabharaja has been 
described as ' Smdhaii Chhind-dnvayaja \ i.e. born in the 
Chhinda family of the Sindh country in the fragmentary Bodh- 
Gaya inscription mentioned above. This family might have 
originally belonged to some royal dynasty of Sindh. Ghikkore 
was perhaps their ca|)itaL This may explain wdy Bevarakshita 
has once been described as ' Sindhuraja ’ in the commentary and 
again as of the Ghikkore vamsa ’ in the Saranatha inscription 
of Kumaradevi. The Ghhindas are one of the 36 Bdjahulas, 
but we do not find any mention of the Chiklvore family any- 
where else. Again w^e do not find the name of Bevarakshita 
in the genealogy of the Ghhindas mentioned above. There 
Vallabharaja’s son is Besaraja. This may be either due to the 
misreading of the name ‘ Besaraja ’ for ' Bevaraja or because 
those w^ho came after were not his descendants but of his brother, 
Besaraja. Bhimayasas, the king of Magadha and Pithi and one 
of the principal allies of Bamapala, w^as perhaps the grandson of 
Besaraja w'hose name could not be read. We make these 
suggestions for what they are worth. 

Bhimayasas was both Magadliapati as well as Pithipati.^ 
This shows that he exercised both secular and religious powers. 
It must be after him that the Senas, w’^ho were the dcMryas 
of the family, came to exercise the powers as PUhipati and 

^ Bamacliarita, ch. II, pp. 37-38 {Memoirs, No. Ill — 1). 

2 Ep, Ih(L, VoI, IX, pp. 324-327. . ' 

3 commentary on ch. II, verse 5. 

Aeticle No, 6. 

Jinendra’s Nyasa in Champa, 

By JoGENBEA Chai^dba Ghosh. 

It is now a settled fact that people from India crossed the 
sea and went over to Java, Bali, Sumatra, Siam, and Champa. 
They carried with them their language, reHgion, art, and science. 
We shall to-day give information about the ithierary of a Sanskrit 
grammar from India to Champa. This has hitherto escaped the 
notice of our scholars. The information is supplied by a stalm 
inscription in connection with the setting up of an image of 
Bhagavati by king Indravarma^n III of Champa.. It was fomid 
in Po-Nagar and is dated the Saka era 840=918 a.d. It gives 
the following description of the erudition of the king : — 

' Mimdmsa = sliat = tarha = J inendra = surmmis = sa = Kd- 
^sikd^^vydkamn-odak-aughah \ 

Ahhydna = miv = Ottara = kalpa = mmah; patistha eteshv = iti 
satdcavindm || ’ 

This has been translated as below 

" He who (skilfully played in the) good waves which were 
the systems of Philosophy begimiing with Mmamsa and those of 
Jinendra (Buddha) and in the mass of water which was (Pamni’s) 
grammar j^ith Kasika, who was a fish (in the water) which 
was the Akhydna and the Uttarakalpa of the ^aivas ; because 
among the learned, he was the most skilful in all these subjects." 
{Ancient Indian Colonies in the East, Vol, I, Champa, Book 
III, pp. 138-9, by E, C. Majumdar.) 

The translator is apparently ignorant of the fact that 
Jinendra is the name of an author of a grammar. He has, 
therefore, interpreted Jinendra as Buddha. iSa-Kdsikd-vydkara'jyz 
indicates that some other vydkarana (grammar) was read with 
the Kdsikd. If Jinendra is interpreted as above, there is nothing 
in the verse to show what other grammar was read with the 
.Kdsikd. The translator, to supply this omission, has suggested 
® Panioi’s " within a bracket. 8a- Kdsikd shows that the Kdsikd 
was the principal grammar with which some other subsidiary 
grammar, i.e. the commentary on the Kdsikd w^as read. The 
Kdnmi cannot be this subsidiary grammar. On the other hand 
Kdsikd: m: do commentary of the Pdnini. So Jinendra here should 
be interpreted as the grammar by Jinendra or JinendrabuddM, 
which is a commentary on the Kdsikd. It is called the Nyasa 
or Kdsikd-vivara^ia-panjikd. There is, however, a system of 
grammar known as Jinendra- vyakarana. The traditional author 
of w’-hich is Jina Mahavira, the last tirthankara of the Jainas. 

{ 27 ) 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [2s .S., XXIX, 


He is said .to have revealed a grammar to liidra, wJiieh came to 
be known by their conjoint names of Jina and Indra. La. 
dinendra. In fact the real author is Devanam il. H(‘re J iiieiicira 
obviously refers not to this Jmendra-vyakaraiia. Init ta tlu^ 
Nyma or Kas%ka-vhmralm~pa^^kd by Jineiidralmddln', as wv 
have pointed out above. 

Mr. Belvalkar says that Jinendrabiiddhi is later than TOO a . i>. 
{Systems of Sanskrit Gra?mnar, p. 38). Mr. Diiiesheliaiidra 
.. Bliattachaiyya, on ■ the . other hand, hoids that he eaimfit !)e 
referred to any date earlier than 800 a/d. (Sir AshnfoAi J / ah rjn 
Silver Jubilee Yokmtes, VoL III, Part I, p. 104). He says that 
the Nydsa was' studied in Bengal even up to iirst deieidi^ 
of the 19th centmy {Ibid., p, 189), and that except a solitary 
Nydsodyata, all the ancient and modern comineiitaries m xhv 
Nydsa hail from Bengal. Taking this fact along with tin* 
fact that Be,ngal xmder the Pala kings in the 0th cejitiiry was 
the last resting place of Buddhism, he lias come to the eon- 
elusion that Buddhist Jinendrabiiddhi may be looked ipjou 
either as a native of Bengal, or one who had lix'ed and workiai 
long In that province {Ibid., p. 197). Letting aiairt the question 
of the nativity of Jinendrahuddhi, there is no denying the fact 
that the Nydsa, like some other systems of graininar which liad 
been ousted from their land of birtln found thci!* asyhnn in Bengal 
and were assiduously studied here. So it is not mdikely that tin* 
Nydsa travelled to Champa from Bengal. 

The Nydsa or the Kasikd-vivaraiia-panjikd has been 
published by the Vareiidra Research Society under the editorship 
of Pandit Sris Chandra Chakravarti. A complete^ manusi*ript 
of the wm'k was not avaiiabie anywhere in India. Sts the 
editor had to collect the different parts from different ])hiees. 
Of ail the commentaries on the Kdsikd this is said to be the 

We find that king Indravarman III was well- versed in tlie 
Saivottarakalpa. It may be that this was als<) carried from 
Bengal. Bengal had been an important centre of Saivism from a 
very early period. According to the Vdyu-Purdjjta (Chap. XXIII}, 
the twenty-fifth avatdra or incarnation of Mahe^vara named 
Bandi Miindisvara or Mmiisvara appeared in Kotivarsha. It 
v?as the name of a vishaya or district under the Paundra- 
varddhana-hhiikti in Bengal. The twenty-eighth or the last 
avatdra was Xakulisa, trho has been assigned to the second centar\' 
A.D. So the twenty -fifth might be at least a ceiitur\' 

earlier. There is ample evidence in the South Indian e])igraphy 
to show’ that in the twelfth and the thirteenth eentiirie.s Saixn 
Brahmaijas from ^Bengal went over to Southern India and 
spread Agamic Saivism there. That Vttarakalpja-tantra -was 
prevalent in Bengal even to a late period is evident from the 
fact that it has been quoted in the Sdktmiayida-ta rang ini of 
Brahmananda of Bengal Another w’ork of similar name, i.e. 


Jinendra^s Nydsa in Champa 


Uttara4antra has been quoted in the Tantra-sdra and also in the 
8dktdnanda4aranginl, The author of the former is Krishnananda 
Agama-vagisa of Bengal. There is yet another work named 
Snmatottara4a7itra, which is said to have been brought down to 
earth by ^ri-kantha-natha of Sri-chandrapura in Chandradvipa 
of Bengal (Asiatic Society of Bengal, Nepal Catalogue, MSS. 
No. 299). This has been quoted by one Padmanabha. There 
were several Padmanabhas. One Padmanabha, son of Karuna- 
kara, is called later Durvasas (j^ufrecht). In one book it has 
been said that Durvasas brought the Tantras to this world. In 
another/ work we find that he lived at the Amardaka Matha 
of the Saivas. He is said to have founded a ^aiva sect. The 
weli-knovni Golaki-matha was founded by a Saiv-dchdrya of 
this sect {An. Re2>. 8.1: Ep. for 1916-17, pp. 123-125). Amar- 
daka occurs in several Puranas and also in the Harsha-CTiarita. 
So this Snmatottara4a?itra must be pretty early. 

There is yet another evidence to show that Bengal was 
once a strong hold of Saivism. Vnaka, the chief attendant of 
Siva, incarnated as Nandi there was the son of sage Silada of the 
Salankayana gotra. Many Nandi families are still to be found 
in North Bengal. The Japyesvarakshetra of the Siva-Purdi^a 
(Pt. IV, ch. 47) and the Japyesvara of the Lmga-Purd7i:>a (Pt. I, 
ch. 43) and the Jalpisa of the Kdlilcd-Purdn/x (ch. 77) was the 
seat of Nandi’s austerities to obtain Siva’s boon. The Kdlikd- 
Purdnd places it to the north-west of Kamarupa (Assam) mth 
the five rivers called Panchanada. According to the Siva- 
Pmmita these five rivers are Yajnodaka, Trisrota (modern Tista, 
on which is the town of Jalpaiguri), Mahanadi (also called the 
Mahananda, on which is the town of Malda), Jambu, andBhuvana. 
The Jambu cannot be traced now, but the name Jambunadi 
occurs in one of the five charters found at Damodarapur in the 
Dina j pur district (Ep. Ind., Vol. XV, p. 143). The Bhuvana 
is apparently the Bhuvanesvara of the Faridpur district as 
given in EemieiFs map. There is evidence to show that the 
upper course of this river has latterly assumed difierent names, 
Jalpisa liiiga is still in the district of Jalpaiguri. The name 
Jalpaiguri is supposed to have been derived from Jalpisa. 

Aetiole No. 7. 

Worship and Propitiation of Wild Animals at 
Uttarbhag, Lower Bengal. 

By SUNBEE Lal Hoea. 

{Published with permission of the Director ^ Zoological Survey of India,) 

The cult of the worship and propitiation of wild animals, 
particularly of those that are harmful to man, is widely spread 
all over India and has been practised in this country from time 
immemorial. There can hardly be any doubt that this custom 
was born out of fear of these animals and the desire to propi- 
tiate them and acquire their good will. The loss of human hfe 
through the attacks of serpents, tigers, crocodiles, etc., is 
probably nowhere greater than m the Sundarbans, which he 
in the lowest part of the deltaic region of the Ganges. Dr. B. S. 
Guha of the Zoological Survey informs me that there are 
indications that the Sundarbans, the upper part at any rate, 
were at one time considerably populated as testified by the 
numerous archaeological remains that have been found. At the 
present time, it is a dense jimgle, infested with wild animals 
of all descriptions, and almost denuded of human habitation. 
Moreover, it is a very malarious and unhealthy tract. In 
spite of all these disadvantages, it is resorted to annually, 
between October and May, by a large number of peox^le who 
go there for wood-cutting and fishing. It is no wonder then 
that a great variety of worship intended to propitiate the 
deities of Jungle Terror of all sorts, mostly of those associated 
with wild animals or with the security of boats in the treacherous, 
tidal creeks of this area, is found in the Sundarbans or in the 
villages in its neighbourhood. The implicit belief of these 
simple and illiterate |)€ople in the efficacy of such practices 
gives them enough courage to enter the forests and emboldens 
them to work there in spite of great many dangers that surround 

Uttarbhag, where the worship described below was 
noticed, is a small trading village on the Piali Nadi about 
23 miles to the south-east of Calcutta and 5 miles beyond 
Baruipur . It is well known that ‘ the country in the Maidanmal 
or Mednimal (south of Tolly's Nullah and containing 

Baruipur), was formerly a dense jungle, overrun with wild 
beasts' (O'Malley, 1914, p. 74). Now the whole of this pargana 
and also the country to the south of it between Baruipur and 
Uttarbhag has been reclaimed, and vast stretches of ‘ paddy ' 
fields are to be seen on both sides of the road which runs on 

( 31 ) 


'Jotirml of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [X.S., XXIXy 

high , embankment. Thus the jiiiigies and their attendant 
dangers have, almost disappeared, but tlie popular beliefs in 
the jungle deities still survive, though in a somewdiat iiiofiitied 
form. In this article, it is not inteiuied to describe in. detail 
these popular beliefs, which ■ are. fairly well known ami have 
received the attention of several scholars, but to flireet attcni ion 
to the modifications that some of them have undergone. pre» 
sumabiy due to a change in the environment and (Uitlook of 
the people. It seems that . the laws of nature that govern 
the form and: behavio.iir 'of an animal are the samc‘ that 
influence the practice in' popular beliefs in the luimaii society. 
I have shown elsewhere (1930) .how animal organization aid 
behaviour become m.oiilded under the direct etieet of the 
environment ' and the present study regarding the popular 
beliefs of man 'leads exactly to the same conclusion, lids 
similarity is stiU further augmented by the fact that tlie changes 
take place gradually and in a connected series and do not 
.represent sudden jumps. Sewell (1929) has already directed 
attention to the paramount importance of the study of 
' ecology ’ in dealing with anthropological ])roblems, and I feel 
that this point cannot be stressed too stronglv. 

During the early part of 1933, several visits wi^re paid to 
Uttarbhag to study the brac.ldsh water fauna of tiu* jxals 
and 'ponds in its neighbourhood. Ou the 8tii of February, 
it was noticed that some kind of puja had heiui piTforund. 
at three different places in the village. The four images of 
' Dakshindar placed on a mud ])iatform, at eadi of these 
places formed the most conspicuous feature of the iltual. By 
standing over the bridge across the sluices, all the three places 
of wo,rship could be seen and it .was found that an identical 
type of gyujd had taken place. The spot near the commenctN 
meiit of the road to the Surjyapur Khai and behind the padtiy- 
market was selected for a detailed study. There were re- 
presentations of four distinct deities, e.g. Jlauasd, thi‘ stu'peiit 
goddess ; Makar ^ the crocodile ; Daksliindar or Bon Blbl. and 
Pdnch-gnr. Efforts were made to , get full particulars regarding 
the composite pujd, but. the information supplied by cliff ereiit 
people during this, as well -as, subseqiientf visits, was so con- 
flicting that , it need not be given here. I have formed an 
opinion that these people have no conception of the godlings 
they worship ; not one of them was able to give a <mm}.)lete 
and comected story. We . were informed that a Brahman 
PuToliit ■ or ' priest, residing at ' Bariiipur performed the pUjd 
and he w^as the right person to approach for inforniatioii. 
Unfortunately our two attempts to meet the man were unsuccess- 
fill.' ■ ■■■ ' , ■ ' 

We were, however, able to gather that the is performed 
jointly by the , Hindus '.-aad the Muhammadans, and that the 
services of a Hindu priest are requisitioned for the v'orship of 

1933] Worship and Propitiation of Wild Animals 


Manasd and. Mahar, while that of a Muhammadan priest^ 
usually a faglr, for the worship of Panch-phT and Bon Blhl. 
The pujd when performed by a Muhammadan fa^r would be 
called a shlrlnl. Here it may be recalled that wood-cutters 
when going to Sundarbans always take their faqlr with them 
who performs shlrm before the commencement of the work. 
The /agir is said to possess power to drive away tigers, crocodiles, 
and other harmful beasts of the jungle. Sunder (1903) has 
described in detail the mode of worship practised by these 
priests. After certain preliminaries, the faqlr builds seven 
small huts in which are housed Jagabandu, Mahddeva, Manasd , 
KdM-mdyd or Kdll^ Kdmesvarl and Bufhl Thdkurdm, Ghdzi 
Sdheb and Kdlu, and Ohdwal Fir and Earn Ghdzi. Besides 
these godlings, Eupapdrl, Bdstu Demta, Orptirl^ and Eaksd Chai^di 
are also worshipped. Eupapdrl and Orpcirl have a platform each 
outside the seven huts, while the trunk of a tree represents 
Balcsa Ghay^di. Bdstu Devaia is not represented by any material 
emblem. The pujd referred to above is simplified at Uttarbhag 
by eliminating a certain number of deities. It is significant, 
however, that in January-February the village people perform 
the pujd of several deities at one and the same time, instead of 
worshipping each deity separately on the appropriate day in 
the year. A short account of each godling worshipped at 
Uttarbhag is given below : — 

Manasd'^ (PL 3, fig. 1). — In Bengal, Manasd, the goddess 
of snakes, occupies a foremost place. It is believed that if 
her worship is neglected someone in the family is sure^ to die 
of snake-bite. During monsoons in the month of Srdvana 
(July-August) a festival is held in her honour and she is 
worshipped on that day. Her image (she is represented 
sitting on a water-lily and clothed with snakes ’), or a 
branch of her sacred tree (Siju or Euphorbia), or, a 
pan of water surrounded by clay images of snakes are taken 
to represent the deity. In some places the snake godling 
' is represented by a pot marked with vermilion and laid under 
a tree, with clay snakes ranged round it, and a trident, the 
weapon of &va, driven into the ground ’ (Grooke, 1926). Eai 
Bahadur Bama Prashad Chanda informs me that the worship 
of Manasd in the^Dacca District takes place on the last day 
of the month of Srdvana. It is called pujd or Nag- 

P'ujd. The goddess is worshipped with ashta ndga (eight-headed 
cobra) and BialUsh Ndga (forty -two-headed cobra) . The favourite 

1 For details of the worship of the goddess Manasd reference may 
be made to such standard works as Yog&l, Indian Serpent Lore, p. 278 
(London: 1926); Grooke, Religion and Folklore of Northern India, 
pp. 383, 384 (London: 1926) sxid Qtodke m BnoyolopcBdia of Religion 
and Ethics, XI, p. 413 (Edinburgh : 1920). For a historical account of 
the Manasd cult see Sen, History of BengaU Language and Literature, 
pp. 252-276 (Calcutta; 1911). 

34 ■ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [X.S., XXIX, 

offering of Ma?msd is milk and 23lantaiii. A Brahman I’lric^st 
performs the pujd with recitation of Sanskrit versi/s. 
are, no doubt, other ways of representing the deity also, but 
so far .as I have been -able to ascertain the mode of representing 
this godling at Uttarbhag by two conical moomls of mud is 
quite d,ifferent from all others so far known. Each niouiid lias 
three clay heads of cobra- arranged on one side find a mark 
of vermilion pnt in front of them. It seems probable that 
these miid-nionnds are substitutes for water iians or «»artlM‘n 
pots. The idea of water that is usually fissoeiatecl with tIh* 
goddess of snakes is thus eliminated, it has also to be lifitanl 
that the pujd at' Uttarbhag was performed towards tiu* end of 
January or, early in February and not, as is usual, in the nionilis 
of July and .August. The 'worship of Jlamisd tiiiriiig July- 
August has some meaning, for during the rainy seastin tlic* 
burrow^s of snakes .become flooded and tlmy seek shelter in 
the huts of the villagers they are not infrequent l\' found 
hidden ill beds or coiled up in pitcliers and other hcmseludd 
utensils. Thus during the monsoon months the danger frcmi 
snake-bite is the greatest in the villages of Lower Benpil. In 
January and February, on the otlier liand. these r{‘]Uiies 
usually hibernate and rarely come out of tlicur burrows, and 
are. thus least haimful at that time of the yt*ar. The worship 
of Jlcmasd at Uttarbhag ha-s thus to be treated as a, relic, 
without any specific utilitarian backgrouml in its present form. 

Makar (PL 3, . fig. 3). — ^Crocodiles are greatly drcfuled 
on account of their habit of attacking men and animals* »Soine 
individuals are known to have become very daring in their 
depredations. At Uttarbhag a mud model of a crocodile is 
made and worshipped. It may be remarked that this model, 
though very crude and probably hastily made, is a very good 
replica of the living animal. The open mouth, the teeth, the 
central row of high scutes on the back, the fiapper-Iike limbs, 
the position of the eyes, and other features of the animal are 
well represented. The living animal does not usually lie with 
the mouth wide open, but the model is probably designed to 
show" the beast in its most hideous and destructive attitude. 

■ Reference may here be made to the fact that ‘ Some wilder 
tribes , of Baroda, to avert dnjury to men and animals as w'eli 
as sickness, worship Magardeo in the form of a piece of wood 
shaped like a crocodile and supported on tw^o posts ' (Crooke, 
1926, p, 377)* With regard to the worship of Makar ^ it has 
to be remembered that crocodile is believed to be the vehicle 
of several gods and goddesses of great repute. For instance, 
Rai Bahadur Rama Prashad Chanda informs me that Oangi 
or the goddess presiding . over the Ganges rides on a Makar. 
The cult of Makar is connected' with the cult of Gmigd. 

DahsMndar or Bdn BUn '(PL 3, fig. 2). — In 1915, a 
short note W"as published by Batabyal on the rrorship of 

1933] Worship and Propitiation of Wild Animals 


' Dakshiiidar, a godling of . the Sunderbiins with, beautiful 
illustrations, in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
I have nothing of importance to add to this account except 
that at Uttarbhag the number of images was restricted to four 
at each place of worship. We were informed that two of the 
four images of each group represented the wife of Dalcsin May 
(Balcshir^ar) whom the people called Bdymoni. In the photo- 
graph reproduced here, first and the third images from the 
left represent Dahsin May while the other two are of Mdymoni. 
The wife of Dahsin May is an innovation, for no reference to 
her has been found in the literature studied. The markuags 
on the crown were different in all the four images. Two of 
the images had their faces turned towards one side while the 
other two had their gaze fixed on the other side. This was 
probably intended to frighten away tigers coining from either 
of the two sides. Dakshindar is probably the principal godling 
worshipped, as it seems to have been provided with a canopy 
at the time of worship. The four poles struck on four sides 
of the mud-platform are indicative of this fact. 

The images are placed on a mud-platform resembling a 
Muhammadan tomb or dargdh, A Muslim priest performs the 
worship and the Muhammadan name for the godling is Bdn 
Blhl, which means the goddess of forests (see Hora, 1934). 

Pdnch-plr (PL 3, fig. 4). — mud-platform resembling 
a Muhammadan tomb with five balls of earth placed on it 
represents Pdnch-plr. The adoration of Plrs or Muhammadan 
saints is common among Mussalmans and more superstitious 
among the Hindus also offer pujd to them, for they are credited 
with supernatural powers. Mr. Md. Enamul Haqq has very 
kindly given me the following note on the cult of Pdnch-plr 
in Bengal : — 

‘ Belief and practices in comiection with the cult of Pdnch- 
plr belong to those religious superstitions of Bengali Muslims 
and Hindus of lower order, which arose out of the fusion of 
Hindu and Muslim culture. The quintette of Pdnch-plr or 
the Pive Saints ” is commonly adored and worshipped by both 
Hindus and Muslims as a coterie of aquatic and sylvan deities. 
This quintette is specially popular among the wood-cutters of 
Sundarban and Sonargaon and among the sailors of East Bengal. 
There are five tombs of Pdncfh-plr in Sonargaon near Dacca 
and at the outskirts of the Sundarban area in the District of 

^ The names of the Five Saints ’’ are not definitely known 
and the same names are not universally adopted. People of 
various localities explain them variously and one of the 
interesting features of their heterogeneous explanation is that a 
few local saints of obscure origin are always added to the list 
along with a few other historical ones. As for example, people 
of Sonargaon locality say that the following five saints are 

M Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [X.S.^ XXIX, 

Pancli-pir : (1) Gliayathti-’d-Dm, (2) Sbaiiisii-’d-Diii, (3| Sikaiiciar, 
,(4) (liiizl, and (5) Kaln. According to the pco|)le of (Jliittagciiig 
the five saints are : (l).Bara., Abdul Kadir iJilaiil, (2) Shaykh 
Parid, (3) lOiwajah Muiiiuddin-, (Jiishti, {4} Klnvajali Khldr, 
and (5) Badi* Shah. 

‘'The Five Saints are widely believed all over East Ihanral 
to be the pati'on saints of the sailors and woral-c*iittt*rs. !ii 
some places in West Bengal, such as .^Ediiapore, the\’ are 
worshipped as a quintette of family deities vho are hdieved 
to look after the general welfare and prosperity of the fiiinily/ 
RaiBahadiirEama Prashad Chanda, late of thc^ ArcIiceoIrKiicai 
Sinvey of India, niforms me that the boatmen of the Dacca 
District, when in trouble, recite the folioviiig verse 

dmard ' dcJiM koldMn 

we are children 

Crhdzi ■ ■ mhhe mkamau 

the Ghazi is om guardian 

Pdncli-inr Bair Bait Bair, 

At Uttarbhag, I tried 'to get the names of the fi\‘e Haiiits 
that had, been worshipped, but without any success. 
informants said something about lljiazi Sftheb, his i)rotlier 
Kalu, and his son Chawal Fir, but .no one was able to enuiiierati* 
the five Pirs. By a study of the iit^ratnre, 1 have* eonitt t,o tlie 
conclusion that the foilowmg five saints may Imtii 

worshipped at Uttarbhag : — (1) G|iazi Saheb. Tlie most famous 
of the Firs of the District of 24-Parganas is (Uiazi Saheb, who in 
supposed to exercise, great control over tigers and crocodileH 
and secine relief from sickness and disease. He helps the woiifl- 
entters ; (2) Kalu, ,a brother of Ghazi Saheb ; (3) Chawal Pir, 
a son of Gliazi Saheb ; (4) E-am Gliazi, a nephew of tllifizi 
Saheb ; and (o) Machandali Saif, a saint that is supposed t<? 
help the crews of boats in their- troubles during navigation, etc. 
The saints Xos. 2, 3, and 4 are, no doubt, worsMpped on account 
of their- close association with GJiazi Saheb. Dr. S. K. Chatterjee 
is of the opinion that .the name Machandali is due probabI\' 
to a ' , confusion of Hindu and Muhammadan elements. 
Matsyendranatha or Machhindarnath was a great yogi who 
obtained supernatural knowledge by hiding inside the stomach 
of a fish and listening to a .discourse between 6iva and Uina. 
Gorakhnath of legendary fame was the most renowned disciple 
of Machhindar. In , Machandali, it is probable that a faint 
memory of the saint.. Machhindar lingers; 'All', the final 
element in the name, ; is: that ■ of . AM, the son-in-law of the 

I take this ; opportunity . to express my sincere thanks to 
Eai Bahadur Rama . .. Prashad ■ Chanda, Dr. S. K. Chatterjee, 
Dr. B. S. Guha, and Mr.: Md. Hnamul Haqq for their valuable 

1933] WoTsJivp and Propitiation of Wild Animals 


suggestions, all of which have been incoi'porated in the paper 
with suitable acknowledgements. Babu D. IST. Bagchi helped 
me in the field amd took the photographs. For this my thanks 
are due to him. 

■Batabyal, B. C. 

■Crooke, W. 

Grooke, W. 

Oupte, B. A. . . 
Hora, S. L. 

Hora, S. L. 

O’Malley, L. S, S. 
Sen, D. C. 

■Sewell, R. B. S, 

Sunder, D. 

Vogel, J. Ph. . . 
Vogel, J.Ph. .... 


. . Dakshiiidar, a godling of the Sunderfoims. 
Journ, As> Soc, Bengal (N.S.), XI, 
pp. 175“177, pis. xi, xii (1915). 

. . Emyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics^ 
Paneh Piriya, IX, p. 600; Serpent 
Worship, XI, p. 413 (Edinburgh : 1920). 

. . Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India, 
pp. 348-399 (London : 1926). 

. • Hindu Holidays and Ceremonials, pp. 140- 
144 (Calcutta : 1916). 

. . Ecology, Bionomics, and Evolution of the 
Torrential Fauna. Phil, Tram. Roy. 
Soc. London (B) CCXYIII, pp. 171-282 

Worship of the Deities Ola, Jhola, and 
Bon Bibi in Lower Bengal. Journ* 

Soc. Bengal (N.S.), XXIX, pp. 1-4, plate 
1 (1934).’ 

. . Bengal District Gazetteers. 24-Pargana, 
pp. 71-77 (Calcutta : 1914). 

. . History of Bengali Language and Literature 
(Calcutta: 1911). 

. . The Origin of Man and the Population of 
India in the Past and the Future. 
Proc. 16th Ind, Sci. Congress, pp. 337-368 

. . Exorcism of wild animals in the Sunder- 
bans. Jowrn. As. Soc. Bengal, LXXII, 
pt. iii, pp. 45-52 (1903). 

Indian Serpent-Lore (London : 1926). 

. . Serpent -Worship in Ancient and Modem 
India. Acta Orientalia, II, pp. 279-312 


A general view of one of the sites of Worship at XJttarbhag. 

Fia. B. Mafear^ th© crocodile. Fics, 4. P«nc^-|jir with luouitda in th© dfetatioo. 

Abticle No. 8v 

The Science’ of Medicine under the Abbasids. 

By M. Z. SiDDiQi. 

The caitses of the speedy development of Ababian 


The advent of the Abbasids marked a new era in the 
Mstorj^ of the development of Arabian medicine. They came 
to power and there arose the magnificent building of Arabian 
medicine with all its parts well developed. The rapid rise of 
this science, in the short space of less than two hundred years, 
can be comprehended only in the light of the collective circum- 
stances that led to it, namely, the previous development of 
Medical science by the Greeks and the Indians, the w^ork done 
in connection with Arabian medicine and the development of 
Arabic grammar and scientific prose literature under the 
Umayyads, the keen interest of the Abbasid Caliphs and their 
courtiers in literary activities, and the ample means and 
appliances which they had at their disposal for the promotion 
of Arabian medicine. 

The intebest of the Caliphs. 

All the early Abbasid Caliphs from al-Mansur to al-Muta- 
wakkil w^ere great patrons of learning and of the learned. Al- 
Mansur w^as himseK a scholar,^ and being fond of the company 
of scholars he urged his son, Mahdi, to frequent their society.^ 
He took a keen interest in Astronomy and other sciences, and 
also in literature.^ Mahdi had less taste for scientific studies 
and was not so broad-minded as his predecessor or successors, 
still he was himseM a literary man ^ and his generosity towards 
literary men w’-as unprecedented,^ Al-Harun’s literary and 
scientific interest is too well known to need emphasis. His 
love of literature and science was further excited by his acqui- 
sition of a large number of books in his campaign in Asia Minor 
(at the conquest of Angora). In order to preserve the pre- 
viously-collected and the newdy-acquired books and to make 
the best use of them, he founded the Bay tud-Hikmat, organised 
the library and the translation department, appointed Fadl b. 

^ al-Mas'udi, Muruju’l-Dhahab, vol. 8, p. 292. 

2 Annals of al-Tabari, series 3, p. 404. 

S Mnnijiil-Dhahab, voi. 8, pp. 290-292. 

4 ai-Suyiiti, TariklmT-KhuIafa, 1857, p. 275. 

s Ibn Khallikan, ed, Wustenfeld, No. 252 ; Kitabu’l-Agliani, Vol. IX,, 
p. 40. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

Niibakht to supervise the translation of Persian books into 
Arabic. He entrusted the task of supervising the translation 
of Greek medical works ^ to Yuhanna b. Masawayh, who had 
many assistants under him. Al-Mamun organised and sent a 
commission to Byzantium in order to acquire Greek scientific 
books. ^ Al-Mu'tasim approved the strict measures talpii by 
Afshin in regard to the apothecaries® and supplied A^uhanna 
b. Masawayh with big monkeys for dissection.^ Al-WatMq's 
long and interesting discussion with the learned medical men 
of his time concerning the fundamental principles of the 
science of medicine, their basis, and the method followed in 
establishing them, shows his keen interest in medical science 
and its history.^ Al-Mutawakldl, in spite of his orthodox 
views, Iviiew the worth of real scholars and did not hesitate 
to promote the learned Christian physicians to the position 
which they deserved. He had promoted Hunayn b. Ishaq from 
the position of an ordinary translator to that of superintendent 
of the translation department,^ and made him the head of the 
physicians in Baghdad^ and he ai^pointed Rabban al-Tabari, 
who worked as foreign secretary of al-Mu'tasim, as his own 

According to the Arabic proverb people 

follow their Kings, the interest of the Caliphs in the science 
created an interest for it in their courtiers and subjects also. 
Ishaq b. Sulayman b. ‘Ali al-Hashimi,® Muhammad b. 'AbdiT- 
Malik al-Zayyat,^® Ibnu’l-Mudabbir,^^ 'Abdul-Lah b. Ishaq 
the family of the Barmacides^® and of the Banu Musa^^ 

1 Tarlkhn'l-Hukama, pp. 255, 380. Of. Tabaqatu’l-Atifoba, vol. 1, 
p. 175. 

2 al-Fihrist, p. 243. 

2 Tankhu'l-Hukama, p. 189. 

Tabaqatu'l-Atibba, vol. 1, p. 87. 

5 Muriijii’l-Dhahab, vol. 7, pp. 173-180. A description of the principles 
of the empirics and of the methodists is given in this discussion. 

6 Tabaqatu’l-Atibba, vol. 1, p. 189. 

7 hid., p. 198. ■ 

^ al-Fihrist, German Edition, p. 296. 

9 He got a Sanskrit book on drugs translated into Arabic by Manka 
(al-Fihrist, p. 303). He was interested in Indian medicine, probably 
becaiisG he had lived in India as a governor of Sindh {al-Tabari, vol. 3, 
p. 009). 

He used to spend about two thousand dinars a month on translators 
and copyists (Tab,, vol. I, p. 206). For his interest in literature see 
Kitabu’l-Aghani, vol. 20, pp. 46-47. 

11- Ibid. 

12 Ibid. 

13 Yahya b. Khalid got the compendium of Susruta translated into 
Arabic (al-Fihrist, p. 303). 

ii’ The Banu Musa, who are also known as Banu Munajjim, were the 
greatest patrons of Arabic scientific literature after the Caliphs. They 
sent a commission to Byzantium to acquire Greek works (al-Fihrist, 


1933] The Science of Medicine under the Ahbasids 

are some of those courtiers and private persons who showed 
great zeal in attracting students of medicine to Baghdad 
and in encouraging them to enrich Arabic medical literature 
with translations and independent contribution.^ 

Baghdad as a great literary centre. 

Baghdad, the Metropolis of Islam, thus assumed the fallen 
mantle of Rome and Alexandria. Hither came the most able 
men of the time from ail quarters of the globe, attracted by the 
patronage of princes and private individuals, to employ their 
medical talents in well-stored libraries and well-equipped 
hospitals, and by their collective eSort they produced the 
vast and varied literature of Arabian medicine. Here, too, 
trade brought a large variety of new medicaments hke , 
Senna, Palanja, (probably Per. Palanga), Salajit, 

and osC*.!/?. As regards the international aspect of its medical 
school, at any rate, Baghdad excelled the previous seats of 
learning. Neither at Rome nor at Alexandria were Indian 
Medical men working side by side with those of other nations, 
nor were so many important Indian and Greek medical works 
translated into any other language as into Arabic. 

The different groxjps of medical men. 

The different groups of these men of many-sided learning 
helped the progress of Arabian medicine in different ways. 
Some translated the Greek or the Indian medical works into 
Arabic. Some tested and verified the medical principles 
established by the ancient physicians. Some tried to systematise 
the diverse branches of medical science into one harmonious 
whole. Here we will deal only with the translation of medical 
works into Arabic and with the verification of medical principles 
by the Arabic medical writers. 

p. 243), brought Thabit b. Qurra to Baghdad, and introduced him and 
many other scholars to the court of the Caliphs (Tab., vol. 1, p. 215; 
Mu‘jamu’l-Udaba, vol. 5, p. 460). They paid Hunayn and others 500 
dinars a month for translating medical works into Arabic (Tab., vol, 1, 
p. 187). They had a big library which was a great attraction for people 
in different towns (Mu ‘jam, vol. 6, p. 467). 

4 Tahir, the governor of Khurasan, after making his son a Wdli of 
Biyari Rabi‘a, wrote to him a long letter (Annals of al-Tabari, series 3, 
vol. 2, pp. 1046-1061), instructing him in the art of governing people. 
In this letter, which was much admired by Mamun and a copy of which 
was sent by him to all the officials, he says ‘ You should establish 
hospitals for the sick and appoint physicians and attendants to treat 
and attend them (Tabari, series 3, vol. 2, p. 1059.) 


J owTThctl ojf the AstrCLtic Society oj^ Bcyiyol X^X^IX!y 


Though, the translation of medical works into Arabic was 
resumed in the Abbaside period in the reign of a!-Mansur, and 
received an organised form in the reign of ai-Harun, yet it was 
not carried out on the basis of any sound principle until the 
appearance of Hiinayn b. Ishaq[ in this field, about the end^ of 
the reign of al-Mamun. Almost all the early translators, like 
Batriq, his son Yahya, and Stephen b. Basil, were non-x4.rabs, 
lacking regular and well-grounded education in the Arabic 
language, the mastery of which was as essential for the purpose 
of translating Greek medical works into Arabic as that of the 
Greek language and of medical science. This deficiency in the 
early translators must have gravely hampered their work and 
rendered their translation useless for the Arabic-reading public. 

Remarks of Bahaitddin. 

This conjecture is corroborated by a passage in the Kashkiil 
of Bahahiddm-al-‘Amili. He says that Yulianna, the son of 
Batriq and Ibn Nafima of Emessa, while translating, considered 
every single word of the Greek text and replaced it by its Arabic 
equivalent. ‘ This,’ he continues, ‘ was not a sound method 
of translation, firstly, because Arabic equivalents could not be 
found for every Greek word, on account of which a large number 
of Greek words were used by them in their translations and, 
secondly, because the syntax of the two languages very often 
difiers. Again metaphorical expressions, the use of which is 
quite common in every language, cannot be well translated by 
this method.’ ^ 

Hijnayn as a translator. 

About the end of the reign of al-Mamun there appeared in 
the Graeco- Arabic translation department of the Baytu’l- 
Hikmat the great personality of Abu Zayd Hunayni b. Ishaq 
al-Tb4di who was fully qualified for translating Greek medical 
works into Arabic.^ He knew Arabic as his native tongue and 
further studied it with the great grammarian Khalil ; he had 
learnt Greek at Alexandria, and he had received his education in 
medical science from Yuhanna b. Masawayh, Being thus weli- 
equipped, he revolutionised the old system of rigid literal 
translation and based it on the better principle of freely expressing 
the sense of the Greek texts in Arabic language without caring 

1 Kashkiil, Bulaq, 1288 A.H., p. 191. 

2 liunayn could not have been appointed as a translator in the 
Baytu’l-Hikmat before 830 because he was bora in 809 and it is extremely 
improbable that he had finished his student life before he was 21 years 
.'Of ""age. 

1933] The Science oj Medicine under the Ahbasidi 43 

to render in it exactly every single word of the original Greek 
text. But he was not too free in his translation and he always 
tried to be as literal as possible, provided the sense was clearly 
expressed. In order to achieve this end, he did not hesitate 
to add certain explanatory phrases where he thought it necessary 
to do so.^ 

His sTxn>ENTS. 

Some time after he had entered the translation department, . 
Hunayn engaged other competent translators to assist him in 
his work. His son, Ishaq, his nephew Hubaysh, ‘Isa b. Yahya, 
and al-Rahawi are some of his assistants who are mentioned by 
the Arab bibliographers. All of them being students and assist- 
ants of Hunayn they must have followed his method and. 
priiiciple in their translation. This is evident at least in the 
case of Hubaysh, whose translation of the 9th~15th books of 
Galen’s Anatomy has come down to us, and has been published 
together with a German translation, by Dr. Max Simon. In 
his introduction to the Arabic text, describing the character 
of the Arabic text, Dr. Simon says : ‘ He (the Arabic translator) > 
has endeavoured to translate all that is essential in the content, 
though he has dealt with the conjunctions (Bindemittel) more 
freely, at times very freely indeed. At any rate he has taken 
the trouble to render into Arabic all the component parts of a 
sentence, including the Grammatical ones, in some form or 
other, i.e. (he has followed) a prmciple and (taken) a liberty 
which even a modern translator may follow (and may take), 
within certain limits, if his aim is a translation faithful to the 
sense which is always more than a purely literal one, and which 
presupposes familiarity with the nature of the subject. On the 
whole the Arab has thoroughly succeeded in achieving his 
purpose ’.2 

Their care m translation. 

The translator of these books of Galen’s Anatomy used, 
besides a Syriac translation, three copies of the Greek text,® 
no doubt, for the purpose of collation. If w^e may assume 
that it was the rule with the school of Hunayn to use as many 
copies of the Greek texts as might be available, this would 
indicate that they took care to make their translation as 

1 Our opinion is based on the conaparison of the quotations of 
Dioscorides in the Mufradat of Ibnui-Baytar with the German translation 
of Bioscoi'ides’ hook by Berendes. The additional explanatory phrases 
which are found in the quotations at many places are not found in the 
German translation, 

2 Anatomie des Galen, v6h 1, Int. p. XLV. He also says that many 
explanatory phrases are added in the Arabic text which could not have 
occurred in the original Greek text, voL 1, Int. p. XIV. 

8 I6id.,p. xni. . ' 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX j 

.■correct as possible. This is further indicated by the fact that 
the mastery of the subject by the translator was considered 
essential, as is shown by the revision of the translation of 
Mathematical works rendered by Hunayn and others, by 
Thabit b. Qurra.^ 

Arabic medical technical terms. 

The great difficulty which the translators of the medical 
works in general had to face was in connexion with the technical 
terms, almost all of which they must have coined. With so 
little of the eaii}^ Arabic medical literature available, it is 
difficult to trace their development, still a glance at the list 
of the terms given below will show what system the translators 
foUowed in coining the pathological and other medical terms. 
Sometimes they used only phrases descriptive of the disease 
of the organs affected, such as 

iiAKJI etc., or they tried to express the 

peciffiarity of the disease by means of a metaphor like , 

c^xxlf etc. Sometimes they tried to explain 

the peculiar character of the disease without employing any 
metaphor as w^e find in such cases as 

.. 1 I 

cxjfjsh 5 etc. Some- 

times they used such words as were in common use, or their deriva- 
tives in a particular technical sense, hke I , hope, in the sense 

■of Hydrometra , the eater, in the sense of Gangrene, MJJf , 
the ant, in the sense of Herpes, xyiaJf , the nail, in the sense of 

Pterygium, from , to split, in the sense of Headache, 

from (3^ to tear, in the sense of Hemicrania, etc. But 
were the Arabs original in coining these and other technical 
terms ? We are inclined to answ^er this question in the negative 
and say that the Arabs in most cases, if not as a rule, translated 
the Greek technical terms, literally, into their own language 
whether in Anatomy, Pathology, or Physiology. The following 
table of Arabic and Greek nomenclature will illustrate our remark. 

Anatomical terms. 


#Lc, , 

KapBlas oJs*. 

pl^a Tov ^X€(l>dpov> 
KOlXiai TOV iKX€(f)dXov, 

KoXrros^T^S varepaS’ 

1 al-Fihrist, pp. 265, 267. 

1933] The Science of Medicine under the Ahbasids 


5 HoXlai 'TTfs KaphiaSo 


^^SaAlf diM(f>i^Xr](TTpo^S€S ytTcov, 

icftAiajf payoecMs 

KeparoetSes x^rwp. 

A large number of other Anatomical terms like « (jic 
S^xjf jsU^JM i^lAdif ^l^jf and otliens 

are nothing but hterai translation of Greek terms, as may be 
seen by referring to the Glossary of the Anatomie des Galen 
of Dr. Simon. 

Pathological teems. 

The four stages of fever :— 


or AjyXif 



Jslkacu^t or 



duKL'T'qs vBpwiji, 


TVpTTavCTTJS vBpO)xjj, 

VTTocrapKlSios vBp(x)tp. 

‘ ^kxjf ^UkiLof 

KOiXtas pvais. 



<l>X4ypa o^v. 

<j>X4ypa yXvKV. 

^Aeyfta vaXatBes. 


TTOperos rpiraios. 

TTvpsTOS TGrapraios^ 



j t S 








KWoeiBets opeieig. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX5 

A comparison of the Greek and Arabic iiomenclature will 
.show that many other Arabic terms under this heading, e.g«, 
the terms denoting the different kinds of urine and the different 
types of pulse are translated literally from the Greek. 

Physiological terms. 

Mvayiis IXktik^, 


,, KaOeKTlKT^. 


„ ll/VXlKTI. 

.Adfj.A2P.Jj 5J 

,, t^WTLKTl. 

,, <f>vaiKt]. 

This method of translating literally Greek technical terms 

has been employed 

even in pharmacology. We find that 

the Arabic names of many plants are literal translations of 

their Greek names. 

Here we give only a few instances. 

fjivos Sra 

P. JlJUj 

- Aib TToXvnoBtov 

obux C.*lb jC ( jijj ) 



a^cojf p. 


^jM^jf AJj2pJ 


Devblopmeot of medical Arabic nomenclature. 

Though the Arabs translated the Greek technical terms, 
in most cases, yet we should not be justified in concluding from 

I The same system, it seems, was followed in some other sciences 
also which the Arabs borrowed from other nations. In Logic the Arabic 
terms given below with their Greek equivalents appear to be translations 
•of the corresponding Greek terms. 



Middle term 

dpos TO piaov. 

Major term 

TO aicpov. 


Vicious circle 




In Alchemy and are probably translations of 

’XPvooKopaWiov and aj>pQa4\'qvov respectively (Ar. Alchemisten 
Heidelberg 1924, Part 1, pp. 21, 23, ft, note). But in alchemy the 
Arabs could not have followed this system too frequently except in 
iregard to the names of substances, because this science was not developed 
hy their predecessors. 

1933] The Science of Medicine under the Abhaaids 47 

this that they did not develop the medical nomenclature any 
further than the Greeks. Br. Simon says that the Arabs, in 
a later period, advanced the formal side of the medical science 
by developing the Anatomical nomenclature further than what 
they received from the Greeks. In this they must have been 
helped by the scientific development of Arabic Grammar. Thus 
in case of single-worded Pathological terms they mostly used the 

form JUi 5 like ( 3 IIA , Angina, , Fever, , Tetanus 
Headache, , Vertigo, , Catarrh, etc. In pharmacology 

they mostly used the form , such as , snuff, 
powder, , sup|)ository, emetic, liuctus, 

plaster, etc. 

It is difficult, however, to determine whether this system 
of translating technical terms was adopted by the early trans- 
lators and maintained by Hunayn and his students, when they 
entered the translation department, on the ground that these 
Arabic terms had already gained currency or whether they 
themselves liked this system and improved it because they were 
unable to substitute a better system in its place. 

The share oe Hunayn in Graeco-Arabic medical 


Be it as it may, Hunayn and his school applied themselves 
heart and soul to translating Greek medical works, and almost 
entirely by their own exertions^ they reproduced in Arabic, 
in less than fifty years well-nigh, all the important medical works 
of the Greeks. To what extent this part of Arabic medical 
literature was indebted to the school of Hunayn will be made 

clear by the following 

table. ^ 

The number of 

Number of works 

Greek authors^ 

works translated. 

translated by 
Hunayn^ s school. 

Galen . . 






Paulos . . 






1 w© have said this because the physicians of Jundishaptir are not 
mentioned as translators of any medical work into Arabic. Yuhann^ b. 
Masawayh himself is not mentioned as a translator. The name of 
George, who is mentioned by Ibn Abl Usaybi‘a as a translator (vol. 1, 
p. 203), does not occur in the list of the translators given by IbnuT Nadim 
(al-Fihrist, p. 244). Even Ibn AM Usaybi‘a does not say which medical 
works he had translated. Only one Knnnash of George is mentioned by 
the Arabic bibliographers ; and this book which he had written in Syriac 
was translated into Arabic by Hunayn. (Pabaqat, vol. I, p. 126.) 

2 In this table I have left out those Greek authors the translators 
of whose works are not mentioned by IbnuT*Nadim. The table is based 
on the statement of Ibnu’l-Hadim (pp. 288-293). 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N,S., XXIX^ 

Tile character of the translations executed by Hiinayn’s 
school has already been discussed. Even these translations j 
in spite of the great care with which they were made^ were 
not always free from faults. Ibnul-Baytar says in connection 
with the word that ‘ Hmiayn has translated it as 

which is far from being correct He also says in connection 
with the word that Huna3ni has translated the Greek 

word (probably Kiaaos) as It is strange^ he says, 

that Hunayn has done so, because these two plants do not 
even resemble each other Dr. Simon has also referred to 
some mistakes in the Arabic translation of Galen’s Anatomy. 
But, as Dr. Simon says,^ such mistakes are not many. 

Hunayn and his students, apart from translating the 
Greek medical works, made also some independent contributions 
to Arabic medical literature. Long lists of their independent 
medical works are found in the Fihrist, and other Arabic biblio- 

The Indian physicians in Baghdad. 

Side by side with the physicians well- versed in the Greek 
system of Medicine, there were living at Baghdad man}^ Indian 
medical men, having a thorough knowledge of their own system, 
who sometimes vied with their rivals and shownd the efficacy 
of their art where the devotees of the Greek systems had failed.^ 
The names of three of them : — Manka, Ibn Dhan (?) and Salih 
Ibn Bhalla (?) have been mentioned by Ibnul-Nadim,^ Ibn Abi 
’U§aybi‘a®, and Ibnu’i-Qifti.'^ It was the Barmakites, a family 
in touch with and revered by the Indians before Persia was 
conquered by the Arabs, ^ that drew these physicians to Baghdad 
and established their reputation. JaTar b. Yahya suggested 
the name of Salih to al-Harun for the treatment of his cousin, 
Ibrahim.^ Ibn Dahan (?) was in charge of the hospital of the 
Barmakites ; Manka, who was probably in the same Hospital, 
was asked by Yahya b. Khalid to translate the Compendium 
of Susruta.^^ 

The presence of these physicians in Baghdad, and perhaps 
the success with which they practised their art attracted the 

^ Vol. 3, p. 13. Ibrm’l-Baytar has also referred to other mistakes 
of the translators in general (though he has not mentioned the name of 
Hunayn), vol. 2, p. 46. 

2 Vol. 3, p. 66. 

^ Anatomie des OaleUy vol, 1, Int. p. XLV. 

4 For such eases see Tabaqatu’l-Atibba, vol. 2, pp. 33-35. 

5 al-Fihrist, p. 245. 

® Tabaqatu’l-Atibba, vol. 2, pp. 33-34. 

7 Tarikhu’l-HukamA, p. 215. 

8 Prof. Browne’s Lit. Hist, of Persia, 1919, vol. 1, p. 258. 

^ Tabaqatu’l-AtibbA, vol. 2, p. 34. 

10 ai-Pihrist, p. 245. 
n Ihid.y p. 303. 

1933] The Science of MeMcine under the Abhasids 


notice of ai-Maniiin, Ishaq b. Sulayman, and* others. Thus 
numerous important Indian medical works, the names of a 
dozen of which are reported by Ibnul-Nadiml were trans- 
lated into Arabic. Ibn Abi tJ§aybi‘a has added some more 
names to this hst. Some of these works were translated directly 
from Sanskrit and others through Persian. 

Aitothee gboxtp of fhysioiaks. 

Simultaneously with great Hunayn and others who were 
busily engaged in. translating Greek and Indian medical works 
into Arabic there was another equally or more important group 
of physicians at Baghdad, which thinking the translation work 
beneath their scholarship and dignity, or feeling themselves 
unqualified for this work, helped in the quick development 
of Arabian medicine by producing independent works in Arabic. 
To this group belonged almost all the physicians who came 
from the school of Jundish4pur and wrote any book on medicine 
in Arabic, and also other medical men of this period like S4bur 
b. Sahl, Tsa b. Masa and others. 

Their works. 

The works of the members of this group, so far as it appears 
from then: titles and descriptions given in the Arabic biblio- 
graphies, may be divided into two classes. 

(1) Those works which dealt with the same subjects with 
which the ancient physicians had dealt in such of their works 
as were translated into Arabic, like Kitabul-Huinmiyat ^ of Ibn 
Masawayh, the ' Kltabu man la yahduruhu Tabibun’^ of ‘Isa 
b. Masa, etc. In these works they tried to treat the old subjects 
on new lines and to add the results of their own experience to 
what they had received from the ancients. Thus in the .Kdtabul- 
Hummiyat, Ibn Masawayh treated the subject in a tabular 

form ( ), a form that, so far as we know, had never 
before been applied to such subjects.* 

^ al-Fibrist, p. 303. 

2 Tabaqatu’l- Atibba, vol. 1, p. 183. The same work of Galen also was 
translated Into Arabic (al-Fihrist, pp. 289-290). 

3 Ibid., p. 181. A book of the same title by Rhuphos was translated , 
into Arabic (al-Fihrist, p. 291). 

4 In another book, Kitabn’l-Tashrih (T4dkhu’l-Hukama, p. 38). 
Yuhanna b. Masawayh attempted to test and verify the Anatomical 
system of Galen. According to Ibn Abi UsaybPa, he had the ambition 
to write a book on Anatomy, had kept monkeys to dissect when they 
were grown np, had received particular species of them from Mu‘tasim 
and vTote a book on Anatomy which was admired by friends and foes 
alike (Tab., vol. i, p. 178). According to a story reported by Ibnul- 
Qifti, he wanted to dissect his own son in order to establish human 
anatomy but the Caliph stood in the way (pp. 390-391). But IbnuT> 

50 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [E’.S., XXIX, 1933] 

(2) To the, second class belong such works of these physicians 
as dealt with subjects which had . not been treated by the 
ancient writers. The pharmacopoeia of Sabur b. Sahl, the book 
on piles by Abu Musa Tsa, the book on the causes of sudden 
death by Qusta Ibn Ltiqa, etc. may be included in this class. 

Though a very large number of very able medical men 
were busy in serving the cause of Arabian medicine in different 
ways, yet there was an important work in connection with it — 
the systematisation of the different branches of this science— 
which did not receive any serious attention from these physicians. 
An able and energetic young man of Tabaristan, well -qualified 
in the healing art, and weU-equipped for this work, felt its 
necessity and took it up. This was Abu Sahl ‘All b. Babbaii 
al-Tabari, the author of the Fh‘dausul-Hil?:mat, which has been 
edited by me and published by the Aftab Press of Berlin. 

Kadim has not mentioned the Kitabu’l-Tashrih in the list of Ibn 
Masawayh’s works, nor could we find any reference to this book in any 
■extant medical work that we have read. The stories related by Ibn 
Abi Usaybi'a and Ibnu’I-Qift-i are not found in any of the Arabic histories. 

Abticle No* 9. 

Side-light on Ancient Indian Social Life. 

By EAlipaba Mitba. 

{The following pieces of information have been mainly 
derived from a Pali Commentary known as the VimAinavatthn- 

The City. 

1. Festivals . — Here as well as in the Jatakas'^ we get 
constant references to Festivals (nakkhatta kilam). In V.V.A., 
I. 15 {Vimmiavatthti-aUhakathd) we read ‘ Ath’ekadivasam 
Rajagahe maliajana sattaham nakkhattam Idlitabban ’ ti 
ghosanam karimsn A beautiful description of the city 
during the occasion is given there. One day a festival 
(nakkhattam) -was announced in the city (Bajagaha). The 
citizens had the streets clean swept, sprinkled sand on them, 
and also five kinds of parched rice and flownrs. At the door 
of every house banana plants and full pitchers were placed. 
According to their means they caused flags and streamers of 
many colours to flutter. All people attired themselves in 
their best robes and put on their braveries according to their 
means and joined the carnival. The whole city thus ornamented 
and decorated shone like a veritable celestial city.^ Now king 
Bimbisara, to please the great crowd, sailed out of his royal 
palace, with a great retinue, amidst magnificence and splendour 
and made a circuit of the city.’ The practice of kings going 
out in procession making a circuit of the city seems to have 
been in vogue as revealed in the Jataka story. 

In the introduction to the Vatamigajataka (No. 14) the 
parents missed very much their absent son when the festival 
was proclaimed at Bajagaha lamenting over a silver casket 
containing trinkets their son used to wear on other such 

Jat, No. 46 (Jiramadusaka) ; 59 (Bherivada-Jat., nakhhatta at 
Benares); 60; 365; 388 (ehanakale) ; 421 (atha ekadivasam nagare 
chanam sajjayimsu) ; 437 (tada Jambudipe giraggasamajjasadisarn 

mabantam chanam ghosayimsu) ; 459 (Sami, pubbe buasmim kale Sura 
cbano nama hoti) ; 512 (Kumbhajat.- — ^Savatthiyam kira suracbane 
gbuttbe ta paneasata ittbiyo samikanam cbanakilavasane txltkbasurain 
patiyadetva ‘chanam kilissama ’ ti sabbapi, etc.). 

* 2 Jat. No. 410 (Susima) .ekadivasam nagaram sajjapetva 

sakko devaraja viya alankato Eravanapatibbagassa mattavaravaranassa 
khande nisiditva. . . .nagaram padaklsbinam akasL 

‘ One day when the feast came round on the full moon of the fourth 
month and the city and the palace were adorned like the city of the 
■gods ' 

( 51 ) 


52 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX ^ 

It appears from I. 15 that the festivals were for 

those people who could afford them, not having to work, the 
labourers preferring work to enjoyment. We read ‘one day 
it was announced at Itajagaha that the festival was to last 
seven days. The treasurer asks his labourer, '[tvam Mm 
nakJchattam kllissasi uddhu bhatim harissasi ” (would you join 
the festival or work ?) to which he replies, sami, nakkhattam 
ndma sadha/ndnam hoti, mama pana gehe svdtandya ydgutai^duldm 
natthi Urn me nakhhattena (master, the festival indeed is for the 
wealthy;* in my house, on the other hand, there is neither 
gruel nor rice for to-morrow’s consumption ; what have I to do 
with the festival ?) In the Gangamdla Jdtaka (No. 421), 
however, we find that a poor labourer who had earned half a 
penny by carrying water (udakabliatim katvd} 

supplemented his income by another half-pemi}?' received from 
a wretched woman; and with this magnificent sum they two 
together proposed to purchase garland, perfume and strong 
drink for the festival. Is not it therefore a question of taste 
rather than of means ? 

The festivals were probably celebrated on the day of the 
full moon in conjunction with a certain nakkhaUa and therefore 
indicating some auspicious moment (Sans, kshartam, Pali 
chauarn) and thus known also as chanarn. On these occasions 
garlands, perfumes and strong drink (see foot-note 1) w^ere 
freely indulged in. Magicians, jugglers, dancers, musicians 
(drummers, flute-players, conch-blowers), snake-charmers — all 
went there and contributed to their liveliness by displaying 
skill in their respective arts.^ 

With the above may be compared the description of the 
town Kundapura on inauguration of the Tirthankar’s birth- 
day. XXII, pp. 252, 253 — Jd^Gobi/Kalpasuira : — 

After the Bhavanapati, Vyantara, Jyotishka and Vaimanika 
gods had celebrated the feast of the inauguration of the 
Tirthankara’s birthday, the Kshatriya Siddhartha called at 
the break of the day, together the town policemen and addressed 
them thus : (99) 

‘ 0 beloved of the gods, quickly set free all prisoners in the 
town of Kupdapura, increase measures and weights, give order 
that the whole town of Kundapura with its suburbs be sprinkled 
with water, swept, and smeared (with cowdung, etc.), that 
in triangular places, in places where three or four roads meet, 
in courtyards, in squares, and in thoroughfares, the centre of 
roads and paths along the shops be sprinkled, cleaned and 

4 432 (so i.e. Patalo^ the aato, ekasmiu divase bhariyain adaya 
Baraiiasirp jpavisitva naccitva gayitva dhanaiix iabhitva ussava pariyosane 

bahuip surabhattani gaha petva ), see also Jat. !N^o. 365 (Ahigunmka), 

489 (Jada Bhandu Kanna Papdu Karma najna dve nataka eheka 

59 (Bherivada), 60 (SamkhadhamanaV,* of. Then. g. 53 (Sujata). 


Side-ligM on Amimt Indian Social Life 


swept ; the platform be erected one above the other, that the 
town be decorated with variously coloured flags and banners 
and adorned with painted pavilions, that the walls bear 
impressions in gOv%*sa, red sandal and Dardara of the hand 
with outstretched fingers ; that luck-foreboding vases be put 
on the floor and pots of the same kind he disposed round every 
door and arch ; that big, round and long garlands, wreaths 
and festoons be hung low and high, that the town be furnished 
with offerings, etc., that players, dancers, rope-dancers, wrestlers, 
boxers, jesters, story-tellers, ballad singers, actors [lasahci 
hhdn.da), messengers (araksakastalara, akhyayaka Y^—-tmns. 
conjectural), pole dancers, fruit-mongers, bag-pipers, lute-players 
and many Talaearas be present. Erect and order to erect 
thousand pillars and poles and report on the execution of 
my orders (lOG). (Talaearas are those who by clapping the 
hand beat the time during a performance of music.) 
Numerous festivals besides the above seem to have been 
celebrated in ancient India as we notice them in Pali literature, 
such as the Plowing festival,^ Sabbaratticaro (or Sabbarattivaro), 
viz. all night festival at Vesali,^ a sort of St. Valentine’s Day,® 
Elephant festival,^ Kattika festival,® Midsummer festival,® 
Salakila (which was done in the Sala grove, Shorea robusta). 
It is needless to mention that the city was decorated like the 
city of gods, e.g. on the Parasol festival day of the king ^ or 
like occasions. 

A description of the Sabbarattivaro festival is given in 
the Dhammafada-atthaJeathd^ as follows : — 

On the night of the full moon of the month of Kattika the 
entire city of Vesali was decked with flags and banners, making 

1 Jat. No. 547 (Vessaiitara), 467 (Kama). 

2 gamyatta Nikaya I, 9. ‘ Tena kho pana samayena Vesaliyaip 

sabbaratti caro (®varo) hoti. . . . . .atha kho so bhikkhii Vesaliyam turiya- 
talita-vaclita-nighosa saddam sutva, etc. 

3 S.N., I, 4, 2 § 8. Tena kho pana samayena Fanoa-salayam 
brahmanagame kumarakanam (kumarikanam) pahunakani bhavanti : 
See also Book of the Kindred Sayings (P.T.S.) Pt. I by Mrs. Rhys 
Davids, p. 143, Foot-note : ‘The festival was a kind of St. Valentine’s 
Day. Clansmen’s daughters arrayed in their best, held a parade, the 
youths having also fore-gathered, and presents, or at least flowers, were 
presented. Festival cakes were also handed round. ’ 

, 4 Jat. .(455). 

s Jat. 118 ; 147 ; 150 ; 276 ; 527-— ‘ Atha tassa nagare kattika chanam 

ghosayimsu, kattika punnamaya nagarain sajjayimsu Atha 

suriye atthamgate uggate punnacande devanagare viya alaipkate nagare 
sabba disasu dipesu jalantesu raja sabbalamkarapatimandito ajanna- 
rathavaragato amaccaganaparivuto mahantena yasena nagaram padak- 
khiiiam karonto, etc.’ 

^ Warren : Buddhism in Translations, pp. 42, 43. (Thus the con- 
-eeption took place in the Midsummer festival.) 

7 Jat, 415 — ‘ Chatta-mahgaladivase pan’assa sakalanagaram devana- 
garam viya alamkarimsu.’ 

SH.O.S., Vol. 30, ‘p. 182. 

54 Jouf 7 ial of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX. 

it coterminous with the realms of the four great Eliigs and 
the festival began. As the festival continued through the 
night, he listened to the noise of the beating of drums and the 
striking of other musical instruments and the sound of flutes. 
When the 7,707 Princes of Vesali and a like number of young 
princes and Commanders4n-chief all dressed and adorned in 
festive array, entered the city for taking part in the festixdties, 
he himseK wallred through his great cloister. 

We get the description of a number of festivals in the 
Dhammapada Commentary.^ 

{a) Public Day Festival. — ^Now in this city (Saketa) there 
is a festival celebrated every year called Public Bay and on 
this day families which do not ordinarily go out come forth from 
their houses with attendants and with their persons miclothed, 
go on foot to the bank of the river. Moreover, on this day 
sons of men of wealth and position of the warrior caste stand 
along the road, and when they see a beautiful maiden of equal 
birth with themselves, throw a garland of flowers over her 

(6) The Simpleton’s Holiday.^ — we read of the instruction 
given by the Teacher at Jetavana with reference to Simpleton’s 
holiday — (Bala nalckhatta — Seven days’ holiday). For on a 
certain date there was a festival celebrated in Savatthi called 
Simpleton’s Holiday and on the occasion of this festival foolish, 
unintelligent folk used to smear their bodies with ashes and 
cowdung and for a period of seven days go about uttering all 
manner of coarse talk. At this time people showed no respect 
for kinsfolk or friends or monks when they met them, but 
stood in the doorways and insulted them with coarse talk. 
Those who could not endure the coarse talk would pay the holiday 
makers half or a quarter of a penny according to them means 
and the holiday makers would take the money and depart from 
their houses. 

On the occasion of these holidays the customar}/' restraint 
was put off and even ladies of respectable families came out to 
witness the lively scenes. We read one day a festival was 
proclaimed in this city. Xow at the festival daughters of 
respectable families, who do not ordinarily go out, go on foot 
with their retinue and bathe in the river. Accordingly on 
that day Samavati also accompanied by her 500 women went 
right thi'ough the palace court to bathe in the river. (She 
was Treasurer Ghosaka’s daughter. King Udena fell in love 
with her.)^ 

1 Dhpd, Commentary 5B ; 29, p. 62 — Story of Visakha. 

2 JDhpd. Cy. Book 2, Story 4, l)h,A. — I, 256 — 28, 310. 

s 28, p. 269 ; Dh.A., I, 190-191. 


Side-light on Ancient Indimi Social 'Life 

(c) Cow-festival.^ — On that day, as it happened, one of 
the herdsman’s cows had calved and the herdsman was about 
to hold the customary festival in honour of the event. The 
herdsman after providing the Private Buddha with food celebrated 
the cow-festival with an abundant supply of rice porridge. 

2. Fem^ of Thieves, — ^It appears that there w as some 

fear of thieves even in the capital city of Rajagaha and in 
daytime. A certain Updsaha supplied four bhihJchus with 
daily food ; but his door used to remain shut for fear of thieves, 
and sometimes it so happened that the bhikJchus had to go away 
without getting the appointed food. This is narrated in F.F.A., 
V. 5 {Dvdrapdlavimdna) : ' Tassa pana gehapariyante thitam 

corabhayena yebhuyyena pihitadvaram eva hoti).’ Ultimately 
the Upasalm had to post a dvdrapdla, (door-keeper) at the door. 
The same state of insecurity from thieves is corroborated by the 
Jatakas. The king had to take special care to put down the 
Paccantavdsinocord (frontier robbers) ; and the Nagaraguttiko 
(governor of the city) had acquired an important position in 
the state, having to free the city from thieves, burglars and house- 
breakers. Pick says ‘^Judging from the insecurity wiiich 
on account of the frequent mention of robbers and thieves in 
the Jatakas and other folk-literature must have existed in the 
Indian cities in ancient times, he wms no small personage 

3. City Gates and outside Villages. -—The city gates 
were named after castes, because they faced caste villages 
outside. (See V,V.A., 11,2 — Bhagavati Baranasiyam viharante 
Kevatta-dvaram nama ekani dvarain. Tassa avidure nivittha 
gamo pi kevatthadvaran tveva pahnayittha.) It is well-known 
that villages were assigned to particular castes, such as 
Brahmanagama (F.F.A., I, 8 : Kosalajanapade yena Thunam 
nama Brahmanagamo tad avasari) and Candalagama (F.F.A., II, 
4: Bajagahe Oandalagame). Numerous references to such caste 
villages are to be found in the Jatakas and other Pali literature.® 

4. The City Courtesan, — In F.F.A., I, 1.5, w^e read of 
the famous courtesan Sirima of Rajagaha whose daily fee was 
of course the conventional sum of a thousand Kahapapas 

1 Vol. 28, p. 253. Dh.A., I, 171, 

2 Pick-— D'i-e sociale GUedenmg im NordostUchen Indien Zu Buddhas 
Translation by Dr. S. K. Maitra (1920, Cal. IJniv.), p. 158. 

3 Villages belonging to Brahmanas— See Jat., No. 354 — Uraga-jat. — 
Baranasiya dvaragamake brahmanaknle ; No. 389 (Suvannakaldkata) 
and 484 (Salikedara) — Salindiyam nama brahman a gamo..; 270 
(Knrudhamma) ; 402 (Sattubhasta) ; MY.— -Y. 13, 12; D.N,, III, 1, 
1 ; Y, 1; S.N., i.' YII, 2, 1; 1. Y. 2, 8 ; to potters— No. 408 (Kumbhakara- 
;jat.) — Baranasi nagarassa dvaragame kumbhakarakiile ; to carpenters — 
Vaddhah% No. 407 (Phandana-jat.), No. 156 (Almacitta) ; 283 (Vaddhaki- 
Siikara), 466 (Samudda-Yanija) ; to smiths— 387 (Snei .) ; to candalas — 474 
(Amba-jat.) ; 497 (Matanga-jat.); 498 (Citta-Sambhnta-jat.) ; to fisher- 
men — PYA, YII, 2 ; even to robbers — Jat. No. 503 (Satti-gnmba-jat.). 

See also Rhys Baviclsi Btiddhist India. 

•06 -Journal of the Asiatic. Society of Bengal [JST.S., XXIX, 

Sirima nama ganika koti, devasikam sahassam 
beautiful sister of Jivaka, tke court- 
Bimbisara and Ajatasattu. Hardy in his Manual 

of a courtesan. 

sth^ii fo identify Sirima Devata of the Barhut 
D 2? (Stupa of Barhut, 

the Jo+1,1" ’# f’o simply Sri Maya Devi, 

he mother of Sakya Muni or the auspicious mother goddess 

twieW may be intended for 

JlTOk^^ff? beauty named Sirima, the sister of the physician 
which en+-^f quotes the legend of the Burmese Buddha, p. 234 * 
which entmely agrees with the tale given in F FA 

house bv't^fcw^^ provision for feeding eight bhikkhus in her 
Shr howi^i. (Samghassa attha salaka bhattani patthapesi).^ 
inordttolJi^^u^"^^ soon after, ^le Buddha 
body is rcdiicc^ ghastly state to which even a beautiful 
meni to flS. ® bhikldiu from his attaeh- 

to putrefy J t£ h f Bajagaha to allow her corpse 

cLrthnI p . ^ "^o^efoP maggots, taking 

truly ttlicti R “o* away by carrion-birds^s Then f 

SLuuf hoch— vision-! 

““‘r^ poor 

bLMhu. toSS'S fa itT a' 

pf fanTF^ eleven persons in the court 

sav«i • ^ T'l. ^ ^ place m the palace.^ Kautilv^5 

K^g’s court i prostitutes shaU employ (at' the 

(ga^hS) .... ioLl for^Xe!^ b annum) a prostitute 

King wemtZ L if.! description of the court of the 

ministers, brahmins, and hfSeSlm along with 

She used to receive honour from the King who, if he thought 

1880^ |.lt K®'’’ «gandet 

{distribution* of by ^okets see Tat^ula-Nali, 3m. No. 5 

^dma, 540— distribution of gruel)'*°”'^’ (distribution of milk) and 

cell on P»-g away i„ bis 

Sii'imakSlain Slsf *^^*^-*® Jivakassa kanittha bhagini 

^arirajhapanaki P^i"‘ = ‘ 

hadanti t^ha nipajjapetva rakkhapetha J'atha kakadayo ha 

;S;*4USst.SX D,. n sh , . 

•~U.«ni(rti-gS‘° •'“bieto "“’Sii'ShS, 



Side4igM on Ancient Indian Social Life 

fit, might degrade her from her position d A courtesan could 
keep her honour, one such having taken a thousand pieces from 
a man, waited for him for three years, hut as he did not return 
and she was reduced to straits, she got licence from the chief - 
justice to ply her trade again.^ 

Kautilya says, ' Prostitutes shall do the duty of bath-room 
servants, shampooers, bed-room servants, washerwomen, flow^er- 
garland makers and present to the King water, scents, fragrant 
powders, dress, and garlands, etc. This indicates their service- 
ableness to the King.^ 

In Benares courtesan Sama’s fee was a thousand pieces 
(sahassam garihanti). She was exceedingly beautiful (aMviya 
sobhaggapattd) and a favourite of the king’s.^ Sulasa, beautifier 
of Benares {nagam sobhinl), charged likewise a fee of thousand 
pieces {sahassena rattim gacchati).^ Courtesans were regarded 
as sources of revenue by the King and Hard}^ (Mannal of 
Buddhism) relates that Bimbisara fearing a loss of revenue 
became jealous of a Vesaliyan courtesan who was attracting 
his citizens and brought one to Rajagaha to match her,^ 

Ambapaii entertained the Buddha and his disciples with 
food and presented to him her garden. She entered the Samgha, 
became a Theri and we have in the Then gdthd a beautiful 
composition ascribed to her. The ganikds made gifts in support 
of religion. They remind us of the Greek Hetaira (or hetaera) 
who were equally rich and liberal. Vatsyayana in his Kdmasutra 
(A.D. 250) divides the courtesans into nine classes, assign- 
ing the first place to the gap,ikds whose association was prized 
by the King and his nobles alike, and by other distinguished 
personages. In Mrcchahatika Brahman Carudatta marries 
the exquisite Vasantasena. Bandin refers in his Dasakumara- 
carita to the education of the courtesan, which includes learning 
of the several arts such as singing, dancing, acting, playing on 
musical instruments, painting, making perfumes, making artificial 
flowers, conversational grace ; moreover, logic, grammar, and 
elementary philosophy. They excelled in many a game. 
Naturally the company of such girls as were dowered with 
youth and beauty, accomplished in the fine arts, well-dressed, 
graceful, charming, eloquent and sweet-tongued, was eagerly 
sought. Not unoften do we see the King played in combination 
with such girls practical jokes on the ingenuous. We read 
in the KatMkosa that Vasantatilaka was the dear friend of 

^ Jat. No. 522 (Sarbhanga jataka). 2 j^t. No. 276. 

® Op. cit,, -p. 49. ^ Jat. No. 318 (Kauavera), 

, 5;Jat. No. 419. ' ^ 

® See Hardy, p. 237. Bimbisara hearing of the fame of Ambapaii, 
the Vesaliyan courtesan, became envious of the glory that by her means 
flowed to the Licchavi princes and made Salavati Kximari the principal 
courtesan of Rajgaha. See also M, V. VIII, 1, 2, ri. — atha kho Rajagahaka 
negamo Salavatim knmarim gairiikam vutthapesi. 

58 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX ^ 

Princess R.atimmailjari and had free access to the royal harem. 
Ganilcd Magadhika promised the King that she would bring the 
Saiinyasi Kulavalaka before his royal presence. She artfiiUy 
spread the net of her charms and succeeded in inveigling the 
luckless religieux. Raja Konika had his object realized — 
Vaisali was won. There is a considerable later literature 
regarding the courtesans, such as Damodargupta’s Kuttam- 
matam, Kalyanamalla’s Anangarahga, K^emendra’s Samaya-mat~ 
filed ^ etc. Want of space forbids further treatment of the subject. 

A courtesan could be hard-hearted and greedy. In the 
Atthdna JdtJ we read of a Setthi’s son who for having failed to 
bring to the courtesan a thousand pieces at the appointed time was 
caught by the neck and cast out, the door being shut against 
his face, notwithstanding his previous favours to the girl. In the 
TaMedriya Jdt.^ Kali, the courtesan, stripped a rich merchant A 
son of his clothes and threw him out naked in the street. There 
seems to have been a practice with prostitutes (some at least) 
to expose them male children in the cemetery to die there.^ 

But she could as well be virtuous and keep the Five 
Precepts.’^ The example of the celebrated courtesan Ambapali 
of Vesali may be cited. Her devotedness to the Buddha and 
her charity to his order need not be repeated here. Sirima’s 
provision of food for the bhikkhiis after change came over her 
is quite intelligible. 

5. Some Domestic Scenes— {a) A wife paid a heavy 
daily fee to Sirima, the courtesan of Rajagaha, and brought 
her to her husband in his house as her substitute for half a 
month, so that she might be free to attend to her own religious 
duties (puhha kamma). Her father gave her the requisite sum 
to pay to the courtesan. (F.F.A., I, 15, p. 67.) 

(b) A refreshing instance of self-sacrifice on the part of a 
sterile wife asking her husband to marry her sister to keep up 

the family is recorded in F.F.A., III, 6. ( Tasu Bhadda 

pati-kulamgata saddhasampanna buddhisampanna vanjha ca. 
Sa samikam aha : mama kanittha Subhaddanama atthi, 
tarn anehi, sac assa putto bhaveyya, sa mamo pi putto siya, 
ayanca kulavamso na naseyya ti. So sadhii ti sampaticchitva 
tatha akasi). In the Petavatthu-atthakathd similarly a sterile 
wife asks her husband to wed another wife, but when the latter 
is with child she hires a Paribbajaka to cause her abortion.^ 

1 Jat. No._^425. ,,, 2 Jat. No.' 481. 

3 P.V.A., VII, 5 (Ivximarapetavattha) — ‘ sa ca nam jatamattam 

eva darako ti natva susane chaddapesi, M.V., VIII, 1. 4. (Saiavati ganika 

— .puttam vijayi. dasirp. aiiapeisi : imarn darakam sainkarakute 

chaddehiti) and Buddhaghosa’s Dhammapada commentary by Burlingame 
(Froc., of American Academy, p. 510) when the child was born and the 
harlot learnt it was a boy, she had him cast awav on a dust heap. 

4 Jat, 270. 

SP.V.A., I, 6: — ‘ Ath’assa bhariya tarn pavuttim sutva samikain 
evam aha : Sami aharn vanjha, anna kanna anetabba, ma te kulavamso 


SideAight on AncAent InMan Social 

(c) Gruel treatment of wife by the mother-in-law is not an 
unfamiiia.r scene. Often such treatment txirned fatal, the 
offence of the girl on most occasions being nothing but tri¥ial, 
such as the offering of sugar-cane juice or a cake or some such 
food to a bhikkhti. In F. V.A., III, she strikes the daughter-in-law 
with a musala (club) which broke her shoulder joint and killed 
her (tatatatayamana kodhabhibhuta — yuttayiittam aelntenti 
aiiisakiite pahari) ; elsewhere she kills her by throwing a w^ooden 
seat at her (sassuya ca pithakena pahata tain khanafmeva 
mata), or a stone (lY, 10 ; kevalam tattha sassu sunhisam 
pithakena paharitva maresi, Idhapana leddunati ayam eva 
viseso). The story of Kirtisena in the KathasarUsagara 
(Nirnayasagara ed., p. 130) may be compared. The mother- 
in-law caused the wife to be beaten by her female slave {fddair 
nakhaisoa) — 'Kastd hi kMpilasvas'ruparatantravadhu stMtihJ 

Mild punishment was indeed enj oined by Kautilya for women 
of refractory nature and they could even he struck with bamboo 
bark or with palm of the hand, but this could not be exceeded.^ 

{d) Wife^s treatment of mother-in-law^. — Wives often used 
to treat their mother-in-law’^ with great harshness, for we see 
in F.F,^4., VIII, 1, a Upasaka desiring to noirrish old worn out 
parents by himself, prefers not to maiTy on the ground that a 
wife in her husband's house lords it over and shows scant 
respect to her parents-in-law .itthiyo nama patikule 

thita issariyam karonti, sassusasuranam manapacteniyo 
dullabha ti mata pitunnani cittadukkham pariharanta dara- 
pariggaham akatva, etc.). 

The Jatakas are redolent of such exam^ffes. Kacoani was 
so annoyed with the bad treatment of her daughter-in-law^ that 
she in her des|)eration w^'as making a death offering (bahutamajja) 
to Right, for thought she, Right must surely be dead in the 
w'orld.^ Elsewhere the wife tries to throw' her mother-in-law 
in the crocodile river to be devoured by crocodiles or to bum 
her alive in the cemetery wMe she w'as asleep, bed and all.® 
The daughter-in-law' tries all artful ways to get her husband 
displeased with his father, and teases the old man to her heart’s 
content ; but the son is dutiful and does not yield.^ A magnate 
of Savatthi was actually barred out by his daughters -in-law ; 
his sons w'ere of course clodpates.*'’ 

upachij jiti .... a.yam ptittam labhitva iniassa gehassa issara bhavissati 

ti issa pakata tassa gabbhaiJatanupayam pariyesanti, etc." 

^ Kautiliyam Ai*thai§astram (Dr. B. Shamsastri) — -p, 155 : " \'enudala- 
rajju hastanamanyatamena va prishthe triraghatah 
,, 2jat.417. ■ 

s Jat. 432 cf. the mother-in-law’s lament : Yain anayirn soinanassam 
rnalinirn candanussadam sa main g^xara niccubhati, jatam saranato 

4 j at. 446. 

5 The Book of Kindred Sayings, I, p. 222. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S ., XXIX, 

Even a wife who has two good sons loses her balance and 
•contemptuously treats her husband, who retaliates by, of 
course, marrying another wife. ^ 

The above only indicates the aberrations from the normal 
life led by a dutiful wife kind to her parents-in-law, and indeed 
to all in her husband’s home (Sassu-deva patibbata). Learned 
and accomplished girls are found in the Latavimana {V.V.A., 

Ill, 4) doing what was pleasing to her husband, her parents- 
in-law and to the whole family (upasakassa dhita Lata nama 
pandita yyatta medhavini patikulam gata, Bhattusassu- 

sasuranahca manapacarinipiyavadiniparijanassa sahgahakusala). 

The Therigatha is a noble composition of learned women. 

ih Social Institutions, etc. — {a) Marriage. Marriage with 
maternal uncle\ daughter seems to have been favoined (F.F.x4., 

V, 2 : Ath’assa matapitaro sammuldia gehato matuladhitaram 
Revatim nama kahfiam anetukama ahesum). Elsewhere in 
Pali Literature this custom is met with, e.g. in the Petavatthii 
atthakatha^ and in the Jatakas.^ But A. M. Hocart in his 
article entitled ' Buddha and Bevadatta ’ in the Indian Antiqitary 
(October 1923, p. 26) says ‘ Spence Hardy in his Manual of 
Buddhism, p. 140, relates how the thirty-two sons of Rama 
of the Koli tribe married their mother’s brother’s daughters 
of the Sakya tribe,’ and explains this cross-cousin system by 
giving a pedigree. He observes ‘ This mode of reckoning 
kin (i.e. in which the maternal uncle is the same as the father- 
in-law, the paternal aunt as the mother-in-law and so forth) 
is found in typical form among the Tamils, the Todas and 
other people of South India, among the Sinhalese, ancient and 
modern, the Torres Straits Islanders, the new Hebrideans 
and^ in Fiji — ...... all these systems have a common origin. 

He is disposed to think that Similar customs once prevailed in 
Northern India as they do now in the Pacific ”.’ 

To a present day Hindu of Northern India such marriage 
is forbidden, being within prohibited degrees. This pales before 
incestuous marriages referred to in the Jatakas where a brother 
marries his step-sister, viz. daughter of his step-mother ^ ; he 

:■■ ■ ■■ ■ . . ; ... • t 

^P.V\A., I, 7 : ‘ Tesam mata puttavasena bhatt§ram atimailnati, 
so bhariyaya avanaaiiito nibbmdamanaso annarp, kannam anesi. . . 

f P .V.A., I. (Naga-peta) : Tesam dbltaram darikam matula. puttassa 

atthaye nataka varesum tarn mata attano matula dbitayadarikaya 

palobbeti. ’ 

_ ^ 4'at. 446 ^(Takkala) — Tasmim kale putto pitaram aha, 

* Tata mama mata etakena na bujjhati, tumhe mama matii mamkubha- 

ya karanattham “ asukagame mama matuladJiHd atthi .tarn anes.s- 

aimti” malagandhadini adaya agacchattha. Pativassaka kule 

itthiyo “ Sarniko kira te ailnam bhariyam anetum asukagamam gato’ti 
tassa acikkliimsu 

/Bdaya) where Udayabhadda marries XJdayabhadda 
\Vematikabhaginim XJdayabhaddakumariip, aggamahesim katva Bodhi 
sattam rajje abhisihcitnsii). 


1933] Side4ight on Ancient Indian Social Life 

even goes , a step farther and marries- a sister born of the same 
parents.^ , 

There is one consideration which seems to justify such a 
union, and that is the preservation of the purity of blood. 
From the Ambattha sutta of the Digha Nikaya it appears 
that the sons of Okkako who lived in exile in the Himalayas 
married their own sisters for fear of degradation of bloods 

None the less this custom of the Sakyas was regarded with 
reproach even by their contemporaries. They never escaped 
revile hurled at them by the Koliyas, whenever the two clans 
had an occasion of quarrel. 

Marriage between brother and sister and their coronation 
together is familiar to the student of old Egyptian history. 
It was customary in all ranks of society for a youth to marry 
his sisters.^ The practice seems to have its origin amongst the 
Magi. Preservation of the purity of blood may likewise have 
suggested it. Amongst many savage tribes this is only normal.^ 

(6) Treatment of slaves. Sometimes slave girls were 
treated most inhumanly by the Vadhu of the house as we find 
in Rajjiimala Vimana. The unfortimate maid-servant was 
abused right and left, and when she grew up, had a liberal 
allowance of slaps and fisticufis meted out to her. She was 
taken by the hair and molested with hands and feet. She 
invented a device, — ^went to the barber and had herself shaven. 
But it availed not. Her tonsured poll set the mistress ablaze. 

‘ What think you said she, you would escape with a shave ? ^ 
Then she bound her head with a rope, and pulled it down with 

1 Jat. 461 (Dasaratha) .Tassa aggamahesi dve piitte ekaiica 

dhitaram vijayi, jettha putto Bama pandito nama ahosi, dutiyo Lakkhana 
kumaro nama, dhita Sita devi nama. .......... .Tassa Ramassa agata- 

bhavain ilatva kumara amaecaparivnta uyyanam gantva SUatn aggama^ 
hesim katva ubhinnam pi abhisekam karimsu. 

^ D.K., iii, 1, 15, p. 92. Ambattha sfltta— ‘ Te ratfehasma 

pabbajjitva yattha liimavanta tassa pokkharaniya tire maha saka — 
sando tatt’ha vasam kappesiim. Te jati-sambheda-bhaya sakahi bhaginlhi 
saddhim samvasam kappesurn.’ Buddbaghosa’s Parables, (tr. Rogers) 
Ch. XXVI, p. 177 (the four princes married each one, one of their younger 
sisters), and p. 1 78 {their 32 royal sons married the daughters of their 
maternal uncles in the country of Kapilavatthu). See also Kunala Jat. 536 
Koliyakammakara vadanti ‘ turnhe Kapilavatthuvasike gahotva gaccatha, 

ye sonasigaladaya viya attano bhaginihi saddhim vasitnsu ’ 

Sea also Hardy Manual, pp. 134-140. 

3 Breasted— History of Egypt (1916), p. 86. 

4 Forel, August, m"D., Ph.H,, LL.D.— Sexual Qmstioriy p. 164. 

' Sexual conneetion between parents and children as well as between 
brothers and sisters, is however common amongst certain tribes. Many 
other races allow marriage between brothers and sisters, but this is else- 
where generally condenoined. 

Among the Weddas marriage between an elder brother and his 
younger sister is considered normal. ........ .unions between brothers 

'and sisters, especially between half-brothers and half-sisters were licit 
among the Persians, Egyptians, Syrians, Athenians and ancient Jews.’ 

€2 Journal of the. Asiatic Society of [N.S., XXIX, 

a wreiicli whenever it pleased her fancy. The iinfortimate 
maid thus gained her sobriquet ' Rajjumala So weary became 
she of her wi’etched life that she thought of deliverance from it 
by committing suicide in the jungle, which was happily averted. 
Perhaps this was the ordinary lot of slaves as insinuated in 
•Sakha’s talk with a ddsl^ "whose master’s son died, but who 
would not yet weep. ‘You must be rejoicing’, said Sakka, 
‘ he is dead now, who when living molested you (Nuna tvani 
imina piletva badhetva paritutta bhavissasi, tasma “sumato- 
ayan ” ti no rodasiti) In the same Jataka, however, it is 
found that they lived in amity (te samagga sammodamana 
piyasamvasa ahesum). The same bad treatment of ddsls 
occurs in P.V.A., I, 12.^ 

In P.F.X., IV, 12 we read of a ddsl who was raised to the 
status of the wife of the son of the m aster. 

It does not appear however that notwithstanding these 
exceptions, the lot of the slaves was in any way cheering. Their 
extremely despicable position is sufficiently attested by the word 
‘ dasiputra used in Pali and Sanskrit literature alike as a term 
of \dle abuse. 

In the Nagavimana (F.F.d., V, 12) we read that the guard 
of a sugarcane field (ucchupalaka) in the employ of a brahmin 
was clubbed to death by his master for having improvised a 
hut to accommodate some bhikkhus (Tain sutva brahmano 
kupito anattamans tatatatayamano kodhabhibhuto tassa pitthito 
upadhavitva muggarena tarn paharanto ekappaharen ’e va jivita 

We meet with a labourer (Kammakara) who served others 
by hhati but who lived in his own house with his wife and 
daughter in a free manner, e.g. Punno who served a Eajagaha 
Setthi (F.F.d.., I, 15). We see also bhattavetana bhato who was 
a mere hireling worldng for food. 

Four lands of slaves are mentioned in Jataka Xo. 545 : 
Some are slaves from their mothers, others are slaves bought 
for money, some of their own will, and others driven by fear. 
For detailed description see Manu VIII, 415, where seven kinds 
are mentioned and Kautiliya Arthasastra, Dasa, and Kamma- 
kara Kaipas. 

7. Events of Daily Life. — (a) Wives used to carry 
food to their husbands worldng in the field at or before noon 
(F,F.A., I, 15). This is also found in the Jatakas.^ 

1 Jat. 354 (Uraga). 

2 P.V.A,, I, 12. (XJragapetavatthu) ' Yadi evam tena tain pothetya 
veyyavaccakarita bhavissasi, tasma mafifxe, sumuttaharn teha matenati 
na rodasi ti,’ She of course denies it. 

^ Ambapetavattbnvarmana :-~-Sanditthikam eva passatha danassa 
damassa samyamassa vipakaip dasi aham ayyaknlesti hutva snnisa homi 
•agarassa issara. ‘ ^ ^ 

1 Jat. No. 354. 


Side-light on Ancmit Indian Social Life 


(b) A Hindu giil of tiie present day when preparing a seat 
for food offered at a particular place would scrupulously cleanse 
it douching the surface with water. A similar practice seems 
to have obtained in ancient days (F.F.A,, II, 10 : Sitta samattha 
padese asanam pannapetva). One desix’hig greater purity 
would smear it with fresh cowdung. In the Eevat! Vimana, 
Eevati’s mother-in-law asks her to smear the place where the 
bhikkhus sit with fresh cowdung (Tassa mata Eevatim aha ; 
amma tvam imam geham agantva bhikkhu sahghassa 
nisidanatthanaiii Jiaritena gomayena upalimpitva asanam 
panhapehi. The Jataka also mentions it.^ 

The antique custom of smearing places with fresh cowdung 
diluted with water is widely practised even now in villages 
(in Bengal at least) where mostly mud huts are to be found. 
The solution is considered pmificatory and the floor and the 
yard are every morning regularly washed with it, sometimes 
made thick with earth. A house becomes defiled (asouch) 
when a man dies, and it is ceremonially puiified by the sprinkling 
of cowdung water all round the house as a sort of lustration 
after the corpse is removed from it. Places where boiled rice, 
etc. is eaten become impure and are purified by cowdung water. 
On all auspicious occasions in Bengal, such as the worship of 
goddess Lakshmi or the performance of numerous vratas, birth, 
upavita or marriage the assigned places are carefully rubbed 
over with a thick solution of it and then when the places dry 
up, a beautiful dlipand is jpainted thereon with a semi-thick 
solution of pounded rice. This practice is not confined to 
Bengal only, it is widely prevalent in the Deccan and South 
India. During a hurried journey in October 1922, I noticed 
this dlipand painting, of good, bad and indifferent designs at 
Hyderabad, Madras, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, and Bameshwaram. 

Incidentally I may be allowed to mention that cowdimg 
was an important ingredient of varied usefulness. In the 
Dalhadhamma Jat.^ allusion is made to it as having been used 
by a potter in baking clay. That it was used as fuel in the 
shape of cakes in ancient days as in modem is clear from such 
words as gomayaggi^^ gohanubhethanena.^ Apart from this 
plebeian use it was used more honourably, e.g. (1) in the treat- 
ment of impure gold,^ (2) treatment of materials for musical 

3. jat. No. 446 Sapi kho anacara ‘nikkhanta no geha kaiakanni- 
ti ’ Jiattatuttha allagomayena pniicitva, etc. 

2 jkt. No. 409. 

Nettipakaranam, p. 23 : literally, fire of cowdungs. 

4 Jat, No. 547, Boose (translator) says ‘I take this to refer to patties 
of cowdung used as fuel’. 

^ Kaut. Artha, p. 86, sIsanvyayenafoMdyamanam^uskhapatalairdhma- 
payet, rukshatvad bhidyamanaxn taiki gomaye nishecayet* both dry 
cowdung and another nodxed with oil were us^* 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

iiistruments,^ (3) in the preparation, of the first layer of com- 
position for fresco paintings,^ etc. 

8. Teachers' Fee.—^eie also, as in the Jatakas, we see 

that a fee had to be paid to the teacher for learning lessons 
from him. Chattamanavaka goes to his Brahmin guru 
Pokkharasat! and learns from him m^ante (instead of the Vedas) 
and Vijjatthdndni (i.e. the eighteen branches of knowledge). 
Then he asks his guru what he should pay to him as guru- 
daklcMnd. The guru says : ' The pupil should pay according 

to his means: bring me a thousand Kahapanas (V.V.A.f Y, 3: 
Acariyo : ‘ gurudakkhina nama antevasikassa vibhavanuriipa, 
kahapanasahassam anehi ’). Evidently this fee is paid at the 
end of the study and not at the commencement which is known, 
as the dcdriya bhdga.^ In the Guttilavimana, we read that 
Guttila taught his pupil without keeping anything back, i.e. 
without closing his fist (acaramutthim akatva anavasesato 
sikkham sikkhapesi). Elsewhere he says: ' We artists do 
not teach art without fee’ Mayam sippupajivino vetanena 
vina sippam na dassema ’) though on this occasion the fee he 
demands is that the devatas should recount the good deeds 
they had done before. 

9. The practice of bringing out the dying into the 
open . — This practice, still prevalent in Bengal, is noticed in 
V.V.A., VII, 9 (Brahmano 'putte abbhantare mate niharanam 
dukkhanti puttam bahidvara kotthake nipajjapesi ’). But see — 
Buddhaghosa’s parables, p. 13, the same story : — The 
Thuthe, then fearing all his relatives and friends might get a 
sight of his wealth— had the boy carried into one of the outer 
rooms of the house.’ Also Burlingame op. cU.—p. 488. 

10. Popular way of expression of joy . — This is by 
making acclamation accompanied by the waving of clothes 
(ukkutthisadde celukkhepe ca, F.F.J.,, pp. 132, 140, 141) is 
very frequent in the Jatakas also. Another way of expressing 
joy was by the snapping of fingers in combination with the 
W'aving of clothes.^ The modern way of clapping hands to 
express joy or approbation is also noticed.^ 

11. and Crafts. — >(u) In Tiladakkhinavimana a 
certain woman washed the sesame grains and dried them in 
the sun for the sole purpose of getting oil therefrom— , .tile 
dhovita atape sukkhapeti kevalam tilatelam patukama, V.V.A.^ 

1 See .Bliarata : NdtyaSastra (Kavyamala) : Ch. XXXIV, Si. 221 
(bacldhaih sulalitair dantair gomair atimarditaih) ; and 229. 

2 In Ajanla cave paintings the first layer was prepared of a mixture 
of ehxy, cowdung, and pulverized traprock applied to wall and. thoroughly 
pressed into its surface. Smith, History of Fine Art in India and 
Ceylon — Chapter on Ajanta, 

2 Cf. Jat. 252 (Tilamutthi). 

4 Suci — Jat. (381) — ‘ Anguliyo pothesi, celukkhepe pavattimsu 

5 Jat. No. 545 (Cambridge Translation, Vol, VI, p. 139). 


1933] 8ide4iglit on Ancient hidian Social Life 

page 54). This shows a crude way of getting oil from sesame 

(6) The art of building {vastnvidyd) had reached perfection. 
In the Siiruci-Jataka ^ the King summons Vatthimjjacariye 
(masters in the art) for building a house for his son. Besides other 
references,^ it will be enough if we say that the Maha Ummagga 
Jataka® is a convincing commentary on the excellence of the 
art. , 

In F.F.J.., 16 " Sumapite ’ means ' Mahagovindapanditena 
Vatthuvijjavidhind sammadeva nivesite 

In V,V,A. an elaborate description for the construction of a 

Vihara is given ( suvibhatta bhitti thambha tuiagopanasi 

kanihka dvara baha vi-tapana sopanadi gehavayavam manoEaram, 
suvikappitam katthakammaramaniyam suparilcammakatam 
sudhakammamanuhham suviracitamalakamma-Iatakammadi- 
cittain suparinitthita manikuttimasadisabhumitalam devavinia- 
nasadisam hettha bhumiyam pahcagabbhasatani uparibhumiyam 
pancagabbhasatani, etc.) wood work, brick work, cement work, 
reliefs, fresco paintings, ornamentation with wreaths (malakam- 
ma), creepers (lata kamma), etc. were well-known. In 
subsequent times this art with sister arts was well 
attended to. 

(c) .An interesting horticultural artifice to quicken mango 
trees to fructify out of season is recorded in V.V.A., VI, 3 in the 
Phaladayavimana. ‘ In that season which was not for mangoes 
King Bimbisara felt a longing to eat them. He commanded the 
gardener, Look here, I want to eat mangoes, bring me some’’, 
“ Lord”, says the other, there are no mangoes in the trees just 
now ; if your Majesty waits a little, I wiU so arrange that in a 
short time trees will bear fruit”, “ weU, do it then The gardener 
came to the garden, removed the old earth from round the roots 
and threw such earth there and watered in such a way that the 
trees put forth thick leaves. He then removed this earth. 
Then he mixed the original earth with certain ingredients 
(pharuka-kasata-missakam, the meaning of which Hardy 
does not know), when the tree began to flower and ultimately 
bore fruits.’ The art of getting fruits gathered out of season 
seems to have been well known.^ 

, 1 Jat. No. 489. • ■ ■ 

2 All references to the subject will be found in Rhys Davids’ Buddhist 
India, pp. 66-74, Kutikarasikkhapadam referred to in Jat. 323 and 403. 

3 Jat. No. 546. 

4 The Mayamatam is an ancient, important and comprehensive book 
on architecture. Some other important books on the subject, viz. 
Vastuvidya, viz. Silpa ^astra and Manushyalayachandrika have been 
published in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Series. 

5 Amba Jataka (No. 474) : ‘ Tada Bodhisatta tasmim game pativasati 

pandito vyatto, akdle phalam ganMpanamankim jandti \ As it could 
not "have been a magic, some process doubtless was known. See also 
Dadliivahana Jat. (186). ^ The new-comer managed to make the park 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.^ XXIX, 

12. Ornament, Dress, and Toilette, etc. — ^Mention is made 
of ornaments in the V.V.A» In III, 8, we see that MaUika 
was attired in a yellow robe (pitavatthe) and a yellow nttariya 
(outer garment). She wore yellow coloured ornaments (pitalah- 
karabhusite), viz. an armlet (Kambu pariharakanti ca hattha** 
lahkaraviseso), and a bracelet (Kdyura, Eeyura) on the arni.^ 
She had a golden Vela (wrapper). Her body was covered with 
a thin net of gold wire.^ She wore many wreaths of gems 
(roimd her neck),® ' nana ratanamalini, and the commentator 
explains: nakl^attamalaya viya kalapakkharattiyam, etc.’ 

Now Kantilya mentions a mala of pearls having twenty-seven 
strings called nakshatra-mala (saptavim^ati nakshatra mala),'^ 
Was she wearing such a mala ? She wore many -jewelled wreaths 
on the tnft of her hair ® (perhaps braided into knot) such as 
made of gold, padumardga, masdragalla, loMtanka, etc. {Commy, 
Ima vata kesahatthe ratanamala). Nets made of gold and 
beryl for covering the body were made (sarirappamanena 
katam suvannamayam jalam,. ... veluriya manimayena jalena 
...,). We hear of many -jewelled ornaments for the head 
and for limbs adjoining the head and the neck (sisaditthanesn 
pi sisupaga givupagadi abharana vasena nanavidhehi manihi 
ca suvaimena ca cittitam), and those for adorning dangling 
pig tails (kesa venisu pilandhanani). To wear wreaths in 
the hair or round the head was a common practice (rattamala 
dihi missita kesavattiyo, V,V,A., p. 280). There were wreaths 
with pearls set between. Jewelled earrings (Vatamsaka,— 
ratanamaya kannika) ® were worn. Vatamsaka was worn by 
males also as we find in Manjet^ha Vimana that a Kuladasi 
(maid-servant) made earrings of sala flowers (Shorea Robnsta) 
as an offering to the Buddha. We get purisassa mtamsaha 
(a man’s earring) in Nettipahara'^a (Ed. Hardy, p. 138). It is 

look more beautiful by forcing flowers and fruit out of their season. 
Trees were fed with sweet water, scented water.’ Vol. IL Jat. Trans., 
pp. 72 and 73. 

1 Cf. Bharat; Ibid., Chapter 21 on Aharyabhinayam : caturvidham 
til vijfieyam dehasyabharanam vudhai | avedhyam bandhaniyam ca 
kshepyamaropyakarn tatha 

Keyuravahgade caiva kurparoparibhushanam. 

® Manijalanuvandhanca bhavetprshthavibhushanarn. 

_ 8 Trisara^caiva hara^ca _griva vakshoja bhushanam | nana ratna 
krtascaiya hara vakshovibhushnam || Muktavali harshakailca sasutam 

t Artha. (Sanskrit Ed.), p. 76. 27 stars are of course famous, 

5 Bharat ; Ibid., Ch. 31, SI. 20. 

6 Vatamsaka is Sans, avatainsa (avatamsa karnabhusha) worn by 
females, as in the foUowing sloka (No. 286’, Kavya Praka^a). Asyah 
karnavatamsena jitam sarvam vibhushanam tathaiva ^obhate ’tyartham 
asyah sravanakupdalam. 

Karnika karna valayam tatha 

syat patra karnikena. * 


Side-light on Ancient Indimi Social Life 


also, mentioned as one of tlie many ornaments of the favourite 
elephant of Prince Vessantara.,^ 

Males wore KuT^dala in the ear (Kundalehi aiahkatakanno 
in Kundali Vimana VI, 8). In F.F.^.., Ill, 7 Pesavati 

took oS a small golden ornament from her neck and offered it 
to a goldsmith so that he might give her a golden brick' to be 
.used in constructing a ceiiya. Ornaments for the hand such as 
rings (ahguliyadihatthabharap.o) are referred to.^ There were 
ornaments for the hand and feet (hatthesu padesu). Clothes 
interwoven with gold wire (Kanaka cirakadi) were used,' Flowers 
were used as ornaments. For repertory of ornaments, see 
Bharata Hat., Ch. 21.® No mention of nose ornament is found 
in the F. F.J-,. 

The above description compares favourably /with the note 
on ornaments given by Cunningham ^ ‘ The two sexes have /in 
common earrings and necklaces, as well as armlets and bracelets, 
and embroidered belts, ' The women alone used forehead orna- 
ments (lalatika), long: collars, ■ garlands, zones or girdles and 
anklets. There /are no: nose rings/ 

A shnilar testimony is borne by Griffiths , . . ./ The nose 
ring nowhere appears and there are no toe rings, but earrings, 
necklaces, armlets, bracelets, anklets and finger rings adorn 
both men and women. . .. . ' Beaten 'wire, twisted wire, and 
fiiigrain^ seem also to have been common and were skilfully 
combined with stones 

It seems that toilette had attained a high level. The mcome 
of a whole village was given to his daughter by Mahakosala, 
King of Kosala, as her bath money when she was given in 
marriage to Bimbisara. Ointments, and unguents of various 
kinds, such as of aguru (aggulu), candana (sandal), piyahgu 
(saffron) are mentioned (aggaln piyangu candanussadahi). 

Sabbasamharaka — a perfume compounded of many 
different scents— omnigatherum /is alluded to on p. 162, Jat. 
Tran., VoL VI. ' Toilette of the hair, such, as brushing it: with 
a brush made of the bristles of boar, after it was treated with 
vermilion, etc. is mentioned in Matthakundali Vimana (Tapetva 
jat! hihgulikaya maj jitva dhovita sukaralomena majjita kundalo, 
F.F.A., VIII). Powder for removing hairs was known.® 
Mustard paste was used by women for the face, VoL VI, Jat., 

; 1 Jat. No. 547. 

2 Of. Bharat; Ch. 21. Vatikahguli irmdra ea syMahgalivibhushanam, 

3 Also Kavya Praka^a: SL 570. 

4 Bharhut Stupa, p. 134 et seq* 

s Cave Paintings of Ajanta, p. 16. 
e Cf. jala in the V.V,A., 

7 Jat, No. 492, Taechasukara ; ‘Mahakosala kira Bimbisarassa 
dhitaram dento nahmnyamulatthdya kdsigdTriam addsi^, 

8 P.V.A., I, 10 Kesupapatanarpbhesajjaip. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N,S., XXIX^ 

p. 118. Kti#amiiHbii is explained by the scholiast ^ 
to mustard paste, sassapa kudda, sassapa kakka. 

13. Diseases and their Treatment, — {a) In AcamadayEvavi- 
mi-na (V,V,A., II, 3) there is reference to a disease known as 
ahivdtaroga. It appears to be a fatal one, for a whole house 
was attacked with it and a woman only escaped. Even then 
she was so much frightened that she fled from the house through 
a hole made in the wall leaving everything behind her (Tattha 
sabbejana mata, thapetva ekam itthim. Sa geham gehajananca 
sabbam dhana dhannam chaddetva marana bhayabhita hhiUi 
chiddena palata). Literally it was snake-wind disease supposed 
perhaps to be caused by snakes’ breath, but nothing definite about 
it is Imown. Perhaps it is malaria, perhaps cholera.^ The same 
device of escaping through the hole in the wall is also mentioned 
in the Jatakas ^ perhaps due to the animistic belief that the door 
only was guarded by the deo or disease-spirit.^ The new dictionary 
of the Pali Text Society gives no better account of it than that 
it is the ‘ name of a certain disease. (Snake-wind sickness) 
Perhaps the ndsiJcdvdta of the serpents in the Jatakas may have 
something to do with ahivdtaroga, 

(6) In the Kanjikadayikavimana it is related that Buddha 
was at one time sufiering from flatulence (Kucchiyam vatarogo 
uppajji). He sent Anand^a to get him some Kdnji for medicine 
(bhesajattham kanjikam ahara). Ananda went to the house of a 
Vejja, The wife of the Vejja on being told that Kanjika was 
wanted, prepared a special one worthy of Lokanatha Buddha, 
in which jujube was used (badarayusena yagum sampadetva) 
and filled the bowl. On drinking it the ailment of Buddha 
ceased immediately (tarn paribhuttamattass’eva Bhagavato so 
abMho vupasami). 

adasim kolasampakam kanjikam teladhiipitam 

Pipphalaya lasunena ca missam lamanjakena ca. 

The commentator gives the following prescription— ‘ badara 
moda kasave catugunodakasammodite pakena catutthabhagava- 
sitthe yagum ^ pacitva tarn tikatuka-ajamoja-hingu- 
jiraka-lasunadihi katukabhandehi abhisamkharitva sudhu 

1 Jat. (Cambridge Translation), VoL II, p. 55 foot-note. 

2 Jat. 474 ‘ tessa purohitakulam ahivataka rogena vinassi 

eko va putta bhittim bhinditva pala to. ...... y 

3 Such practice occurs amongst savages, e.g. among the Angami 
Nagas. (See Hutton.) 

4 For other references see Vin. 1. 78. J. 11, 79, IV, 200: Dh. A. 1 

5 See the properties of yagu in M.V., VI, 24. It was specially 

bmeficial m bowel complaints— ‘yagu pita khudam patihanati, 

pipasam vinodeti, vataip anulometi, vatthim sodheti, amavasesam 


Side-light on Ancient hidian Social Life 


pitam katva lamanca-ganclliam galiapetva pasannacitteBa 
Bhagavato patte aclasim ^Oii hearing the prescription from- 
me an eminent kaviraja friend of mine here, Pandita 
Nrityagopala Kaviratna, prepared the medicine ; and he tells 
me that it had a wonderful effect on a man who was suffering 
from acute colic and wnithing with pain. Hot water mixed with 
molasses used as a sweating mixture, and fomentation with it 
is a cure for flatulence and intestinal wind (vata)d 

(c) Another yery interesting cure, viz. of ear disease is 
related in Kakkatarasadayaka Vimana (F.F.A., p. 243 et 
seq,). An account of this has been already published by me 
In Man in India, VoL VI. 

1 Book of Kindred Sayings I, Bhys Davids, pp. 220, 221. 

Aeticm No. 10* 

A Note on the Age and Authorship of the Tantras. ■ 
By Chdsttaharan Chakra varti. 

The Age of the Tahtras. 

An attempt has been made in another paper to prove 
the antiquity of the Tantra system of religion or what may 
be called Tantricism.^ It is now necessary to enquire as to when 
a separate class of works called the tantras came to be compiled. 
The orthodox view attributing a divine origin to it and thus 
claiming for it a hoary antiquity (works like the VThaddharma- 
Purd'i^a [11, 6. 139] and Ndrdyai^l Tantra as mentioned in the 
Bengali work Sddhanakalpalatikd even claiming a pre-Vedic 
antiquity) is not found to have been universally accepted even 
by the ancients. There seems to have always been a linking 
suspicion with regard to the genuineness of that attribution 
some even going to the extent of dubbing at least a part of them 
as modern. Modern scholars also have questioned the antiquity 
of tantra works in general. It is argued that tantra as a class 
of literature is not found mentioned in any early work. Lists 
mentioning various branches of learning also do not include 
the name tantra. It is true the word is met with even in 
the Yedic literature but there it is not used in the sense of a 
particular class of literature. Even in as late a work as the 
Amarakoiia the word is not given this sense. 

But it should be noted that non-mention cannot be taken 
as an argument in favour of non-existence, for if the Amarako!§a 
does not assign to tantra the sense of a particular class of 
literature or a particular form of worship, almost a contemporary 
work, the Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira {circa 5th-6th century) 
is found to use the word in this or a similar sense (XVI, 18). 
The silence of Amara who was a Buddhist may be explained by 
the supposition of his unfavourable attitude towards the tantras. 

More than one Purana work (like the Kurma Purd'Qxi as 
quoted in the TantrddMkdri-niryuya) have given elaborate des- 
criptions of the origin of the tantras. Even the detractors of 
the tantras tried to read denunciation of tantricism in ad- 
mittedly old Dharmasastra and Purana works.^ 

Pa^upata and Pahcaratra systems are found to have been 
mentioned by name in some of the Purana and Dharmasastra 
works. They are referred to in the Brhatparasara, Vi^nudhar- 

1 Antiquity of Tantricism VoL VI, pp. 114H. 

2 Of. the present writer’s paper on the Authoritativeness of the Tantras 
in the K. B. Fathak Commemoration Volume, 

( 71 ) 

72 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

mottara, Yogiyajnavalkya,. etc.’ ' Pailcaratra is also mentioned 

ill the Maliabharata. Sivasasana is referred to in, the Devi- 
Puraiia.^ The Laiikavatara sutra which was translated into 
Chinese as early as the 5th century was evidently aware of the 
Pasnpata system the tenets of which it discusses. 

These references to the tantras in some of the Puranas 
do not, however, help us in any way in deciding the relative 
antiquity of the Puranas and the tantras. For some of the 
tantra works are also found to refer to the Puranas both 
collectively and individually. The term addJasapurdna is 
found to occur in many a tantra work (e.g. Nirvana Tantra, 
Pafala IX). Besides the Katyayani and the Varahi tantras give 
elaborate rules that are to be observed in reciting the Devimahat- 
mya section of the Markandeya Purapa. 

And though some works of the tantra system may be all 
fairly old, even most of the original works belonging to that 
system cannot be supposed to be so. On the other hand, many 
of are palpably very modern. Thus though the earliest 
01 the tantra works may possibly belong to the beginning of the 
Ohristian era, if not earlier, the latest of them come dowm as 
late as even the 18th century. As a matter of fact no particular 
age IS possible to be assigned to the tantra literature which 
. ^7 T ^ period of time to develop; the age of each 
mamdual work has to be determined on the basis of the 
available evidence — both internal and external. 

Some of the tantra works are undoubtedly very old. 
anusciij^s in Gupta characters of several tantra texts have 
been tound. Even the Sarvajnanottara Tantra, which seems to 
^ comparatively later work having been composed when 
o er antras had been completed, has a fragmentary manuscript 
m ^upta characters.^ A manuscript of the Kubjika Tantra 
m l^upta characters is in the Manuscripts Collection of the 
?! Bengal. A manuscript of the Ni^vasa- 
sax^ita m the Durbar Library of Nepal is written in the 
transitional Gupta characters.^ In the opinion of MM. H. P. 
PoLk • 1 manuscript may be a century older than the 
Cambridge manuscript of the Parame^vari Tantra which was 

o f?,?'’ 7* manuscript of the 

Wet f 

tantm fmmi « “ characters giving a number of 

2 of Bhat tojidiksita. 

Sanskrit^&SLrpp.TranTls!^ ”” Anandalrama 

! S- P- Shastri, Nepal Catalogue, I, p. 85. 

^ Lit If: ^ 

tanti-a Nepal Catalogue, I, Preface, p. Ixxvi. Of other old 

tantra MSS. copied as early as the 10th, 11th of 13th century i^the 

1933] A Note on the Age and Authorship of the Tantras 73 

The twenty-eight Saiva agamas of the South are ref erred 
to as early as the time of the Pallava king Raj asimhaTOrinan, 
in his Kailasanatha temple inscription. Tamil Saira poets of 
the 9th- 10th centuries and Kashmir ^aiva works of the same 
period also refer to these works.^ Works of Kashmir iSaivas 
as early as the eighth or ninth century are found to refer to 
works like the SvaccJianda T antra. Besides mentioning the 
views of a few tantra sects, as Sahkaracarya is supposed to 
have done by his commentators commenting on the Vedanta- 
sutra^fil. 2, 7-8), Sankara has referred to sixty-five tantras in 
his Anandalaharl (v. 31) pointing to one at least by name, e.g. 
the Svatantra Tantra. It has been shown by Dr. P. G. Bagchi 
(I.H.Q., V, pp. 754fi; VI, pp. 97fi.) on the basis of epigraphic 
records that a number of tantric texts were introduced into 
Kambuj as early as the beginning of the 9th century, thus 
indirectly proving their antiquity. 

Of the Buddhist tantras also some at least are fairly old. 
Buddhist Dharanis may be looked upon as precursors of the 
tantras, and the Suramgama-sutra, which Pa-Hian is said to 
have repeated for his protection, contained the most complete 
list of Dharanis. Considering that the book was held in 
reverence by Fa-Hian in the 5th century, Beal assigned it to 
a period not later than the 1st century.^ We may thus find 
traces of the beginning of the Buddhist tantras as early as the 
1st century of the Christian era. According to Yuan-Chwang 
the Dharaiii or Vidyadhara-pitaka belonging to the mantrayana 
is as old as the Mahasamghikas (lst-2nd century a.d.).® Several 
Buddhist tantra works are known to have existed as early as the 
5th or 6th century a.d. Thus the Horiuzi palm -leaf MSS. in 
Japan contain besides Dharanis, five tantras. 

Amoghavajra, a sramana of North India and a Brahmana 
by caste who resided in China between 746 and 771 A.B., 
translated 77 works including Usmsacarkravarti Tantra, Garuda- 
garbhaga Tantra, and Vajrakumara Tantra.^ Ati^a Dipankara 
was proficient, among other things, in the four classes of tantras.^ 
Padmasambhava of Udyana was in charge of the tantrika 
part of Buddhist liturgy.® 

Taranatha helps us to some extent in his history of 
Buddhism to determine the dates of some of the Buddhist 

Durbar Library of IQ'epal, cf. H. P. Shastri, Nepal Catalogue, I, Preface, 
pp. Ixxvi and Ixxxx. The MS. of the Saurasamhita was copied iix the 10th 
century (op. cit., p. Ixxvi), that of the Kirana Tantra in 924 a.d. (op. 
■cit., VoL II, p, 99), that of the Jayakhaarasamhita in 1187 a.d. (op. ciL^ 
Vol. I, p. 76). 

3- Farquhar, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India, p. 193. 

~ Introduction to Beal’s Fa-Hian, p. Ixxii. 

3 Beal — Si-yu-hi, II, 165 ; Kern — Manual of Indian Buddhism, p. 6. 

^ Nanjio, Catalogue of Chinese Tripitaka, App, II, p, 445. 

5 S. C. Das, Vol. I, Pt. I, p. 8. 

6 loc, cit. 

: 74 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.j XXIX,. 

tantras* He gives the names of some persons who, according- 
to him, introduced particular tantras. In a general way he 
says that Asaiiga, eider brother of Vasubandhu, introduced 
tantras into Buddhism and that they were handed down in 
the most secret manner possible up to the time of Dharmakirti 
(600-615 A.D.)d In another place he associates particular names 
with particular works. Thus, we are told that Saraha introduced 
the Buddhakapdla Tantray Luipa the Yoginlsahcarydy Kambala 
and Padmavajra the Hevajra Tantra, Krsnacarya the Sam- 
putatilakay Laiitavajra the three divisions of the Krsrtayafndri 
Tantra, Gambhiravajra the Mahdmdydy and one Pito the 

But as has already been indicated, aU works — Hindu or 
Buddhist~~are not old. T. Gopinath Rao ® has shown that many 
works of Saiva and Vaisnava agama have referred to things 
and persons belonging to 7th-llth centuries so that they cannot 
be very old. He however admits that they were probably based 
on older works. In the Uttara-Kdraijbdgama of the Saivas, 
says^he, it is laid down that on the 7th day of the Mahotsava 
of Siva the impalement of the Jains, said to have been, 
carried out at the instance of the Saiva saint Tirujhanasam- 
bandha, ought to be celebrated. This Saiva saint, however, 
is known to have flourished in the middle of the 7th 
century A.n. so that the work cannot be earlier than that 
period. This work as also many other works on ^aivagama 
prescribe the recitation of the Dravida Vedas, i.e. the Bevarama 
hymns composed by Tirujnanasambandha, Vagina, and Sundara- 
murti, the last of whom lived not earlier than the 9th century. 

The prose recension of the V aihhaAsdgama is perhaps the- 
oldest among the agamas of the Vaisnavas. The metrical 
Vaikhdnasdgama of the Vaisnavas requires the Dravida Vedas, 
i.e. Prabandhas of the 8ri-vai§navas or Alvars (8th or 9th 
century) to be sung in the front of divine processions. The 
Iharasarnhitd of the Pancaratra mentions the saint Sathakopa 
(800 A.D.) and Acarya Ramanuja (1000 a.d.). The Brhad- 
Brahmasamhitd also mentions the latter. 

According to some scholars the cult of Tara, a very important 
tautric goddess in later days, is not very old. If this conclusion 
proves to be correct it would follow that works or rather portions 
of works dealing with the worship of Tara must not also be very 
old. Pandit Hirananda Sastri ^ depending on the finds of icons 
in old sites concludes that the cult of Tara cannot be older 

^ Geschiohte der Buddhisimus, Tr. by Schiefner, p. 201. 

2 op^ p, 275f. Dr. B. Bhattaoharya has sought to show that 
these people flourished iix the 7th-8th ceaturies {J.B.O.R.S., xiv, p, 343). 

^ Mements oj Hindu Iconography, T. Gopinath Kao, Vol. I, Bart I, 
Introduction, Section xvi, pp. 55fl. 

^ Origin and Cult of Tara, Memoir, Archceological Survey, ISTo. 20, 
Hirananda Sastri, pp. 99ff. 


1933J A Note on the\Age and Authorship of the Tantras 

tiian tJie sixth or seventh century of the Christian era. In his 
opinion the statement that h[agar|iina revived the cult of Eka- 
jata, a form of Tara, in the country of Bhota (Tibet) should 
be taken with an amount of caution. It may be that the name 
of the well-known Buddhist reformer was associated with Tara 
worship with a view to carry weight. Or it may be that this 
ISFagarjuna was a different person altogether. 

Kulacara section of the tantras is stated by Jayaratha in 
his commentary on the TantrMoka of Abhinava Gupta to have 
been introduced by Minanatha and Matsyendranatha.^ Accord- 
ing to th.Q Qoraksasiddhdntasarngmha (pp. 18-19) and Tantra- 
rdjatantra dim, the tantras, probably the Kaula ones, were 
introduced on earth by the nine Nathas.^ A manuscript copy 
of the Mahdhaulajndna-vinirp,aya stated to be introduced by 
Matsyendra has been found in transitional Gupta characters, 
about the same characters in which the manuscript of the 
Parame^vara Tantra of the Cambridge University Library copied 
in 859 A.n, was written.^ Wassiljew also places the Nathas 
at about this time, e.g., 800 a.d. This would therefore seem to 
fix the upper limit of the Kaula tantras. 

By the side of these we have also got works which bear 
undeniable marks of modernity. Gorak^anatha is referred to in 
several wnrks and hymns to him (attributed to the Kalpadruma 
Tantra and Rdjaguhya) are mentioned in the Goraksasiddhdnta- 
samgraha (pp. 42-43). Caitanya, the Vaisnava reformer of 
Bengal, is referred to in works like tloelsdnasarnhitd stated to be 
included in the Kuldrybava, The Yoginl Tantra gives an account 
of king Visnusimha, the. founder of Kocha dynasty.® The 
Vi^vasdra Tantra is said to give an account of the birth of the 
great Vaisnava teacher of Bengal, Mtyananda.'^ The Hem 
Tantra goes further. It refers to the EngHsh people and the 
city of London.® Dialects of some Indian vernaculars found 

wits II 

— Tantraloka (Trivandrum Sanskrit Series), pp. 24-25. 

2 — Tantrarajatantra— I. 7. 

H. P. Shastri, Nepal Catalogue, II, p. 32 ; preface, p. xix. 

3 The name of this king as given in an extract of the Yoginl Tantra 
in the Sabdakalpadruma under the word Siva is Visnusimha while the 
edition of the work (Bombay, ^aka 1825) published from the Venkatesvar 
Steam Machine Press reads venusimha (xiii, 14). 

^ Mahanirvana tantra (Eng. trans.), M. N, Butt, Introduction, 

p. 11. 

76 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S«, XXIX, 

ill the mantras in what are called the Sahara taiitras are 
evidence of their late origin. 

These evidently modern works represented as having been 
revealed by divine Siva would naturally rouse suspicion as 
regards their genuineness and it is refreshing to note that a 
similar suspicion was found lurking in minds of people even 
in days of old. Yamunacarya makes pointed reference to it. 
It is stated that some people even in modern times would pose 
as teachers of tantras and promulgate doctrines that were not 
sanctioned by the tantras.’* 

It thus seems that several of the tantras are fairly old, some 
going back as early as the beginning of the Christian era. But 
it is most likely that like the Purana literature the tantra 
literature also swelled in course of time with the introduction of 
fresh material in the form of new works or interpolated 

Authorship of the Tantras. 

As regards the authorship of the tantras we must admit 
that we know very little, at least with regard to the oldest and 
some of the best known of the works. There is no room in 
most oases even to hazard a guess. All that we are told is 
that they are of divine origin, undoubtedly to give them an 
appearance of sanctity and antiquity. The word dgama is 
interpreted as consisting of the initial letters of the words dgata 
(come), gata (gone), and mata (approved). It is explained to refer 
to the mstra that has been related by Siva to his divine consort 
Parvati and has been approved by Vispu. Similarly the nigama 
class of the tantras is supposed to have* issued from (nirgata) the 
Devi (PdrvaM), Most of the tantra works of the ^aivas and Saktas 
are thus represented as being interlocutions between Siva and 
some aspect of his divine consort or his or her sons or attend- 
ants.*^ There are the Vaisnava tantras again in which Visnu 
in one of his various aspects is generally represented as the 
speaker while in the Buddhist tantras, called Sahgltis, Buddha or 
a Bodhisatva is stated to have been the author or speaker. But 

— Agamapramanya, p. 4. 

2 The tradition that Siva was the author of the Pa^upata system of 
the tantras goes back to the Mahabharata (Santi, 350. 67). Bhaskara- 
raya in his Setubandha (VII. 47) has referred to the line of teachers of the 
tantras as follows : Supreme Brahman, Svaechanda Bhairava, (anS^rita) 
Invars, Devi, Sada^iva, Tivara, Vidye^vara, Srikantha, etc. Bhaskara 
has quoted in his Saubhagyabhaslcara {v. 118) the Devibhagavata and 
Skanda Purapa to show how different works issued from different parts of 
the body of Siva. Bhoja has made an attempt to establish Siva as the 
author of tantras by means of logical arguments (Tattvapraka^a, pp. 


1933] A Note on the Age and Authorship of the Tantras 

tb.e Va-isnava Pancaratra work, AMrbudhnyasamhitd, is in the 
form of iiiterlooutioii between Ahirbudlinya, a form of Siya, and 
Narada, the sage. The Narada Pahcardtra also has some 
chapters which are interlocutions between Mahadeva and 
Parvati while there are some between Mahadeva and Narada. 

But in spite of this assertion of the divine origin of the 
tantra works we are fortunately given some clue for finding 
out their real human authors, at least in some cases. Thus in 
some works, a particular devotee is represented as having been 
the fortunate person to whom the particular work was revealed 
by its divine author as the Vedic Mantras were revealed to the 
rsis (seers). We thus find human names associated with several 
works, some of which are definitely stated to have been brought 
down (avatdrita) on earth by these persons. 

Some of the celebrated sages like Sanatkumara, Dattatreya, 
A^tavakra, and Bharadvaja are found to be associated with 
tantra works bearing their names 

The Simsutms^ the most revered work of the Saivas of 
Kashmir, was according to a fairly old tradition revealed to 
Vasiigupta in a dream on the mountain called Mahadeva.^ 
The Srlmatottara tantra, though represented as having been 
revealed by Siva to Parvati, is at the same time stated in the 
colophon to have been brought down on earth by a human 
author Srikanthanatha (e.g. Srikanthandthdvatdrita) } Mahd- 
kaulajhanaviniruaya is similarly stated to have been brought 
down by Matsyendranatha.^ Yogavijayastavardja from the 
Brahmayamala is stated to have been brought down from 
heaven by Pippaladamuni, though it was originally spoken 
by Siva to Parvati.^ The Mahesvarlya Tantra ® which deals with 
topics like mdrana, ucdtana, etc., is said to have been manifested 
by Siva to the sage Sivaghi and then published by Ms disciple. 

But there are examples in which no such reference to 
revelation or bringing down is mentioned, but they are straightly 
given out as having been composed {racita, prauita) hj these 
persons. The Puwdmndya Tantra, as is stated by the colophon 
of its manuscript in the Durbar Library, Nepal, was composed 
by Ratnadeva.'^ Similarly the Jhdnalaksml or Jaydkhya- 
samhitd is stated to have been composed by one Candradatta.® 

1 It is cuiious that Dattatreya, considered to be the father of the 
yoga system, is associated with the Satkarmas (the six vulgar rites) in 
his Dattatreya Tantra. 

2 Kashmir Shaivaism, J, C. Chatterjee, 26h‘, 

3 H. P. Shastri, Nepal Catalogue, I, p. 255. 

; 4. p,' 32.. . , 

5 Ibid, p. 236. 

Published by Kshemraj Krishnadas, Bombay, 1842 S.E. 

7 H. P. Shastri, Nepal Catalogue, I, p. 208. 

8 Ibid., pp. 1, 76, 77. 

78 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N. 8 ., XXIX, 

Pdradmjogasastmm ^ like many other taiitras is in the form of a 
dialogue between ^iva and Parvati. But it was composed by 
Sivarama Yo^ndra as is mentioned in the colophons to some 
of the chapters. The Tdrdvildsodaya^^ a tantra work in the 
form of an interlocution between Mahadeva and Parvati united 
in embrace, is definitely stated in the colophon to have been 
composed by Vasudeva Kavikahkana® who culled the verses, as 
we are informed in one of the introductory verses, from a work 
called the GlmkramamantravdridJii. 

The human authorship of the Buddhist Sahgltis is revealed 
by the introductory lines which begin ' I heard that one day 
Bodhisatva was in such and such a condition, etc.\ thus pointing 
to the fact that in their present forms they are related by persons 
other than the Buddha or Bodhisatva. 

Some of the detractors of tantra rites reluctant to recognize 
the divine origin and sanctity of the tantras have expressly 
declared their human origin and consequent unauthoritativeness. 
According to the Kurma PurdTia one Satvata Amiu was the 
author of a §astra prevalent among bastards and low-class people. 
This sastra, after the name of the author, came to be known as 
Satvata Tantra. This fact seems to have been referred in the 
Bhagvata Purdv^a as weU.^ 

The Pardsara Purdrpa, as quoted in the TantrddMhdrinir^aya 
(p. 12) of Bhattojidiksita, also, seems to refer to the human 
origin of the Pahcaratras, etc.^ Vedottama, in his Pdncardtra- 

1 Published by Matilal Banarasi Das and Co., Lahore. 

2 Descriptive Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. in the Sanskrit Colleae^ 
Calcutta, V, 30. 

3 This title has almost become a proper name in Bengal referring 
to the author of the Candlmahgalay e.g. Mukundarama Cakravarti. 


ft " 

Tjg'ferare f II 

sTT^T g sritf i 

5(r?T»trei n Tfw 


^ WT: II 

— Vlramitrodaya, Vol. I, p. 24. 

^ eror 

??T>raT: t 

m sr WT'irftlfil II 


1933 ] A Note on the Age and Authorship of the Tantras 

[frdmdn,ya has, gone so far as to declare that the original tantra 
works of the Saivas that are believed to have been revealed by 
Mahe^vara were compiled by an Ordinary human being named 
Mahe^vara and some credulous people were mistaken to identify 
him with the god Mahe^vara only on the flimsy ground of the 
similarity of names. ^ 

A similar charge appears to have been brought against 
the Vai§navas as well. It is stated that their scriptures were 
not the composition of Vasudeva, the god, but of a deceitful 
person named Vasudeva who promulgated his doctrines for the 
delusion of the people,^ 

That some of the tantra works were comparatively modern 
and were the composition of ordinary human beings was also 
believed by persons having no marked bias against the tantras. 
Apararka in his commentary on the Ydjnavalhya Sarnhitd (I. 7) 
specially condemns the works of human authors.® The sect 
Laukuli^a Pa^upata system is definitely loxown to have been 
founded by one Laukula who was supposed to have been an 
inoarnation of Mahadeva.^ 

(Fi'om a copy of a MS. of the work borrowed from Mr. Sarat Kumar 
Ray’s MS. Library.) 

tfir fsrPa^ifr ii 

— Agamapramdnya of Yamunacarya, p. 25. 

® ?nrTftr *r 1 

(p. 19 of %he Tdj'havalhyasarrihita as published in the Ananda^rama 
Sanskrit Series of Poona). 

^ JM.A.S,, 1907, p. 337 ; J.B.R.A.S., XXII, pp. 15ff. 

Abticle No. 11 

Oh a Few Ancient Indian Amulets' and Ctiarms. 

By Sabat Ghanbba Mitba. 

I. The Amulets and Charms used for the Protection 
OF THE Children. 

Kddamban is the title of a famous prose com- 

position by the ancient Indian author, Bana, who flourished 
in the first part of the 7th Century a.d. during the reign of 
King Sri Harsha at Kanouj. This Sri Harsa was Bana’s 

This prose work gives us a vivid picture of the life, religion, 
mannei's, and customs of the Hindus of the 7th Century a.d. 
From a study of this famous work, we find that the Hindus 
of these far-ofl times resorted to many expedients for protecting 
their children from the influences of ghosts and other malignant 
spirits. These expedients consisted in the use of various 
amulets and charms which were tied on and applied to the child’s 
neck, elbow, and wrist. I shall deal in this paper with a few 
of these ancient Indian amulets and charms and discuss the 
magical significance thereof. 

In the aforementioned Sanslmt romance entitled Kddam- 
ban, there is an episode which runs to the followmg effect :— 

’ In ancient times, there lived in UJjaini a mighty king 
named Tarapida and his queen whose name was Vilasavati. 
His minister was a Brahmana named Sukanasa. Both the 
king and Bis minister were childless. In his childless state, 
King Tarapida used to conjure up before his mind’s eye the 
vision of the bhth of a son to him and of this son’s bearing 
upon his body a few amulets and charms for protecting him 
from ghosts and other evil-doers, clambering upon his back. 

The Sanskrit text, in which the aforementioned vision is 
described, is giveu below' : — 

English Translation, 

.0 ! When again will my little boy give rise to the delight 
in my heart — the child lying on his back, his toothless face 
beaming with a smile, his hair turned yeUowish by the 'powdered 
dust of certain medicinal herbs, Ms palate moistened witl\ the 

( 81 ) 

S2 J oimal of the Asiatic Society ol Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

drops of charmed ghi {or clarified butter) for protection ^ whereon 
we/re placed particles of ashes mixed with the grains of ^ white 
mustard, and the thread, beautifully dyed with the yellow pigment 
of a cow, (tied) round his neck f 


From a study of the foregoing passage, we find that, in 
ancient India during the beginning of the 7th Century a.d., 
the iinderdescribed amulets and charms were tied round and 
applied to necks, palates, and hairs of little children for pro- 
tecting them from the influences of ghosts and other malevolent - 
doers : — 

(1) A string dyed yellow with gorochana or the yellow pig- 
ment of a cow w^as tied round the neck of the child, the string 
forming a circle round his neck. 

(2) Drops of charmed ghi (or clarified butter) and honey, 
mixed with ashes and grains of white mustard, were applied 
like an unguent upon the child’s palate. 

(One commentator says that this unguent was a]3plied on 
the ehild’s palate for augmenting his life on the occasion of 
the jfitalcarma ( ) ceremony. This ceremony was 
performed, most likely, on the 30th day from the date of the 
child’s birth, for purifying the newly-made mother from the 
ceremonial uncleanliness which had been inflicted upon her 
by the birth of the child. It very likely corresponds to the 
shashtl-pujd (^€1wt) ceremony of the Hindu womenfolk of 

(3) The child’s hair was dusted with the powder made by 
pounding certain medicinal herbs and substances, 

Xow, I shall take up for discussion the amulet No. 1 supra. 
Its principal features are : — ■ 

(a) A string tied round the child’s neck. 

{b) The circular shape of the string -necklet. 

(o) The gorochana used for dyeing the string-necklet 

(d) The yellow colour of the string-necklet. 

As regards point [a) set forth supra, I may state here that 
many races of people, both civilized and uncivilized, believe 
in the efficacy of the coloured and uncoloured string or ligature 
as a talisman or amulet for warding off the attacks of diseases. 
These bands of string or ligatures are tied either on the wrist, 
above the elbow-joint, or round the neck. The practice of tying 
these amulets is current among the Chinese, the Burmans,' the 
British peasantry of Norfolk in Great Britain, among the people 
living in the localities- round about London. The practice also 
exists among the Afghans, and the Bengalis living in Bengal and 

1933] Ancient ^ Indian Amulets and Charms 83 

ill. Norther, a India,^' Closely analogous to the aforementioned 
practice is that followed by the Hindus of ancient India, of 
tying yellow-coloured strings round the necks of little children 
for warding off the attacks of ghosts and other malevolent 

Then coming to point (6) set forth su2^ra, I may state that 
it is believed throughout Northern India that the circle or 
the circular shape possesses great magical potency in keeping 
off malignant spirits. (See the various examxiles cited at j)ages 
210ff. of Dr. W. Crooke’s An Introduction to the Popular lieligion 
and Folklore of Northern India. Allahabad Edition of 1894.) 

Then, coming to point (c), I may state that the gorochand 
is a yellow pigment found in the navel of a cow. While others 
say that it is prepared from the cow's urine. In any case, it 
is a oi* an object which brings good luck, because 

it is produced by the sacred cow. It is, therefore, endow’-ed 
with considerable magical potency for driving off ghosts and 
other evil spirits. 

Then, as regards point (d) mentioned above, I may state 
that the yellow^ colour is a scarer of ghosts and other malignant 
spirits, who do not venture to come near objects which are 
dyed or tinted with that colour. It is for this reason that the 
yellow-coloured turmeric is used in the domestic ritual. Mixed 
with oil •which is also efficacious, the bride and the bridegroom 
are carefulty rubbed before marriage with the condiment which 
is known as abtan. Five roots of turmeric are sent to complete 
the betrothal. This explains the use of yellow^ clothes by various 
classes of ascetics and sannydsls and of cJiandan, or sandal- 
wnod paste in making caste-marks and for various ceremonial ^ 
purposes. So the dead body is covered wdth turmeric before 
cremation, — a custom w^hich is certainly not of Aryan origin, 
because it is current among the Tharus, one of the most xjrimitive 
tribes living in the sub-Himalayan forests. Yellow and red, 
again, are the colours of marriage-garments,^ 

The foregoing uses of the yellow-coloured turmeric for 
warding off ghosts and other evil spirits, w^hich have been 
mentioned by Dr. W. Crooke, are prevalent in the United 
Provinces of Agra and Oudh and also in Bihar. But, in Bengal 
also, there is the turmeric-ceremony ( ) on which 
occasion both the bridegroom and the bride are anointed with 
the yellow-coloured paste of pounded turmeric mixed with 
mustard oil. Both these ingredients have the magical efficacy 

1 For a fuller discussion of this subject, vide my article entitled : 
^ North Indian Incantations for Charming Ligatures for Snakednte', published 
in The Journal of the Antlirojoological Society of Bombay, Vol. X, pp. 59S-~ 
614 . 

2 Vide Grooke’s An Introduction to the Popular Beligion wid Folklore 
of Northern India. Edition of 1894. Page 201. 


Journal of the - Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S . , XXIX^ 

of protecting the bridegroom and the bride from the malignant 
influences of ghosts and other beings of that ilk. This ceremony 
takes place before the actual wedding rites are performed. 

Then again, for the foregoing reasons turmeric and saffron 
are extensively used in the marriage-ceremonies of the Hind us 
of Western India.^ 

Then again, in their marriage-ceremonies, the Parsis of 
the Bombay Presidency use the Mangala-sutram or ‘ the auspicious 
thread or cord which is dyed yellow with saffron and to which is 
attached a small gold ornament. This thread is tied on to the 
bride’s neck by the bridegroom.^ 

Then I shall take up for discussion the charmed unguent 
No. (2) which has been mentioned above. The principal 
ingredients used in the preparation of this unguent are (a) 
drops of charmed clarified butter (ghi) and honey, {b) ashes, 
and (c) grains of white mustard. 

As for the ingredients (a) mentioned supra, 1 m&j state 
that the ghi is a product of the sacred cow", and, therefore, 
possesses sacrosanct properties. Both the ghi and the honey 
are used in various Hindu rites and ceremonies. Small earthen- 
ware saucers containing ghi and honey are placed upon the 
barandala ( ) which is a winno wing-fan on wfliich 
are placed various kinds of sacred objects. This winno wing- 
fan or basket is placed before the deities on the occasion of their 
worship. It is also waved before the bridegroom on the occasion 
of marriage-ceremonies. As both the ghi and the honey are 
sacred objects, they have the magical potency of scaring away 
ghosts and other malignant spirits. 

As regards the ingredient (b), I may say that the ashes 
used in the preparation of this unguent are, most likely, the 
ashes of fuel burnt upon the sacrificial fire. It is, for this 
reason, that these ashes collected from sacrificial fire, are very 
efficacious for warding off the influences of ghosts and other 
evil spirits.,. 

Then, as regards the ingredient (c), namely, grains of 
white mustard, it may be stated that mustard-seeds were used 
in ancient India for exorcising away ghosts and other malignant 
spirits, Their use for this purpose is mentioned in the Atharm 
Veda, One Sanskrit text goes on to say that white mustard- 
seeds are (Eaksho^ma) or ^ slayer of demons and 

giants and {Bhutanasana) or*‘ scarer of ghosts h 

1 For a fuller exposition of this subject vide the article on ‘ The 
Use of Saffron mid Turmeric in Hindu Marriage Ceremonies by Lt.- 
Col. K. R. Kirtikar in The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bmnhay. 
Vol. IX, pp. 430 -454. ' 

^ Vide the article on ^ Some Parsi Marriage Ceremonies. How far 
they are borrowed from the Hindus \ by Dr. J. J. Modi in The Journal 
of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, Vol. VIII, pp. 425-430. 



Ancient Indian Amidets and Charms 

The appositeiiess of the epithet is strikingly 

illustrated in the Birhor legend about Bavana’s abduction of 
;Sita. In this traditional story, it is narrated that, before 
Hama and Lakshmana went out ahunting, the latter gave to 
his sister-in-law Sita a handful of charmed mustard-seeds, saying : 
t o sister, if any stranger would come before your ktmba, throw 
a grain of mustard at him, whereupon he will fall down dead 
and remain so for an hour and then come to life again. 
Thereupon, you should throw another mustard-seed at him, 
whereu|)on he would die again, and thereafter revive When 
; Ravana, the demon-king of Lanka, appeared before Sita, the 

latter acted up to Lakshmana’s instructions and w^ent on throw- 
ing mustard-seeds at him one by one, and he died and revived 
as many times as the mustard-seeds were thrown at him 
separately. After reviving for the last time, Ravana, addressing 
Sita, said : ‘ 0 lady, why are you taking the trouble of throwing 
the mustard-seeds at me one by one ? Throw them all at me 
simultaneously'. Hearing these words, Sita threw all the 
mustard-seeds at Ravana simultaneously. No sooner was this 
done than the demon-king burst into flames and was reduced 
to ashes. ^ 

Then again, the people of the Punjab and Northern India 
believe that ghost, demons, and other evil spirits have a lively 
dread of the mustard -seed. For this reason, it is excessively 
used in the exorcism -ceremonies throughout India. In the 
Punjab, it is believed that ghosts and spooks cannot pass over 
ground which has been sown with mustard. For this reason, 
mustard-seeds are scattered about the halting-places, when a 
; corpse is taken for the purpose of burial to the graveyard so 

that the ghost of the deceased person may not retrace its steps 
; homewards. Then again, for the same reason, the Silari or the 

professional hail-averter of the district of Mymensingh in Eastern 
Bengal throws mustard-seeds in the south -w^estern corners of 
houses in order to make them proof against lightning-strokes, 
because the malignant god of storms, who hurls the lightning- 
stroke against men, beasts, trees, and houses, is very much afraid 
of mustard-seeds, and will not, on any account, apx^roach locali- 
ties which have been sown with these seeds. 

Lastly, I shall take up for discussion, the charm-medicine 
No. (3), wLich consisted in powdering the hair of the child’s 
head with a j)owder made by powdering certain medicinal herbs 
; and ingredients so as to impart a yellowish tinge to his hair. 

I laave already shown above that the yellow colour is a 
scarer of ghosts and other beings of that ilk. 

1 Vide my article entitled : ‘ Note on the Birhor-Legend about Bdvana\s 
Abduction of SUd \ Published in The Journal of the Bihar and Orism 
Research Society, Vol. XIV, pp. 548-555. 

86 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX 

The medicinal herbs and ingredients, by poiinding which 
the powder sprinkled on the child’s head was prepared, not 
only possessed medicinal properties, but, ^^ery likely, were 
believed to possess magical potency for keeping off the infiiieiices 
of malignant spirits from the child. 

The medicinal herbs and ingredients are eiiii- 

merated in the undermentioned Sanskrit text : — 

English Translation. 

Sarboushadhi is a powdered or pasted compound of (1) 
musta, (2) Jcushtha-mdngsl, (3) turmeric, (4) vacM, (5) Sildjafu, 
(6) sandal, (7) alcohol, and (8) camphor. (TMs paste is applied 
on the pate of a young child.) 

It will not be, I hope, out of place to give here a succinct 
account of the medicinal properties of the principal ingredients 
enumerated in the Sanskrit text quoted above. 

(1) Knslithammigsi is, very likely, identical with Jatamfoigs! 
which is botanicany knovm as Nardostackys jainnucNsi. Its 
Bengali name is Jatdmdngsl ; while its Hindi synoinin is 
Balchhar. This plant grows upon the higher altitudes of the 
Himalayas. The medicinal commodity consists of short pieces 
of an underground stem covered wdth a hairy fibre. It 
possesses, to a considerable extent, the same medicinal properties 
as Valerian, and is used as an antispasmodic and a nervine 
tonic. It is considered to be useful in hysteria and epilepsy. 
It is also employed in jaundice, affections of the throat, and 
as an antidote for poisons. It is also used to scent and clean 
the hair. About 15 cwts. of this drug are amiually exported 
from the Kumaon Hills. 

After making a good deal of research the great orientalist 
Sir William Jones has arrived at the conclusion that Jatamangsi 
is identical with the JVard or agyidcenard mentioned in the English 
Bible, In ancient, an ointment was made of this c&ug. 
It was considered to be so precious that, in ancient Rome 
during the days of Jesus Christ, a single poimd of this niedicme 
would cost as much as or more than £8-6a.-8d. 

(2) Yaclid is the Sanskrit name of a plant which is botaiii- 
caily known as Acorns calamus. Its Bengali and Hindi names 
are bach. Its English equivalent is Swnet Flag. It is a semi- 
aquatic perennial plant which is a native of Europe and North 
America. But it is cultivated in damp and marsh^t places of 
India and Burma. The whole plant is aromatic. But its 
rhizomes only are used in medicine. It contains an aromatic 
bitter principle, and is considered efficacious in epilepsy, cold, 

1933] Ancient Indian Amulets and Charms 87 

fever, cough, rheumatism, colic, dyspepsia, and various other 
diseases. An essential oil is obtained from its leaves. This oil 
was used by English perfumers in the manufacture of hair- 
powders. . . 

(3) Sildjatu 01 SaiUya is the Sanskrit name of an oily 
substance which is secreted from the bare rocks in certain 
parts of India, Its Hindi name is Sildjat. It is secreted from 
the rocks when they become heated during the hot weather 
months at noon- time. It is produced m great quantities in 
the Vindhyan Hills. It contains iron m a high degree. It is 
considered to be a very valuable tonic b}^ the practitioners of 
the indigenous healing-art. 

(4) Musta is the Sanskrit name of a bulbous grassy plant 
of which the botanical name is Cy penis rotimdus. Its Bengali 
name is mutd or muto ; while its Hindi synonym is muChd. It 
is found in moist places. Its tubers are used medicinally as 
diaphoretic and astringent. Dr. Bidie states that these tubers 
are used as food by the people in famine-stricken areas. 

II. The Amulets ahd Chaems used by the Womek 


In ancient India, the women themselves wore and used 
amulets and charms for the attainment of their hearts’ desires. 
These consisted of, possibly, the wearing of thread-circlets, 
charmed with the recitation of incantations upon them and 
sometimes tied with herbs of magical efficacy ; and, secondly, 
the carrying of caskets containing birch -bark inscribed with 
charm-formulse written vdth the yellow- coloured gorochand 
upon them. From a study of Kddambarl, we further learn that 
Queen Bilasavati wore upon her body thread-circlets which 
had been charmed by the pronouncement upon them of powerful 
incantations and, further, havmg tied on to them herbs possessing 
magical potency. She further carried caskets (most probably 
of some kind of metal) containing birch- bark on which incanta- 
tions had been written with gorochand or the yellow pigment 
of the cow. These amulets and charms she used while she 
was very much anxious to become the mother of a son. 

[ ; ^ZWI^rfcT- 

I ] 

The mantra-harandaMs were, very probably, small metal 
cases, made either of gold or silver, having enclosed therein 
small pieces of birch-bark, having written thereupon suitable 
charm-formulae with the yellow coloured pigment of the cow. 
These amulets were very likely worn upon the upper left arm. 
Similar metal amulets are extensively worn by the Hindus, 
both male and female, throughout India even at the present day. 

88, V Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal fN ,8-^ 'XXIX^ 1933] 

The yellow colour of the gorochand, and the fact of its 
being the product; of the sacred cow, served to scare away 
malignant spirits from the wearer of the amulet. 

Queen Bilasavati wore these amulets in order That the evil 
spirits might not frustrate her desire of becoming enceinte. 

The circular shape of the thread-circlet and the herbs of 
magical potency also, serve to exorcise away , these , malignant 

Article No.' 12. 

Some Insects found associated with the Bitter-Gourd/ 
Momordica cliaranMa Linn. (Cucurbitace^), in 


By S, Ribeiro, 

(Published with permission of the Director^ Zoological 
Survey of India.) 

The insects which are reported in this paper were collected 
in the months of April to June, 1933, from plants of bitter- 
gourd which were growing in the compound of a house in 
Calcutta. In view of the bitter taste of the fruit and of the 
sap of this plant it was thought desirable to ascertain w^hat 
insects w’-ere associated with this plant. The material collec- 
ted belongs to 16 species, representing 12 genera, 8 families, and 
5 orders. Of the species of insects dealt with in this paper 
the fruit-fly, Chaetodacus cucurbitae Coq., is the only species 
referred to in literature as having been reared from Momordica 
charantia Linn. 

The insect fauna is of special value as it includes families 
that are of great economic importance; and it is interesting 
to note the predominance of the injurious over the non-injurious 
forms. These are here classified according to their infestation 
of the plant, i.e. (1) those found on the foliage, (2) those found 
in the flowers, and (3) those found in the fruit. 

My thanks are due to Dr. Hem Singh Pruthi for his valuable 

1. On Foliage. 


Earn. C 00 CINELLID.E. 

Epilachna pubescens Ho^je. — The species is a prolific breeder, 
being found abundantly in all stages feeding voraciously on 
the epidermis of the leaves and devouring the buds of the 
flownrs. Male and female specimens of this beetle that I had 
caught copulated in captivity. Copulation lasted for about ten 
minutes, after which the females attempted to fly awny. The 
females started laying eggs two days later. It is noteworthy that 
on both occasions copulation took place in the evening at about 
dusk. The Epilachninse are herbivorous, their food being 

i The variety with small globose fruit locally known as uchM, 

( 89 ) 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX,. 

cMefly the plants belonging to the Orders Cuciniiitace^ and 
Soianacese. Subramaniam^ remarks that both E. dodecastigma 
Mills, and E, vigintioctopunctata Fabr. are kiioim to feed on 
the bitter-gourd, Momordicay etc. Takahashi'*^ gives a full 
account of the life-history and bionomics of the latter species. 

Fam. Chrysomelidje. 

Aulacophora abdominalis Fabr. — ^l^Iany adults were noticed 
eating the leaves. This species is a well-knbwn pest of young 
Cucurbitacea. Husain and Shah consider this species to be 
of the greatest economic importance in the Punjab. These 
authors have given a list of the ^ Plants refused by A. uklo- 
minalis in captivity ’ in which M. charantia is included. 

Aulacophora atripennis Fabr. — Several individuals were 
seen feeding on the leaves. This beetle^ is reported to be 
‘ common on all cucurbitaceous plants, although it is usually 
a less serious pest than A. abdominalis \ 


Fam. Jassid.e. 

Eutettix phycitis Dist. — ^Numerous adults and some nymphs 
were found infesting the leaves and stems, particularly the 
former. They lie concealed in the dense foliage, usually at 
the petioles of the leaves. The nymphs alwa}^^ eluded observa- 
tion. This Jassid apparently undergoes its full life-cycle on 
the plants, as both nymphs and imagines were collected simul- 
taneously. Moreover, very few nymphs w'ere seen after Islay, 
though the adults still prevailed. Dr. Aimandale found 
this species feeding on the legiiminous shrub, Crotolaxia striata 
B.C,, in Barkuda Island, Chilka Lake. 

Numerous adults of a Typhlocybid w^ere also seen on the 
leaves of this plant at the end of J une. Nymphs were fewer. 


Fam. Py^ralid^e. 

Glyphodes indica Saund. — Two larvse were found eating 
the leaves. One of these pupated almost immediately, the 

1 Subramaniam, T. V., Some Coceineliids of South India,, Bep,... 
Proc, ^th Ent. Meeting^ Pusa, p. 117, 1923. 

2 Takahaslii, S., Studies on AJpiIac/uio- lady beetles in Japan, Joim%, 
Tol'ifo Agric. Col,, HI, pp. .5 and 115, pis. 7, i932. 

3 Husain, YI. A. and Shah, S. A., The Bed Pumpkin Beetle, Anlaf'o^ 
phora abdojmnalis, Fb. and its control ; with a short note on A. 

Fb., Mem, Dept. Agric. Ind.^ TK, pp. 45-46, 1926. 

Cf. Bep. Proo. 2nd Ent. Meeting, Pusa, p. 303, 1917. 
s Annandale, N., Ecological Notes, in Paiva, C. A., RhMiehota from 
Barkuda Island, Rec. Ind. Mm., XV, p. 15, 1918. 


Some Insects, etc. 


other I lost sight of. The pupal period lasted for 8 da,js. Two<- 
adults were also collected. This species is regarded as ^ a, 
minor pest of puin|)kins and cucurbits generally’.^ 


Earn. Steatiomyid.®:. 

Sargus metallinus Eabr. — Several specimens were observed 
flying swiftly about the plants and suddenly alighting on the 
leaves, where they remained quite motionless. This fly is- 
known to frequent grass and low herbage. Brunetti^ records 
it as ‘ being common and widely distributed in India in May* 
and July to October h 

2. In Flowers. 


Earn. CocciNELLiDiE. 

Epilachna 2 rubescens Hope. — -Already enumerated as destroy- 
ing the buds of flowers. 


Earn. .Apid^e. 

Halictns albescens Smith. — Several specimens were seen 
frequenting the flowers. Three more specimens of Apid^ 
were collected, one of wkich may be referred to the genus 
Halictus. All these belong to the group of ^ flower- visiting ’ 
bees, whose habits are still not fully known. In this con- 
nection it may be remarked that H. albescens Smith shows 
a distinct fondness for the flowers of Momordica charantia 

Earn. Eobmicidje. 

The following species of ants, possibly attracted by the 
honey, have been collected in the flowers : — 

Solenopsis geminata Eabr. — Only a few workers were 
collected. This ant is regarded both as a harvester and scavenger . 

1 Of. i2ej9. Proc. 2nd Enf. Meeting, Pusa, p. 303, 1917. 

2 Brunetti, E., Faun. Brit. Ind., I, p. 83, 1920. 

'92 .. . Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal: XXIX^ 

Fletcher^ and Misra^ record, it as being Iiarmfiii to Cajamis 
indicus in Mandalay ^ .brinjal seedlings in Calcutta and coconut 
stems in Eatnagiri. 

Monomorium latinode Mayr. — ^Numerous workers were 

Tapinoma melanocephalum Fabr. — ^Numerous workers were 
taken. Lefroy® records the species as doing damage to yoioig 
' tur ’ plants, Cajanus mdicus. 

Prenolepis longicornis Latr. — Numerous workers wnre 
collected. This species was more abundant than the preceding. 

3, In Fruit. 


Fam. Trypetibjg (Teypaneidje). 

Chaetodacus cucurbitae Coq. — few female specimens were 
noticed only in the evening time hovering about the fruit and 
inspecting them probably with a view to oviposition. Quite 
a number of the fruit were collected. Of these twenty per cent, 
were found to have been attacked ; a few being infested with the 
living larvse while the majority shownd signs of their ravages. 
The larvm equally relished both the ripe and unripe fruit. A 
few of the contaminated fruit were kept in the laboratory. 
The observations made are as follows : — 

1st Lot — 16. V. 33 .. Larvae (evidently 'well-advaneed)» 
22. V. 33 . . Pupae. 

27. V. 33 . . Adults emerged. 

2nd Lot — 31. v. 33 . . Pupae. 

8. vi. 33 . . Adults emerged. 

3rd Lot — 6. vi. 33 . . Larvae (evidently w^eli-advanced). 
13. vi. 33 . . Pupae (all perished). 

This fruit-%^ has always been regarded as a serious pest 
of the Cucurbitaceae and is reported to have been reared from 
the fruit of Momordica charantia Linn. Shiraki*^ in recording 
this fly mentions M. charantia among the plant-hosts of the 
species. Lefroy® has observed its complete life-cycle, which is 
said to occupy about 15 days ; the larval period being between 
3f to 11 days and the pupal period between 10-14 days. 

1 Fletcher, T. B., Annotated List of Indian Crop -Pests, Bern. Proc* 
Zrd Mnt. Meeting, Pma, p. 34, 1919. 

2llisra, G. S., Index to Indian Fruit-Pests, op. ciL, j:). 576, 1919. 
SLefroy, H, M., hidian Insect Life, pp. 229-230, Calcutta, 1909. 
^CLBep. Proc. %nd Ent. Meeting, Piisa, p. 304, 1917. 

^ Shiraki, T., A Systematic Study of Trypeticlae in the Japanese 
Empire, Mern. Taihoku Imp. Univ., VIII, Entomology 2, p. 76, 1933. 
^Lefroy, H. M., Manual of Entomology, pp. 444-445, London, ' 1923. 

1933 ] 

Some Insects, etc. 

Earn. FoBMiciDiE. 

93 - 

Monomormm latinode Mayr.^ — Many workers were seen 
feeding on the substance of the ripe fruit. This species j as. 
already stated, w^as observed on flowers also. 

Article No. 13. 

Rains of Fishes in India.^ 

By Sunder Lal Hora. 

{PtibUshed with permission of the Director^ Zoological Survey of India.) 



Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 95 

Particulars of the Rains of Fishes hitherto recorded from India .. 99 

Recent Rains of Fishes in the Muzaffarpur District .. .. 101 

Species of Fish knomi to have fallen with Rains in India . . 103 

Exi>lanatioii of the Rains of Fishes . . . . . . 106 


The vagaries and ravages of the south-west monsoon of 
1933 will be remembered for a long time in this country. 
Calcutta had a long rainy season and received over 20 inches 
more rain than usual. In several provinces torrential downpours 
and cloud bursts devastated vast areas. In Orissa, Central 
India, Delhi and the Punjab, the heavy floods absolutely 
disorganized, at times, all communications and caused consider- 
able loss of life and property. With these reports, it has also 
to be mentioned that Assam and several other parts of the 
country recorded a heavy deficit in rainfall for the monsoon 
period. These abnormal conditions of weather have been 
responsible for several phenomena of interest and one of these 
has been the reports of fish falling from above with rains. 

In the Statesman of September 14, Kim reported three 
rains of fishes as follows : — ‘ It rained fish in the Muzaflarpur 
district on July 11 and again on September 1. . . . my 

informant says : 

‘‘I have known this to happen once befoi'e in 1912, and on that 
occasion my tennis lavm and all the surrounding ground over a large 
area was literally white with small fish and maunds of them were picked 
up by coolies,” 

The recent falls were not so big, but plenty of fish were to be 
had for the picking up. What is the explanation ? My corres- 
pondent suggests that the fish were sucked up out of a river by 
a water-spout and then discharged again during a heavy thunder- 
storm. The objection to this theory is best put by means of a 

1 A note on the Meteorological Aspects of the Rains of Pishes in 
India is given by Dr. S. N. Sen in a separate article immediately following 
this paper. 

( 95 ) 

96 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [X.S., XXIX, 

question. Wliere are the fish in the interval between the 
breaking up of the water-spout and the tlionder-storin ? Wliat 
keeps them suspended in the air ? ’ 

After reading this note, I wrote to Kim requestiiig him 
to put me in touch with his correspondent- At the same timca 
I informed him that several cases of ' rains of fislies ' have- 
been recorded from difierent parts of the world and that the 
generally accepted theory is that the fishes after being taken 
up in water-spouts, are transported some distance bj’' the hea\’\' 
winds and come down with the rain. Kim made a reference 
to my letter in the Statesman of September 21, and remarked 
‘ I can quite understand fishes being sucked up by a water-spout. 
What I can’t understand is how the fishes are transported some 
distance without their weight bringing them to the ground 
immediately the forces which created the water-spout have 
dispersed. It seems to be a case for the physicist as well as 
for the zoologist. And what about falls of frogs, and tliat 
surprising thing the army experienced in Salonika, when tlie 
sky ramed small turtles, so thick that it was impossible to 
move about without crushing two or three of them at every 
step ? ’ 

In the Statesman of the 26th September, Kim recorded 
another fall of fishes based on information supplied by a 
centurion, who saw fish fall from heaven in Jhansi in 1905, 
The rifie ranges, a long way from the water, had small fish 
rained on them : 

‘I had my company on the range that morning and a iot of men 
were rather shaken by it ; at least I think that must have lieen the 
cause of the bad shooting that day.’ 

On September 21, I wrote to Kim about the action of 
thunder-storms, whirlwinds, water-spouts, etc., and requested 
him to throw further light on the fall of turtles hi Salonilva. 

In the Statesman of the 29th September, Kim remarked 
that ‘ both ^ my correspondents say that fishes picked up by a 
water-spout are carried long distances by strong, vertical currents. 
It is not surprising at all they should be sustained in the air. 
Have I never heard of tornadoes lifting from the ground and 
transporting to a considerable distance trees, animals, human 
beings, houses and even railway trains ? Dr. Hora mentions 
that in one case of a rain of fishes, the fishes were found in a 
comparatively straight path, only a few inches wide, but 
extendmg over a considerable stretch of country k 

In the Statesman of September 30, Kim published a vivid 
account of the ferocity of a tornado as observed by a scientist 

1 Kim’s other correspondent was Officer-in-Cliarge, Meteorological 
Office, No. 1 (Indian) Group Headquarters, Royal Air Force, Peshawar 


Mains of Fishes in India 


and referred to tlie fall of turtles as follows: — 'It is quite 
possible tbat the turtles did not drop from tbe skies. The 
sudden terrific blizzard which was immediately succeeded by 
brilliant sunshine might have created the moist, heated 
atmosphere suitable to hatch multitudes of eggs buried just 
below the soil. This suggestion leads to the thought that 
perhaps these fish that appear miraculously after heavy rain 
belong to the type which, when rivers and pools have dried 
up, bury themselves in the earth, there to wait till the rivers 
and pools have water in them again. A heavy shower might 
induce them to think that the time had come for them to dig 
their way out. But before we go further with this theory 
it is necessary to find out whether the fishes that are supposed 
to have dropped from the sky belong to the same species that 
are accustomed to dig themselves in during a dry season. After 
aU, fish is a big word. Are the fishes picked up after rain all 
of the same size and species ? If so, what species ? ’ 

I informed Khn that the explanation based on vivifica- 
tion of sestivating species, though plausible, did not fit in with 
all the known facts. Moreover, the species that rained at 
Muzaffarpur represented both the aestivating and non-sestivat- 
ing kinds. From the weather charts of the Muzafiarpur area 
for the days on which the fishes rained, it was clear that the 
meteorological conditions were responsible for the falls. But 
later Kim received another explanation of the phenomenon 
from one of his correspondents and published the following 
note in the Statesman of November 9 : — 

' A Moziifierpore {sic) reader is rather sceptical about fish 
falling from the air. He thinks that the fish appear after 
heavy rain when roads and fields are under several inches of 
water. They merely swim out of tanks and streams, which 
have overflowed. When the waters recede, the fish are left 
stranded. We saw how easily fish are stranded • several times 
in Meso|)otamia. When high winds blow over the marshes, 
they drive the waters over the flat land exactly after the maimer 
of tides. When the winds cease the waters recede leaving 
behind them multitudes of fish generally Ijdng along the furthest 
point they reached. These fish, very white in colour, show 
up like a gigantic semi-circle drawn in chalk. . . . This 

letter, of course, does not entirely dispose of the theory that 
fishes can be sucked up by water-spouts and later discharged 
from the sky. Still, I would like to have a statement from 
somebody who has actually seen fishes fall or can affirm that 
he has found them after a heavy shower in places which were 
not actually flooded and which they could not reach from 
flooded tanks or streams." 

In response to his enquiry, Kim received replies from three 
persons and these he refeped to in his notes published in the 
Statesman of November 22, as follows : ‘ One letter refers me " 

98 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S. , XXIX. 

to another man who has seen two falls of fish and the other 
man IS' a trustworthy and reliable witness.' A second corres- 
pondent can speak of being an actual witness of three fads, 
and all in the same district, Muzafiarpur. On one occasion, 
during the visit of a well-known and previously sceptical 
scientist, several small live fishes fell on the raised cMbutra 
of the old planters’ club and were bottled by him and sent to 
South Kensington. On the second occasion fishes were found 
on the roof in an open iron reservoir the base of which was 
corroded through and could not hold water. On the third 
occasion two small fish were found in a galvanized bath-tub 
put under the eaves of the roof to collect rain water. And 
what about the following experience?’ 

‘ When a boy, and in Dum Dura, I was caught in the rain not far 
from home, when suddenly I felt I was being struck on the topee 
as if by hail-stones, but to my surprise found them to be fishes. 
I remember it too well and I also took a topeeful to my mother, more 
because of the surprise than as a proof of my story. The largest fish 
I think was about three inches long.’ 

Mr. G. T. Gill, to whom we are indebted for an account 
of the two recent falls of fishes in the Muzaffarpm District, 
has also written to ’Kim {Statesman^ Xov. 24, 1933) to say that 
^ The theory as to the presence of fish swimming on to the 
roads and lawns from overflowing tanks is quite untenable, 
and in my case there were no such tanks anywhere near my 
garden, and every single coolie I asked said to me, Ppur si 
aya''' (came from above). 

Another correspondent of Kim records {StMesman, Ib% 
December, 1933 ) that ‘while a boy at school, between 1870 to 
1879 , at St. Mary’s Institution, Byculla (Bombay), he on several 
occasions picked up smaM silvery fish in the centre of the play- 
gromid after heavy showers of rain. Several of the othW 
boys stated they actually saw fish faUmg Much more 
interesting is the account that appeared in the Statesman of 
Dec. 3 , 1933 . In 1905 , one of Edm’s correspondent was walking 
between KXargpur and an estate on the MaurbhanJ side. * All 
of a sudden a downpour of heavy rain came on and on looking 
down I found the fields aU alive with small fish. . . I took 

a palki-bearer’s umbrella, opened it, and turned upside down, 
and, lo and behold, it filled up with these same fish. A few 
minutes afterwards a shower of frogs descended into this handy 
piece of furniture, and the fields, too, were alive with both 
frogs and fish. Such are the facts.’ 

I have quoted from Kim’s notes in the iStofesmw at some 
length, firstly, because they show the scepticism with which this 
phenomenon is regarded by the general public and, secondly, 
because they show how attempts are usually made to explain 
the falls of fishes and other animals by such processes as may 
eliminate the possibilities of animals having fallen from above. 

1933 ] 

Rains of Fishes in India 


The various explanations of the rains of fishes put forward in 
Kim’s notes are discussed below (pp. 105-109), 

Faeticulars of the Bains of Fishes hitherto eecorded 
FROM India. 

It is undoubtedly true that every fall of fishes that oocurs 
is not recorded, but the phenomenon is sufficiently unusual 
and striking to have attracted the attention of a number of 
scholars, who have recorded their observations. Gudger^ 
has brought together all references, so far as possible, to rains 
of fishes up to 1929 in two illuminating articles. He concludes 
that -The seventy-one^ records here quoted of rains of fishes 
from fifteen countries (counting England, Scotland, and Wales 
as one country — Great Britain) encircling the globe, their 
time-limits covering the two thousand years from Athenseus 
(circa 200 b.c.) to Mcllhenuy (1921 a.d.) leave no ground for 
doubts as to their occurrence, or for belief that one writer was 
influenced by another. And for these ‘‘rains ” the explanation 
uniformly given (and the only one tenable) is that of the whirl- 
wind or water-spout/ Early Greeks were aware of the universally 
spread belief of the fall of fishes in India and later Hamilton,® 
Grant ^ and Day® recorded this belief in their writings without 
making any reference to a definite fall of fishes observed by them. 
Gudger, in 1921, gave an account of 10 records of rains of fishes 
from India, and these may be tabulated as on the following page. 

1 E. W. Gudger, Rains of Fishes, Natural History^ XXI, pp. 607-619 
^1921) ; More Rains of Fishes, Anyi. Mag, Nat, Hist,, (10), III, pp, 1-26, 
pi. 1, 2 text-figs, (1929). 

2 Norman in his History of Fishes, p. 430 (London : 1931) gives 
more records of the rains of fishes. 

3 F. Hamilton (formerly Buchanan), ‘ Gangetic Fishes \ pp. 68, 99 
'(Edinburgh : 1822). 

^ C. W. Grant, On the Fact of Small Fish Falling during Rain in 
India. Papers Corps Royal Engineers of Great Britain, London, II, 
pp. 209-213, fig. (1838). 

5 F. Day, Fishes of India, p. 363 (London : 1876). Day makes 
reference to the fishes descending with downpours of rain in several of 
his earlier works, especially in his reports on the Freshwater Fish and 
Fisheries of India and Burma. 

For still more recent literature see Vinton, A Rain of Fishes, Nat, 
Hist., XXXIII, pp. 555-556 (1933), Gudger, Do Fishes Fall from 
the Sky with Rain ?, Scientific Monthly, XXIX, pp. 523-527, 5 figs. 
(1929), and Deraniyagala, A rain of fishes, Ceylon Journ. ScL, XVII, 
pp. 43-44 (1932). Deraniyagala’s paper contains references to other 
rains of fishes in Ceylon. , 

100 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

The table given below shows that the last rain of fishes 
recorded in scientific literature from India is that which 
occiirred at Poona in 1852. ' Several rains of fishes ^ have been 

Date or year 


Type of fish 

Observer or 




Hariott (Sykes, Rep: 
Brit. Ass. Adv. Sci., 
10th meeting, p. 40, 





Buist (Bombay Times 
for 1856 ; LitteiFs 
Living Age, 1857). 

20th Jiily(?), 


‘ A small species 
of Gyprinus^ two 
inches and a 
quarter in leng- 
th, green above, 
silvery white be- 
low, udth abroad 1 
lateral band of 
bright red.’ 

Mrs. Smith (Trans. 
Linn. Soc, London, 
XVI, ' p. 764, 1833). 

19th Febru- 


BoduUSf Saulf 

Cameron . , (Priiisep, 

ary, 1830. 

2;iiia Dacca. 

Sale, Gmal and 

Jotmi. As.' Soc.' 
Bengal, II, pp. 650- 



. ? 

Prinsep {op. cU ,), ' 
(Joimi. A.!?. Soc. 
Bengal, III, p. 367, 

16th or 17th 
May, 1834. 


Chelwa (Clupea 



? ' 

Buist (op. cit.). 

20th Septem- 
ber, 1839. 



Thompson ( Inirodm- 
tion to Meteorology, 
pp. 162-164, 1849; 
Buist, op. cit.). 

25th July, 

‘ Katt5?war ’ 


Buist (op. cit.). 




Buist (op. cit.). 

^ A correspondent from Patna writes that at about 1 p.m. on the 
9th November, 1933, a bright and sunny day, when travelling about a 
mile south of the dandak Bridge, he noticed a flock of 20 to 30 kites 
circling over his head. At the same time he noticed siiverj^ objects in 
the sky which the kites picked up with a sweep as they dropx^ecl down. 
This lasted for 2 to 3 minutes and my correspondent thinks that the 
silvery objects must have been fishes raining from above. 

A gathering of hundreds of kites higher up in the sky is not an 
unusual occurrence in any part of India, but the falling of silvery objects 
is certainly uncommon. It is very difficult to say what these objects 
vrere, but they could not be fish. As is explained later (p. 107), the 
fish are carried up and transported by water-spouts and fall from the 
sky with torrential rain when the water-spout dissipates- In the circum- 
stances it seems difficult to believe that fish were raining on November 9,. 


Bains of Fishes in India 


referred to in Kim’s notes quoted above, but the three rains 
of fishes recorded in the first note deserve further consideration 
as I have been able to obtain full particulars from Kim’s 

Reoent Rains of Fishes in the Muzaffaefije District* 

(i) Mr. G. T. Gill observed a rain of fishes at Bunhar 

Factory, District Muzafiarpur, in 1912. Bunhar Factory, I am 
informed, no longer exists, but it was situated on the bank of 
the Baghmati River midway between Darbhanga and the large 
village of Rusera. Mr. Gill writes that the date has completely 
escaped his memory, except that it was some time during the 
monsoon, and in the middle of the day. With reference to the 
1933 falls, he writes : ' These falls were, however, nothing as 
compared with the one which occurred at Bunhar Factory in 
1912, where I then was, I actually observed this with my own 
•eyes, that is to say that when the rain was actually falling I 
(fid not notice fish coming down with it, but the rain, which 
was very heavy, ceased very suddenly, just lilie the rain on 
the 10th July last, and when it (fid, my tennis lawn and the 
road in front of the bungalow were simply white wdth maunds 
of fish, so much so that at first, before I went outside to 
investigate the matter, I thought it must be hail lying on the 
ground. To my amazement I saw it was fish. They were 
also all over the indigo factory which was one-third of a mile 
from the bungalow. None of the fish were of any size, none of 
them being more than two inches long.’ < 

(ii) Mr. G. T. Gill observed a rain of fishes at Bhicanpur 
Factory, due four miles north of the small Gundak River on the 
main road to Sitamarhi, in the Muzafiarpur District. He 
writes : ^ I had tremendous rain here at that time, my falls that 
I registered being as follows : — 9th July, 0-68 ; 10th July, 4*18 ; 
11th July, 6*78. The rain I have written down as having 
fallen on the 11th, really all fell on the 10th, and the reason 
for that is that I always measure the rainfall for the 24 hours 
en(fing on the morning of the day I WTite it down. Actually 
this fall of 6'78 inches ended on the 10th about 2-30 p.m. I 
was waiting for the rain to moderate, and when it did I heard 
lathi and stick blows all over the garden, so, being curious, I 
went out in the rain before it had ceased to investigate the 
matter, and the cause was that all my garden coolies and 
.syces, and many other coolies were killing the fish as they 
swam all over the garden paths and the road down to the 

near Patna on a bright, sunny day. Dr. S. N. Sen informs me that the 
weather conditions over Bihar were not favourable for the formation of 
water-spouts on that day. However, the observation is recorded here 
to elicit further information on the point raised by my correspondent. 

102 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX.. 

stable. Tbe fish must 'all have come "down during the final 
shower which was tremendously heavy. Every single coolie 
whom I asked how he accounted for the fact of fish being over 
the garden said, oo;par se ay a (came from above), and there is 
no doubt whatever that they had h On getting this information 
I requested Mr. Gill to send me the local names of the fishes 
that came down with the rain and, if possible, specimens of the 
various species, I also enquired about the principal stretches 
of W'ater in the vicinity of the factory. To these questicjns I 
received the following replies : — 

' I have asked my chowkidar {-watchman) what were the 
names of the various kinds of fish which fell here on the lOtli 
July at 2-30 p.m., and he at once told me as foiiow's, and I am 
quite sure he was telling me the truth, as he himself w'as one 
of those who beiiefitted by the fail, and I saw^ him ]>ick up a 
large quantity. The vernacular names of the varieties are : 
(1) Gainchi, a thin fish, 3 inches in length. Grows to one span 
in length ; (2) Poiia^ a broad fish which growls to about two 
inches ; (3) Qaraye, a fish wdth a large moiitli, growing up to 
3 inches in length ; (4) Darwa, a small fish hardly exceeding 2 
inches ; and (5) Ghelwa, a table delicacy for Europeans and 
Indians ahke. When fried they taste exactly like white-bait 
which they greatly resemble in appearance. A very w’^ell-knowii 
species. All the above kinds of fish are obtainable locally in 
the Bazar on any market day here.’ The scientific names of 
the species were determined from a small collection sent by 
Mr. Gill and are given below on the following page. 

As regards stretches of water, Mr. Gill wrote that ' the 
occurrence took place on the top of a very rapidly rising flood, 
and practically the whole coimtryside was under water at the 
time, though, after the heavy rain ceased, which it did with the 
fall which precipitated the fish, the flood rose a good deal higher. 
In addition the smaU Gandak River is close by, also the Baghmati 
is only 5 or 6 miles away in a northernly direction, and there 
is a large jheel (lake) 4 miles north of this bungalow which is 
always full of water, even in the hot w^eather. My chowkidar 
assures me that the fish fell over a large area, which I have 
calculated, as far as my knowledge goes of the extent of the 
fall, as being 60 square miles, but it may have been much more, 
and I was told by a lady that fish fell in her garden on the 
same day in Muzafiarpur itself.’ 

(iii) On the 30th of August, 1933, Mr. Gill observed coolies 
getting fish out of a small and shallow drain by the roadside 
close to his house, immediately after a shower of rain, and 
when he asked them how they expected to catch any fish in 
such a small quantity of water they ail replied again ^ oopar se aya ’ 
(came from above). 

Among the menial staff employed in the Indian Museum 
there are several people who come from the Muzafiarpur District.. 

1933] Rains of Fishes in India 103 

They lieard from their friends and relatives about the falls of 
fishes, but treated the matter as a mere joke. On my making 
enquiries from some of these people, who were on leave during 
the monsoon period in their villages, I have been able to colleGt 
corroborative data. One man named Ram Avatar Singh of 
Edialilpur village has informed me that he reached his village on 
the 11th of July and heard that on the day previous there was 
heavy rainfall accompanied by a fail of fishes from the sky. 
During his stay in the village he witnessed two fails of fishes, 
one in the middle of the Hindu month Sraran (16th July to 
15th August) and the other in Bhadon (16th August to ifith 
September). On both these occasions, an exceptionally heavy 
rainfall was . preceded by storm, whirlwinds, etc. and the rain 
fell from 10 a.m. to about 7 p.m. and water accumulated in the 
streets knee- deep. When the rain stopped, he found the 
courtyard of his house full of fish and on coming out he saw 
silvery objects on the thatched roof, which on close inspection 
turned out to be Chelwa fishes. Among the fishes collected, 
he mentioned the names of all the kinds stated above in 
Mr. GilFs account, but he added the name of a small loach 
known as Natua. Reports of the rains of fishes have been 
received from the inhabitants of the following other villages 
in the MuzaSarpur District :—Karja, Dwarkapur, Anantkarja, 
Bhadavma, Bhopalpur and Mohatpur. A man of the Parsagarh 
village in the Chapra District of Bihar and not very far from 
Muzaffarpur has also told me of a rain of fishes in his village. 
I am informed that Potia and Darwa rained in great abundance. 
Some of the villages, where the fish rained, have no ponds,, 
lakes or rivers in their neighbourhood, and the phenomenon, 
therefore, excited great interest among the villagers. They 
attributed the falls to the miracle performed by the all-pervading 
and powerful god Indra. I shall have occasion to refer to the 
beliefs of these simple people later (p. 108). 

Species of Fish knowh to have eallbh with Rains 
IN India. 

It has been mentioned above that Mr. G. T. Gill sent me 
specimens of five species of fish that he found in the compound 
of his bungalow after a heavy fall of rain. These have been 
identified as follows 

Local Name, 

Scientific Name. 



. . Mastacembelus pancalus (H.B.). 



. . Barbus (Puntius) sophore (H.B.). 



. . Ophicephalus gachua (H.B.). 



, . Esomus danricus (H.B.). 



• . Chela bacaila (H.B.). 

104 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [NaS»j XXIX^ 

Ecologically, tiese species can be grouped under two main 
■categories. Mastacembelus and Ophicephalus lire in mud, are 
oapable of li-ving out of water for a considerable time and are 
known to aestivate during tbe bot and dry months. The other 
three kinds, Barbus, Esomus and Chela, are essentially surface 
fishes, though Barbus sophore may be found at the bottom. I 
enquired from Mr. Gill the proportion of the various species in 
the rains of fishes witnessed by him. He writes^ ' As far as 
my personal observation went (which was not very much as 
it involved paddling about and getting my feet very wet which 
I soon tired of) I should have said that the greatest number 
of fish were Garay e, hut my bungalow chowkidar, whom I 
|ust asked, says that by far the largest proportion was Potia, 
and no doubt he is right. The Garaye, however, were 
specially noticeable owing to their large size and reddish coloim 
in the water. I should say, therefore, that the largest nimiber 
were the Potia, then possibly I should put the Garaye, 
though I may he wrong, and the Gainchi, Darwa and 
Chelwa third From the accounts of my other informants, 
I gather that the greatest proportion of the fish that rained 
were of the Potia, Darwa and Chelwa t,ypes. Natua, a fish that 
is said to have fallen with rains in the Muzaffarpur District, 
is the dirty loach, Lepidocephalichthys guntea (H.B.), which is 
similar in habits to Mastacembelus and OphicepMlm. 

It is thus seen that half of the species associated with the 
recent falls of fishes are surface-living, small forms, which could 
be easily sucked up with water-spouts. The presence of three 
aestivating mud-fishes in the falls does not show that they 
had been awakened from their summer sleep by the heavy 
downpour. XEstivating fishes of India become active after the 
first few monsoon showers which commence about the second 
half of June, so at the time when the falls of fishes are stated 
to have occurred they must have been fully revived. To me, 
the presence of mud-fishes in the falls seems to provide evidence 
of the great force of suction produced at the time of water-spout 
formation — so much so that the bottom mud of ponds, lakes 
or rivers is also sucked up along with the entire volume of 
water at the particular place. Eecently a rain of small Gobioid 
fishes has been reported ^ from Christobal Canal Zone (America). 
Tliese fishes possess powerful ventral suckers with which they 
adhere to rocks in swift currents of small streams in oceanic 
islands.^ It should be clear from these instances, that the 
presence of mud-fishes in the falls can be accounted for only 
by the water-spout and whirlwind theory of the rains of fishes. 

1 Vinton, Rains of Pishes, HisU, XXXIII, pp. 535>o56 (1933). 

2 Hora, Gobioid Fishes of Torrential Streams, Achar?/a May Com- 
memoration Volume, pp. 92-99 (1932). 


Earns of Fishes in India 


111 18295 ^ A small species of Gyprinus, two inches and a 
quarter in length, green above, silvery white below, with a 
broad lateral band of bright red ’ is stated to have rained at 
Moradabad. The description is applicable to a number of 
Cyprinid fishes, but it is likely that the fish belonged to the 
genus Eashora, which comprises surface-feeding species. In 
1834, Chelwa rained at Fattehpur and this appears to be the 
same fish as Chela baicala referred to in the account of the 
Muzaffarpur fishes. In the Dacca District, in 1830, a number 
of species are recorded to have fallen with rains and it has 
been possible to identify aU the species from their vernacular 
names. The following note regarding them may be useful ; — 

1. Boduli or Bodulis : — ^These names probably refer to 

Vaddla ( ), / a kind of Silurus or sheat-fish’.^ As is 

indicated in the note from the Collector of the Dacca District 
{vide infra), this name is no longer in use. It is a word given 
in native lexicon and not yet met with in any published text. 

2. Mirgal : — This is the common Cirrhina mrigala (Ham. 
Huch.) which is esteemed as food and is used for stocking ponds 
in Bengal. 

Z, Saul Sale : — These two names probably refer to 

the same Bpeoies—Ophicephalus striatus Bloch. It is known in 
Eastern Bengal as Shol, Sal or ShauL 

4. Guzal : — This is probably the same as Gajal, Gajar 
■or ShaL These vernacular names refer to Ophicephalus marulius, 

5. Nouchi : — I have not been able to trace this name, 
but if N is a misprint for M, then we have a fish known as 
Mouchi in Eastern Bengal. It is Amblypharyngodon mola 
(H.B.) which is not much esteemed as food. 

It seems that the 10 witnesses, whose statements were 
recorded about the rain of fishes in the Dacca District, paid 
attention only to larger specimens for all the species mentioned 
above, with the exception of the last, grow to a fairly big size. 
The smaller species seem to have been overlooked altogether. 
There must have been a very strong water-spout to have sucked 
up fishes of the size, one cubit in length and 6 lbs. in weight, 
:stated to have been collected by these witnesses. Moreover, 
not one of these species is a surface-feeding form. In fact, 
Wallago and Ophicephalus are bottom-dwelling species, whereas 
the other two generally live among vegetation near the bottom 
and occasionally come to the surface. 

Enquiries were made from the Collector of Dacca regarding 
the local names Boduli and Nouchi, In reply he has written to 
:say that Vthe fishes and Nouchi cannot be identified. 

The local names of fishes vary to a great extent, the same fish 
being called by different names in different parts of the same 
district. As far as I have been able to ascertain on enquiry 

2* Monier- Williams, A SanshriUEnglish Dictionary (Oxford : 1899). 

106 , ■ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIXj.. 

. the names Boduli and Ncmchi resemble the names of Bomli 
. mABaichi or Baicha which are well-known fishes., . It is possible 
that 'these . well-known names may have been comipted into' 
Boduli dbnA NouchiJ" 

Boali {boal of Eastern Bengal ; boil and boala of Chittagong 
baraii ot Assam,; etc. )\ is the well-known .cat-fish popularly 
known as the freshwater shark.. It . grows to an enornions.. 
.size,, up to. at .least .six feet in length.., I am inclined to agree 
. with the District Collector of Dacca that Boali is the same fish 
m Boduli. The fish is known among ichthyologists as IFalla^O' 
attu (Bl. and Schn.). Psevdeutropms atherinoideS: (Bloch) is a 
smail species which is known mBodua in Eastern Bengal. The 
.reference in the Dacca fall of fishes,, cannot be to this species 
■as spQQjmem ot Boduli about one 'cubit .in length and. '6,., ibs. ' 
in weight were picked up by the local people. 

Baichi OT Baicha {bacha of , Eastern, Bengal) refers tO' 
■ButropiicMhys mcha (H.B.) which is a common fish at Dacoa^ 
but I do not see . any similarity between these names and NoucM. 
I , am : inclined" to regard Nouchi a misprint for lIoticM as 
indicated above. 

ExPLANATi03<r or* THE Bains oe Fishes. ' 

.\ : ^ Gudger (op, cif,, 1921 and 1929) has already discussed the 
various, explanations that.- have hitherto. . been advanced to 
.account, for-., the rains -of ..fishes and: has .come to. the conclusion 
that '.for these- " rains,-’’ the e.xplanation . uniformly given (and 
-the only one tenable) is;, that of the whirlwind or water-spout 
The analysis of the meteorological data concerning the recent 
rains of fishes at ^Muzaffarpur' has led Dr. S. N, Sen to the same 
conclusion (w¥e m/m, pp. 111--116), but in view of the matter 
that has appeared, in Eom.’s'- notes,- it seems desirable to review 
in somewhat greater ':detaii the -popular explanations of the 
.. phenomenon, 

Leaving out of consideration the explanation sometimes, 
given of the dormant eggs hatching out after a heavy rainfall 
as highly untenable, attention may be directed to four other 
explanations that have found currency in literature. 

I. ^ The fishes supposed to have fallen with rain might have 
been migrating overland from one stream or pond to another. 

Of the species of fish that are known to have fallen with 
rains in India, OpMcephalus is the only kind that migrates 
overland. The other fishes such as Wallagn^ Barbus^ Esomus, 
Ghela, Oirrhina, Amblypharyngodon, Barilius, Lepidocephalichthys 
and Mastacembelus are not Imown to leave w^ater and wander 
about- ^ The last two kinds are amphibious in their mode of 
respiration, whereas the others are purely aquatic-breathers.. 
Gudger (1921) has remarked that ' many of the falls have taken 
place in northern countries, where there are no migratory fish.. 

1933 ] 

Mains of Fishes in India 


and finally many of the fish , rained down are marine forms 
In view of the above, this explanation is ruled out of further 

II. The fishes might have been left behind by oveffi.ows 

in the manner indicated by Kim’s comspondent or as alleged 
by Eghni long ago {Wittenbergischen Wochenblatt zum Aufnehmen 
(fer pp. 329-330, 370, 1771). 

I am fully aware of the fact that after heavy floods fishes 
are left stranded on the banks of rivers. This often happens 
in the high lands of Central Asia, and I have received collections 
of such stranded fishes from Tibet and Chitral. The details 
that are available in connection with the rains of fishes do not 
lead one to the conclusion that the fishes had been left behind 
by overflows. The rains of marine fishes many miles inland 
from the sea, the falls on high lands or roofs of houses far out 
of the reach of floods, the falls of fishes in places with no stream, 
lake or pond in their neighbourhood,- the localized occurrence 
of these falls, especially the falls in the Sundarbans and Burdwan 
where fishes were found in a comparatively straight path only 
a few inches wide, extending over a considerable stretch of the 
coxmtry and the occurrence of the bottom, mud-dwelling or 
stone-sucking (Gobiidae) species in the falls clearly show that 
the above explanation cannot apply to such occurrences. 
Reference may also be made to the account of the three witnesses 
mentioned by Kim. 

III. The fishes may have been cestivating and have been 
awakened by the coming of the rain, 

Gudger has already given reasons to show that this explana- 
tion cannot apply to the reported rains of fishes from countries 
all over the world. The recent rains of fishes in Muzafiarpur 
occiured during July and August when even .the aestivating 
species are active, for it is well known that these fishes become 
vivified after a first few monsoon showers which occur usually 
in the second haK of June. Moreover, the majority of the 
fishes known to have rained in India belong to the non- 
sestivating type. 

IV. The rains of fishes are due to the action of heavy winds, 
whirlwinds and waters fonts. 

In the accompanying diagram (fig. 1), I have indicated 
the places in India whence the rains of fishes have been recorded 
so far including those given in this paper. It will be seen that 
the part of the country below Nepal, from Muzafiarpur in the 
east and Meerut on the west with Jhansi, Allahabad and Benares 
forming the southern boundary, is the most suitable area for 
the occurrence of these rams. Dr. Sen shows that over this 
area the heavy winds of the south-west monsoon come in 
contact with the cold north-easterly winds of the Himalayas, 
and it so happens that portions of the Bay winds are sometimes 
enclosed between the cold winds and these in trying to escape 

108 ■ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ^ XXIX j 

upwards in the form of strong, vertical currents cause whirlwinds 
and water-spouts. Water-spout formation is a fairly frequent 
occurrence in Northern Bihar, and has been responsible for the 
popular belief ^ that Airavata, one of Indra’s elephants, sucks 
up water from the earth by means of its trunk. The similarity 
in the funnei-Iike form of a water-spout and that of the trunk 
of an elephant is very suggestive to the minds of the simple 
village folks. 

The Kathiawar area and the region of the Gangetic Delta 
also seem suitable localities for the fails of animals, and Dr. Sen 
shows how sometimes the meteorological conditions over these 
areas induce the formation of water-spouts. The falls at Poona 
and Byculla have to be regarded meteorologically as exceptional 
occurrences. In other parts of India where the north-easterly 
Himalayan winds have no access, the chances of the water-spout 
formation, and the consequent falls of animals, are very remote. 
Most of the rains of fishes have occnrred during the monsoon 
months — July, August, and September— but an exceptionally 
big fall of fishes has been reported from Dacca {vide table on 
p. 100) in February and from Fattehpur in May. Both these 
months fall within the nor’wester period, during which water- 
spout formation may occur wherever and -whenever light air 
gets enclosed between cold and heavy winds. 

There are two other facts concerning the falls of fishes 
which may be mentioned. So far as it has been possible to 
ascertain, the falls are said to have occurred about the middle 
of the day and the fish precipitated with a final, heavy shower. 
Dr. Sen shows from a study of the meteorological conditions 
that this is what it should be. It is thus seen that all the 
problems associated with the falls of fishes in India are capable 
of simple meteorological explanations. I am greatly indebted 
to Dr. Sen for his kind help and valuable suggestions, and above 
all, for his contribution on the meteorology of the recent rains 
of fishes at Muzaffarpur. 

In connection -with the action of whirlwinds and water- 
spouts, Mr. Johan van Manen has directed my attention to 
two interesting passages in Peddihgton’s 'The Sailor’s Horn- 
book For instance, it is stated that ' The mischievous Muds 
of these whirlwinds seem to be nothing more than those Just 

1 It may be worth while to say a few words her© to expiaia this 
mythological belief among the Hindus. A reference to Hopl^’s jSJpic 
Mythology (Strassburg : 1915) will show that Indra is worshipped as a 
great benefactor and rain-god of the Hindus. The clouds are believed 
to be Indra’s elephants on which he rides about in his tours of the world. 
One of these elephants, Airavata by name, rose at the churning of the 
ocean and was seized by Hidra. This animal, sometimes known as 
Airavana, draws up water from the under- world and Indra seated on his 
elephant pours down the rain. The chief gift of Indra is the rain he 
gives to all. The elephants are also believed to blow the wind out of 
their trunks. 


Bains of Fishes in India 


described, but of force enough to destroy houses and men, 
uproot trees and even to tear, break and throw down buildings, 
and they may be traced, in accounts from various parts of the 
world as well as in India, of all sizes ; from a few feet up to 
some hundred yards in diameter, and as occurring in all kinds 
of weather, and by night as well as by day. Many of these 
also in passing brooks or ponds, have been known to assume the 
appearance of waterspouts for the time, and to raise up the water 
and even the fish with it' {1st ed., p. 264 ; 2nd ed., p. 240. The 
italics are mine). The sucking up of fishes by the action of 
whirlwinds is again referred to as follows : We have seen that 
whirlwinds on shore, certainly so far resemble water-spouts, 
that they lift water and fish. There is equally no doubt, that 
when sea water-spouts reach the shore, they become whirl- 
winds, (1st ed., p. 270 ; 2nd ed., p. 245). 

The lBA>e Jamadar of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, an 
inhabitant of the Ballia District, U.P., informed me that whirl- 
winds are a common feature in his part of the country and 
that he had himself witnessed the water of a tank in his village 
being sucked up by one of Lord Indra’s elephants. No water 
or fish were left in the tank afterwards. In this district, people 
are fully aware that sometimes fishes fall from the sky with 
rains. Ballia is to the south-west of Muzaffarpur, but not 
very far from it. Thus it is within the area of special weather 
conditions which induce the formation of water-spouts. 

Dr. J. N. Mookherjee, Professor of Chemistry in the 
University of Calcutta, informs me that some years ago there 
was a rain of fishes near his village in the Burdwan District. 
The fish did not fall all over the country but w^ere found in a 
long, narrow and fairly straight row over a considerable stretch 
of the country. The nature of this rain is comparable to that 
which fell at the Sundarbans on September 20, 1839.^ As has 
been indicated by Gudger ^ ‘ These fishes must have fallen 
from the whirling lower end of a funnel-shaped spout after the 
pillar had broken in two, as is often the case 


Since the above was sent to press, Kim has reported two 
further falls of fishes in the columns of the Statesman. Mr. James 
Dewar, at one time Manager of the Patrakala Tea Co. in Sylhet, 
informed Kim that one late afternoon during the late Spring of 
1913, just when the chota barsat was breaking. The coolie 
women were plucking leaf about a hundred yards from the edge 
of a dried up bheel and the nearest stream was about half a 
mile away. The ground was generally hard and dry as usual at 

^ Buist, Rains of Fishes, Bombay Times for 1856. 

2 Gudger, Rains of Fishes, Natural History, XXI, p. 619 (1921). 

110 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX* 1933J 

the end of the cold weather. In looking over the qnalit j of the 
leaf in the baskets of the plnckers, Mr. Dewar noticed two 
or three small fish in the basket of one woman. She explained 
that she had found them on the ground and added that quite a 
number had been found by other plnckers. Mr. Dewar was not 

quite convinced and himself made a search for fish and actually 
found a number under the bushes over a line of about 200 

‘The fish, were from six to sevea inches in length, wriggling, glisten- 
ing, and very much alive and looked very edible. The happening ” took 
place just after a slight drizzle of rain. It intrigued me greatly and 
I have no hesitation in saying that the fish were not placed where they 
were found by any human agency ’ (Statesman^ January 26th, 1934.). 

Fig. 1. — Rains of Fishes in India. 

Mr. Dewar’s observation is probably the first on record 
which shows that a fall of fishes was not accompanied by 
a heavy shower. 

The second record is furnished by Mr. A. Barbour of 
Titaghur who wrote to Kim as follows : — 

‘At Uttar-Tirhut, 10 miles east of Muzafiarpur, in 1906, along wirli 
another man, I saw a dry road (an inch above the level of the country 
round about) become covered by a shoal of tiny fish which arrived in 
-a sudden rain-storm’ (Staitesman, February 20th, 1934.). 



Aeticle No. 14. 

_ The Meteorological Aspects of the Recent ‘ Rains of 
Fishes ^ in the Mezaffarpnr District. 

By S. N. Sek. 

In connection witli the rains of fishes observed on the 
10th July and 30th August, 1933 , in the Muzaffarpur District, 
'Bihar, Dr. Hora of the Zoological . Survey of India asked me to 
explore the possibility of a meteorological explanation. I have 
looked up the weather charts of the dates mentioned and 
find that typical norVester conditions (vide p. 83 of the 
Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress, Nagpnr, 1931) were 
established over Bihar on both the days. As a matter of fact 
widespread thunderstorms were successfully forecasted by the 
Alipore Observatory on both the occasions. 

The Monsoon ZroTai.— Before proceeding to a meteorological 
explanation of the particular instances cited by Dr, Hora it 
may be an advantage to discuss Fig. 2 which shows the normal 
distribution of the various air currents over India at the height 
of the monsoon season. ' 

So far as the monsoon air trajectories are concerned the 
diagram is essentially the same as that given hy Harm. The 
only modification that has been introduced is the identification 
and distribution of the various air masses over the Indian 
continent in the monsoon season. These are the easterly air 
current at the foot of the Eastern Himalayas and the hot air 
over the Punjab and the N.-W.P. Province. The mode of 
representation of the various air currents is the same in Figs, 2, 
3 and 4. The boundary line between the two branches of the 
Indian monsoon current and the Eastern Himalayan current is 
shown by a toothed line. This line will be referred to later 
-as the line of discontinuity or the monsoon front. Even in 
the absence of pure monsoon air the same type of front may 
be established over Northern India in other seasons also but 
the details need not be discussed here. Provisionally the dia- 
grams in this paper may be taken to represent the average 
•conditions from the ground up to 0‘5 km. level. 

Occlusion of the Bay air. — The Himalayan current usually 
comes down as an easterly or north-easterly current mainly 
along the Brahmaputra Valley and travels westwards along 
the foot of the Himalayas. It is cooler and therefore heavier 
than the southerly Bay current. Conseq^uently there may start 
separate streams from the parent Himalayan current and flow 
down approximately southwards mainly under the action of 
gravity along river beds or at righ^ angles to the prevailing 
horizontal temperature gradient. In the circumstances when 
two Himalayan air streams coalesce a portion of the warm and 

( 111 ) 

112, : Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., X,XI,X^ 

moist Bay air is iikely to. become isolated witliin tlie Himalajaii 
air mass. .When this type of isolation or 'occlusion’ of the 
Bay air occurs, whirls in the atmosphere are likely to be 
formed {vide Nature, January 1931, p. 128). In favoiiraMe 
circumstances these whirls may give rise to water-spouts. 
In' the norVester season, ie., from February to June, these 
whirls often develop into tornadoes. As a matter of fact, 
descriptions of corrugated iron roofs being lifted and carried 
many miles away, appear in the newspapers almost every year 

especially in the norVester season. This fact gives an idea 
of the magnitude of the tremendous lifting forces inside a strong 
whirl. It seems, therefore, probable that if a whirl forms 
over a pond or river then the fishes may be easily lifted and 
carried away and thrown down when the whirl begins to 

The Daily Weather Charts suggest that at the height of 
the monsoon season, wide scale subsidence of the Eastern 
Himalayan air often takes place over Bihar through the valleys 

1933] Meteorological Aspects of Recent '' Rains of Fishes ' 113 

of ISTepal, possibly mamly along tbe course of tbe river Kosi. 
\¥liatever tbe details of the process may be, it is a fact that 
the Eastern Himalayan air generally accumulates over Bihar 
and the United Provinces north of the toothed line in Pig. 2 
and then again subsides towards the Central Provinces. It is 
during this subsidence that the occlusion of the Bay air very 
often occurs giving rise to locally heavy rainsqualls. The 
frequency of the whirls should naturally be large near about 
the normal line of discontinuity as shown in Fig. 2. A remark- 
able confirmation of this view is provided by Dr. Hora’s chart 

(Fig. 1)^ in which the regions of frequent occurrence of the rains 
of fishes are shewn to be the United Provinces and Bihar. The 
places of occurrence are just to the south of the toothed line in 
Fig. 2 which is based on purely meteorological considerations 
and drawn independently of Dr. Hora’s diagram, 

: : ■ , may be interesting to note here that the Eastern 
Himalayan current has an uncanny power of givhag rise to 
weather wherever it meets another air mass. The Daily 

1 JPASB, (N.S.), XXIX, 1933, p. l W 

114. ■ ' ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX, 

Weather Charts shew that the Eastern Himalayan air freqin^ntly 
travels long distances over the Indian continent and the Bay 
of Bengal. Under the influence of the Bay depressions it often 
penetrates South India and with the westward travel of the 
depressions this air ' mass finds its way into Giijrat. The 
isolated occurrences of rains of fishes in other parts of India as 
shewn in Dr. Hora's chart may, therefore, be explained on the 
same basis as has already been indicated. 

Meteorological Oonditions over Bihar on the IQth Juiy, 193B.— 
With the introductory remarks in the preceding paragraphs it 
is now proposed to consider in detail one of the two cases. 
viz,, the rain of fishes which occuiTed at Bhicanpm in the 
Muzaflarpur District at 2-30 p.m. on the 10th July, 1933. 

Figs. 3 and 4 represent the distribution of the Bay, the 
Arabian Sea and the Himalayan current at 8 hrs. and 17 hrs. 
respectively on that date. The figures, though idealized for 
the sake of easy explanation, have nevertheless been derived 
from an analysis of the actual weather charts of the Alipore 
Observatory. The changes in the upper winds at Allahabad 
were significant. The wind at 0*5 km. in the morning was 
southerly, force 6, and in the afternoon it changed to northerl\'. 
force 4. This reversal and other evidence suggest lai-ge scale 
subsidence of the Himalayan air. It will be seen from Fig. 3 
that Muzaffarpur was very near to the monsoon front in the 
morning. The position of the front in the afternoon of the 
same day as seen from Fig. 4 suggests that there was a general 
tendency for the occlusion of the monsoon air over south Bihar. 
It is, therefore, apparent that conditions were favourable for 
the formation of whirls on the monsoon front especially over 
Bihar. In the following table rainfalls of 2"' and over at the 
various rain -recording stations in Bihar and Orissa are given. 

Amotot of Rabstfall. 


Judy, 1933. 

District. Station. 



! Bain, 

District. Station. in- 

! ehes. 

Patna . . Bihar 

i Asthanwan 




Darfohanga Darbhanga 2-23 

Mahiuddm- ^ 3-34 

Jaiay'. :■ . . . : '"2-75, 

Pusa . . 3-63 

MuzaHarpur Sitamarhi . . 


Minapnr , . 







Monghyr . . Sagrampur i 2-40 

1933;] Meteorological As'pects of Recent ' Rains of Fishes^ 1 15 

Incidentally it may be noted that the rainiaii figures 
in the above table illustrate the importance of the path of 
subsidence of the Eastern Himalayan air from the point of 
view of flood warnings. 

11% Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 11133] 

Tlie afternoon Daity ' Weather Chart of the 10th July shews 
that most of the. rain in the Muzaffarpur District at any rate 
occurred before . 5 p.m. The Bhicaiipur Factory where the 
rain of fishes occurred on that day is about 4 miles to the nortli 
of the small river Oundak and about 6 miles north of the 
Muzafiarpur town. The factory recorded 7'' of rain by the 
afternoon of the 10th. The rainfall of 15'" at Katra which is 
about 18 miles north-east of the Muzafiarpur town and about 
3 miles on the east bank of the river BaghmaM is also significant. 
The rainfall distribution in the neighbourhood of Katra - 
BMcanpur-Muzaffarpur region suggests the formation, travel 
and dissipation of a water-spout or spouts. Thc-^se probably 
formed and sucked up fishes to be deposited later. The details 
of the mechanism of the formation of water-spouts, wliich are 
very local in character, are questions of micro-meteoroiogy, 
and cannot, therefore, he discussed here. 

As regards the frequency of the rains of fishes being gi*eatest 
in the afternoon it may be noted that the greatest frequency of 
the nor’w^esters is also in the afternoons. The reasons have been 
discussed m another paper which will be published shortly. 
It may be briefly noted here that iu the afternoons there is 
usually an accentuation of the horizontal tem|)erature gradient 
to the south of the Eastern Himalayan air mass thus giving 
rise to conditions favoui*abie for its subsidence. 

Article No. 15 

Angami -English Dictionary — Part L 
By Dr. Haealu. 


It is several years, I regret to say, since Dr. Haralii 
brought to me in KoMma a complete dictionary, Angami- English 
and English- Angami, compiled by himself with the aid of other 
Angami collaborators, and asked me if T could get this diction- 
ary published. In the form in which the dictionary was it 
seemed to need some revision and modification. Tones had not 
been shown and the collaborators’ knowledge of the English 
language, though more than adequate colloquially, and a 
knowledge which did them much credit in the circumstances in 
which it was acquired, was not really enough to enable them to 
render in English the subtle differences of meaning possessed 
by the Angami words, differences so difficult to express, even 
when the meaning is clear, that I have sometimes found the 
greatest difficulty in translating the Angami into lucid English 

I gladly accepted the dictionary and with the help of 
Mr. J. E. Tanquist, a member of the American Baptist Mission 
working in Kohima, started to work through Dr. Haralu’s 
manuscript, amplifying and altering wherever it seemed neces- 
sary. Unfortunately the work of dictionary-making is long and 
life is short and by the time we got to 'k’ in the Angami- 
English version I was transferred to another post which made it 
quite impossible for me to continue. Mr. J. P. Mills has with 
him the remainder of the manuscript, and it is hoped that in 
the course of time he and his successors in the Naga Hills may 
be able to bring the work to completion. Meanwffiile it will be 
of help to them to have the first part of it in print and it may 
prove useful for other purposes as well, fragmentary though it 
be. , 

In committing it to the press I feel that some acknowledg- 
ments are due to those who helped me in the revision in addition 
to Mr. Tanquist. These were mainly the Angami interpreters 
of the Deputy Commissioner’s staff in Kohima, in particular 
Mhu and Lhuvisilie of Kohima, Nikrihu of Jotsoma and 
Thepfurhitsu of Khonoma. The dialect used is primarily that 
of Kohima, though in many cases the Khonoma variant is 
given after it in brackets. Dr. Haralu’s preface and autobio- 
graphy I have retained in their original form. They show 
better than could any words of mine the handicap under which 
the original lexicographer laboured but which was not permitted 
to nullify his very real desire to be useful to others. Whatever 
credit is due for the compilation of this dictionary rightly 
belongs to him. j H. Hutton. 

( 117 ) 

Dr. Habalu’s Preface, 

This little work has been placed before the public in 
response to a long-felt demand from among the lorelgiiers who 
are desirous of being acquainted with the Angami tongue as 
well as from the men of this district who are desirous of learning 
the English language. 

As a matter of fact, my predecessors have attempted to 
give eleborate lessons on the Angami language in many a simple 
text-book for the beginners. 1 have always found that the 
beginners of this language were very much handicapped in their 
study of such a complicated language for want of a dictionary 
of the Angami language suitable to their needs. 

With a view to supplement this long-felt demand, this book 
has been compiled. But I fear I have not adequately dis- 
charged the obligations it implies. It is the result of my 
fourteen years constant endeavour to compile this work. If any 
one is found to be slightly helped in the study of the language 
by this Lexicon, I shall regard it worth my labour. I do not 
pretend to claim any originality in the compilation of this 
dictionary except it is perhaps the first, of its kind. 

I must acknowledge my thanks to Messrs. Krusiehu, 
Ruzhukhrie, Pehieiie, Riuzielie, Kevichusa, and Neilhoiizhu for 
their valuable suggestions during the time of compilation and 
for their encouragement in my humble attempt, without which, 
this work would never have seen the light of day, 


( 118 ) 

His Autobiogeaphy. 

Like other domestic people of this part of the country, not 
with a Silver spoon, in my mouth, but with the same poverty 
stricken manner, so blessed by the Omnipotent God according 
to the social custom of Naga Hills, at Kenoma village, I was 
born in the year 188L 

» So unfortunate was I, that I could not see the dearest face 
of my father, who took his everlasting rest in the eternal world 
soon after my birth. 

Thus, being clunched myself into the miserable lap of my 
dearest mother in the like manner I have grown up in course of 
time to be one of the most unfortunate youth. I had none but 
my poor mother to look after me in this world at the critical 
time. In my place it was not customary to impart any educa- 
tion to the children. They should begin their lives as a cultivator 
from their very childhood and that is why my mother used to 
take* me always to the field to start my life as a peasant. I 
was not, however, fully appreciating with my mother’s idea of 
turning me into an artless farmer when I could understand a 
little about the world. 

In the beginning of my life somehow or other I was not 
satisfied with the village life, I wanted something more than the 
ordinary village people, for which in course of time I found 
myself compelled to make an adventure to Kohima for the sake 
of acquiring knowledge and other languages in the hope of 
leading my people who are living in perfect darkness. 

Consequently, when I was about 9 years old, I left my 
village quietly in order to start for Kohima and see what the 
youths of my age were doing there at that time. But unfor- 
tunately it so happened that I had lost my way to Kohima in the 
midst of a thick forest and had to pass the night under the 
shelter of the hollow of a tree where I was in no better condition 
than a beast having been dangerously disturbed by wild beasts 
and by the bites of ants and pricking of shrubs, and I had no 
alternative left on my part than to besmear my body with wet 
soils to get a little relief from the biting pain of the insects. 
It is needless to say that I had no other garment on my body 
save a piece of ' lengta ’ as worn by the Nagas to cover their 
private parts. 

Luckily, I arrived at Khonoma on the fourth day of my 
leaving home quite starving and penniless, dressless and help- 
less. On the 5th day I arrived at Kohima from Khonoma a 
distance of 1 1 miles. After arriving Kohima I passed about 10 
days in the compound of the Deputy Commissioner, Naga Hills 
(Colonel A. E Woods) where I met certain friends of my father 

( 119 ) 

' 120 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N,S.,,' XXIXj 19BBJ 

with whom I passed my days learning at the same time few 
words of Assamese language. After that I was employed as a 
■Shepherd on a monthly wages of Rupees four per month by 
Colonel Woods who seeing my faithful work aKS a Shepherd 
again appointed me as a Cowherd on a monthly allowance of 
Rupees five, to look after his own Cows. Thus I had to pass a 
lengthy period of about five years ■ in, such a state. Soon after 
this I was appointed as an Interpreter in the Deputy Commis- 
sioner’s court when Major A. A. Ho wets came here' as the 
Deputy Commissioner ; who seeing my young age sent me to 
the Mission School at Kohima for my future welfare. It was on 
June 8th, 1902, that I was sent to School under the Mission at 
Kohima after my 8 months’ service as a Dobashi. I was 
educated in the Mission School for about five to six years under 
great difficulty. After I finished my career in the local Mission 
School, I was sent to the Berry White Medical School at 
Dibrugarh, by Sir W. J. Reid, Governor of x4ssam, when he was 
the Deputy Commissioner, Xaga Hills, to study the course of a 
Sub-Assistant Surgeon. It is needless to say that I had to 
undergo much difficulties in my student life for want of pecu- 
niary help, though I was granted a Scholarship to cover my 

During my student life in the Mission School, I w^as vei'y 
unfortunate and helpless that T had to starve at times having 
none to give me a morsel of food. I do well remember that 
once I had to pass full eight days by taking only one Pumpkin, 
making it into eight pieces, each piece being for one day’s meal. 
Having seen my wretched condition Dr. S. W. Rivenburg 
moved with pity on me and helped me with Rupees three or 
four a month as a remuneration for my coaching the Junior 
Students of the School after his instruction. This help of 
course was as much as a heaventy blessing on me at that hour 
of crying need for daily bread and I was still grateful to him 
and shall remain so till I leave this world. 

Having experienced such difficulties I turned out success- 
fully in the Medical School and came out from there in the year 

Since then I have been working until now as a Sub- 
Assistant Surgeon in the Government Medical Department. 

This is the purport of the real history of my sad and 
miserable life. 


Simple vowels, 

a, a as a in father. 5 as o in -pole, 

a as a in fat. o as o in pot. 

a as a m fall. ■ u, il as oo in jt^ooZ. 
e, e as e in fetter. , u ■ m u in pull. 

i, i as i in marine. ii as il in German 

i as i in pin. brilder. 


The Yalues of some of these are almost impossible to render 
in English. 

ai as ai in aisle. 
au as ow in cow. 
el as in fete or a in fate. 
la as ya in Kenya or ye in yet. 
ie as I slightly drawled, 
ou as d slightly prolonged. 

no as o preceded by a faint sound of w ; in the Khonoma 
dialect it becomes a simple 0 . 

U7iaspirated consonants. 
b as in English, 
ch as in church. 
d dental not palatal, 
f as in English, 
g hard as in get, giggle. 
h as in hell, always sounded. 

J as in jade. 
k, 1, m, n, p as in English, 
r always sounded, as in carol. 
s as in sense, 
t dental not palatal. 

T, w as in English, 
y consonantal as in yell. 
z as in English, 
zh as s in treasure. 

Aspirated consonants. 

chh as cli but aspirated. 

kh as in trunkhose. 

kh as in Ireland or as in Zoc)^. 

ph as in taphouse. 

sh as in shame. 

th as in priesthood. 

( 121 ) 

122 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.j XXI-X, 193S j 
Gomposite consonants. 

pf as in cupful; this bilabial / changes to kw (with the 
value oi qu in English) in the Khonoma dialect. 
Other combined consonants are as indicated b j the 
individual letters composing them. 


Generally speaking three tones are distinguished — liighj 
middle, and low. These are indicated only where they are 
necessary to distinguish the various meanings of an otherwise 
identical word. The signs used are ”” for the high, - for the 
middle, and „ for the low. Occasionally more are required and 
these are distinguished as rising,/, and falling, \, and are located 
between the middle and high and the middle and low' as the 
case may be, making seven possible tones in all for any given 
syllable ; ” / \ \ . The sign for tone precedes the syllable 

qimiified. They are here arranged in descending order. Tone, 
stress and even, apparently, aspiration are all varied to distin- 
guish different meanings from the same root. It is on the 
latter ground that the relative arrangement of w^ords contain- 
ing ch and chh does not always conform to strict alphabetical 
order. The apparent ambiguity between the rising and falling 
signs, indicating tones between the high and the middle and 
between the middle and the low respectively, does not in prac- 
tice arise in this vocabulary, as these rising and falling signs 
are only used when an otherwise identical syllable with a high, 
middle or low tone with its appropriate sign also appears ; the 
value therefore of the rising or falling sign is determined by 
the order of printing in the vocabulary. Thus in ke/kre 
(p. 152) the sign indicates a tone rising from low to middle, as 
determined by ke_kre which follows it, whereas ke/krti indi- 
cates a tone rising from middle to high and kexkrli, a tone 
falling from middle to low, as determined by their reference 
to ke-krii, and also, in the latter case, to ke-krti (p. 153). 


Normally the accent is equally distributed between the 
syllables of a word. Where this is not the case stress is indi- 
cated by an acute accent,, chilge, where the second syllable 
is accented. 


a, the first letter and the first 
vowel in the Angami Naga 
alphabet. It is pronounced 
as a ’Mn “ father ‘‘ art 

a, I, my, me; personal pro- 
noun. In mie, ‘‘my pro- 
perty ”, in the posses- 
sive case ; in struck 

me”, a is in the objective 

"“abei, an exclamation of con- 
sternation uttered by a man 
who has j ust escaped causing 
an injury to another by 
missing him with missile 
aimed at something else. 

-abeij^, to fail to hit the 

about, abu (boulie), my dar- 
ling, my beloved child. 

abu, abunu, permit me to, 
cause me to, I was permitted 
to, I was made to, etc. 

achie (ayie) yes, all right ; a 
particle implying consent. 

adiel^, Never mind 1 Let it 
be 1 

adzligweu, my lover, wooer, 
paramour (of the man only). 

adztlgweii, my sweetheart (of 
the woman only). 

ab, an expression of sorrow, 
vexation or worry : Alas 1 

ahou, an expression of aston- 
ishment, sudden surprise or 

ai, see achie. 

akhro, (1) an expression of 
amazement or fear ; did you 
ever! well I declare I The 
corresponding form of the 
word as used by women is 

(2) an expression of depre- 
cation used to calm anger or 
excitement. Only the men 
use this form of the word, 
the corresponding word used 
by the women being ahhrie, 

akhru, my brain. 

akfarie,=fl^Mm, in first 

or second sense ; used by 
women only. 

ala, an exclamation expressing 
pain, sorrow, anxiety, regret, 
etc. ; oh ! (also a/c, aya), 

ale, see aZa, 

apau, m. apau, f. a term of 
endearment used to children 
as (my) ‘‘pet 

athia, very good ; all right. 

athiadiucbii, an exclamation 
used in case of narrow escape 
from the accident. 

athuo, Berberis, a kind of tree 
giving a yellow dye. (Also 
caUed ntho), 

avail, agree ; ratify. 

ave, an utterance expressing 
sympathy or pity ; to feel 
sorry for, 

avie, my property. 

avu, we two ; with reference 
to the person speaking and 
the person addressed. 

aya, see ala. 

ayie, see achie. 

( 123 ) 

124 ' Jonmal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX , 


a, the second letter and the 
second vowel in the Angami 
Naga alphabet. It is pro- 
nounced as ** a ’’ in add ”, 
“pan”, etc. 



the third letter and the 
third vowel in the Angami 
Naga alphabet. It is pro- 
nounced as in “ball” or 
as “ aw ” in “ draw ”, “ oa ” 
in “ broad”, etc. 

b, the fourth letter and the 
first consonant in the Anga- 
mi Naga alphabet. It is 
pronounced as “ b ” in 
“ bnib ”, “ tube ”, etc. 

ba, (1) to be, is, am, are; 
exist, be present, be at 
home, to be resting from 
field work because oipenyie, 

(2) to sit, to rest on a seat, 

(3) the proper place for any- 
one or anything. The 
possessive pronoun must be 
prefixed, “his place”, “its 
place”, etc. ; seat, 

ba, to add something as in 
weighing rice to make up 
weight (used principally in 

baba, an expression used 
especially with the negative, 
as haha mo^ which then in- 
dicates smallness in quantity 
or number: like “nothing 
to speak of”. 

baba, turbid. 

bacha, bench,, long Wooden 


bacha,. to last long, 
bada, stool, seat. 

bada, idle, remaining' with out 
doing work. 

bagei, cart, wagon, etc. 
bagou, to crawl. 

bag we (also bawe) old. village 
{as distinct from colonies). 

bahi, to , loll or recline, to 
adopt an attitude of neither 
sitting erect nor lying flat. 

bake, corner seat, 
bakhra, cloth or mat spread 
to sit on. 

bakrii, greenish .nasal mucous, 
bala, middle seat. 

balhi, tilt, tilted, resting on 
one side. 

baio, still existing, yet remain- 
ing, staying, etc. 

banu, sit back to back, 
bapfuij, orchid, 
bara, chair. 

barhu, to squat, to sit upon 
the heels and hams, 
basa, new village ; new section 
of village, 
basa, is more. 

batha, a half standing and 
, half sitting; .attitude; to 
adopt' such an attitude. ... 

baton, a smal stool, round 
and without legs. 

baton, to sit rigid ; to fit 
tight (as of an axe handle). 

1933 ] 

Angami-English Dictiomry 


baton ega, to sit erect , and 
watch intently. ■ 

ha.tu,=:bafmi. . ■ 

bavtl, gong, watch, clock. 

bavilda, hour. 

bawe, old village ; old section 
of village (see bagwe). 

bawe, is, are (present tense of 
the verb ba). 

baya, is, are, exists, lives (in a 
house or village). 

bayie, winter, the dry season. 

bazha, a term used to denote 
foreign musical instruments. 

bazha» to sit on the floor. 

“"ba, “bo, trunk, the axis of a 

-ba, ~bo, shxit, cover, enclose. 

_ba, „bo, a fence erected in 
the verandah of a house to 
enclose a place for sacrifice ; 
a place so fenced. 

ba, the main or essential part 
of anything, the root of 
the matter 

baba, mud ; muddy. 

bade, basis, beginning founda- 

badi, a great tree; (hence) of 
rich family. 

bagn, barren, unfruitful tree ; 
bearing little or no fruit at 

bakrii, a tree the trunk of 
which is divided into a num- 
ber of stems. 

ball, a tree with a single main 
stem (the opposite of bclkru). 

bane, earth heaped and ram- 
med at the foot of a tree ; 
(hence) a helper. 

banyie, immature ; a plant 
which has not yet grown to 
its full size . 

bapfii, a tree with many 
branches, a bush. 

baphi, a tree .which, grows 

batei, a kind of bean with a 
black seed. 

batsa, a mature tree, a tree 
plant grown to its full size. 

batsa, fruitful; bearing fruit 
in plenty, 

“be, incubate, to sit on eggs 
or cover in order to hatch 
them as a hen does. 

“be, to clip, to cut with 
scissors ; to nip ; to pinch ; 
to clasp hard between two 

"be, to burrow ; heaps of mould 
cast by rats., to boil ; to cook in hot 

be,=6a, is, etc. 

bebe, to murmur, to mutter. 

beg we same as bewe. 

beibei (bibi), clinking sound. 

bele, broody ; sitting or wish- 
ful to sit and incubate (of a 

beme, to brood ; to sit on 
eggs in order to hatch them* 
benia, a double strip of bam- 
boo used in thatching. 

besa, new heaps of mould cast 
by some animals, especially 
rats and crabs (<6e== 
burrow; sa=new)> 
bese, a strip of bamboo used 
in thatching, when three 
layers of strips are used 
instead of two. 


Jowrml of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.y XX. IX* 

foevll/ to brood, to sit on. eggs 
to liatch them. 

bewe, old heaps of mould cast 
by some animals, especially 
crabs and rats. 

bi' — , see Dzie, 

bia, biam, never mind 1 it 
doesn’t matter. 


bicha, see mecha. 

~bie, to take up something 
such as gram with the hand. 

“Me, to touch, to put the 
hands on. 

bieperhu, to soil, to make 

biepesuo, biepesho, to spoil, 

__bie, a basket measure the 
capacity of which is about 
sixty pounds. 

™bie, a 8ema basket. 

biede, depression ; dent. 

bieja, to miss ; to fail to 
touch ; (hence) to fail to do 
right ; to make a mistake. 

borohu (borhu), hoopoe. 

bou, bu, arm ; the limb extend- 
ing from the shoulder to the 

bou (boui), bu, clamorous; 
full of noise. 

bou, vessel; anything hollow 
for holding food, liquid, 
things, etc. 

bou, bu, room, chamber ; 
(hence) swelling, ulcer in 
tumid condition. 

bouba, to shoulder; to carry 
on the shoulder. 

boui, bui, enclitic used to 
intensify or emphasize mean- 
ing, thus 2 :ei=dark, zeiboui=^ 
very dark. 

boubie, forearm. 

boudaboulle, waist-coat (lit. 
a garment ' into which tiie 
arms are inserted but whicli 
has the sleeves cut off. 

bouts^ (boucfai, bouchie), 


buoga, coward. 

boubya, the act of raising tlie 

bouka, shoulder. 

bouila, coat; shirt.;, (any gar- 
ment with sleeves, . cf. 

boulie, to put on coat or shirt. 

bouiuo, cockroach. 

bounge (buonge), also called 
bar, horiiy beetle; in |>arri- 
cular the dung or burying 
beetle, scarabaeiis. 

bouru, vaccination ; lit. arm 
writing or arm scratching. 

bouthu, elbow, 

bouthuru, elbow-cap ; the 
bone at the point of the 

boutsa, broken (of a gourd). 

bu (bo), let ; to allow. 

bubu, soft. [<iibubii=zTot ; 

bubu (boubu), to bubble. 

buo, to defecate ; to evacuate 

buo, to dabble ; to play or 
work in water so as to become 
wet : to slush. 

buokra, a white secretion from 
the eye; the white part of 
bird’s dung. 

buonyli, particles of excre- 
ment adbering to the anus 
after defecation. 



Angami-Wnglish Dictionary 


Monyhll,=5tiom (2), sticks 
covered with fecal matter. 

biiopfiimia, scavenger, 

sweeper, remover of dung. 

bwoprie, break wind, 
buoztia, loose stool (medical), 
biiora, (1) old excrement. 

(2) sticks covered with fecal 
matter, used in jest to soil 

bworlibil, hoopoe. 

bnorbei (borbi), ' fresh stool 
or excrement ; fresh (cow) 

: dung. 

buosli, n. dried excrement, old 
dung ; vb. to be constipated, 
to evacuate hard stools. 

buoti, fecal concretion. 

buozakrti, one who very often 
answers the call of nature ; 
(hence) coward, 
bvilrii (keli), bull-roarer. 

■ c. 

c, the fifth letter and the 
second consonant in the 
Angami Naga alphabet. It 
is used only in combination 
with ‘ ■ h ’’ as in the English 
“ church 

""cha, n. handle ; meaning. 

vb, borrow; decide. 

-cliaj vb. fade ; turn pale ; 

^cba^ vb. throttle ; tie on a 
garment round the waist. 
(In both cases the signi- 
ficance ^ that of passing a 
string round an object and 
tightening the noose by 
pulling the opposite ends of 
the string, and this is the 
true meaning of the word.) 

~cha,--chaa, n. fence ; (hence) 
the purlieus of the village, 
cha (kra), many, 
cha (kra), white. 

(cha)”chlia, n. road. 

vb. (1) raise; (2) cook. 
(cha),_chha, adj. long. 

vb. (1) ask; (2) strain, filter, 
chaba, main road, 
chacha, far, distant 
chachie, path. 

chachii, the sixth month of 
the Angami year, approxi- 
mately June. 

"ciiachii, to cook, prepare 
, food. 

“Chachu, pale; sickly. 

_chachii, a black bead made 
of plantain seed. 

chachu, see chatJiou, 

chadanyi, a festival celebrat- 
ing the annual clearing of 
paths leading to cultiva- 

chadangi, same as above, 
(chadi), chba"“di, big road, 
chadi, village fence. 

chadi, the seventh month of 
the Angami year, approxi- 
mately July. 

chadza, cross-roads. 

chage, a kind of grass having 
big and long leaves, 
chagwinizu, millipede, 
chahe, chahie, the drinking 
of liquor by the wayside, 
usually partaken by a group 
of persons outside the 

chahou, a stockade or strong 
fence surrounding an en- 
closed space. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

chalwiocliaya, glutbonous ; 

, greedy. . 
chaktia, gate. 

chakha, hiadraace, stumbling- 
block. ■ 

chakra (tsakra), a tree or a 
shrub bearing a small edible 

chakra, see chiecha (3). 
cha^khra, immediately. 
cha„kra, steep path, 

chakhrie (chathie), now, 
presently, soon, 
chakou, track, 
chakrii, extra food. 

chaku, a narrow and deep 

chalha, the space outside the 
village gate or fence. 

chaii, curt, simple, direct 
(of speech). 

chapra, passage of wild ani- 
mals ; also of men. 

chaphrie, bow for ginning 

chara, strong smell ; exces- 
sive heat (of the weather), 

chare, an entrance through a 

charh&, short cut ; by-way. 

charhe, a point where two or 
more paths meet. 

-charhie, by path, short cut. 

-charhie, a part of the head 
ornament called 

charhu, tsarhu, plume of red 
or white hair carried on a 

charu, any of the longer bones 
of human or animal limbs 
after the flesh has decayed. 

chatha, an offering to the ire 
god in order to appease him. 

chatha, cha thou, to stroll « 
chathie, see chakhrie: 

chathou, chachu, odour ; 
scent ; smell ; stink. 

chatsa, see chiecha (3). 
chatse, a branch road, 
chatuo, to walk, 
chatuosei, stilts. 

chaff, curt ; simple ; plain ; 
direct (of speech). 

chaff, of various kinds. (adJ4 

' (chaff) chhaff , highway ; high 
road . 

chavff, to defecate. 

chawhi, chahwi, circular 

chawi, a hook ; a bent piece 
of wood or metal for hang- 
ing things on. 

chawishffra, a kind of tree, 
commonly fed to cattle . 

chayie, important, 
chayie, popular song ; tune, 
chazhougakhra, a kind of 
vegetable having a sour 

chazhff, straight road, 
chazou, out; outward, out- 
side ; hill, eminence, 
cha, stake, post, 
cha, (vb. intrans.) wake up, 

chahanuo, a species of smal 
red ant, 

ch4ka, a species of ant, 
chakhrie,' a ..large black ant 
with a painful sting, 
chatei, a species of small 
black ant, also with a pain- 
ful sting. 


Angami-En^lish Dictionary 


cli^zle, a species of small red 

ctiepa (chieptia), belt. 

“ctile, back (of the body). 
-cMe^ (1) hole. 

(2) rotten. 

(3) to dress wood. 

ctiie, the verbal suffix in a 
command or request. 

_cMe, wet., 

-chie (thie), till, cultivate, 
-chie (tsi), python. 

-chie (rlicMe), be disgusted 

chie (ki), pull, drag, 
chie, year, 
chie, see chhie. 

chhie (khi), to distribute or 
present a share of meat at 

chhie (thsie, sie), to throw 
(of spear or long stick). 

chhie (thi), of equal length, 
chhie (thi), until, till, 
chhie (khi), fathom. 

chhie (khi), (1) guess. 

(2) spell. 

chhie (khi), challenge. 

cMebie, crop ; growing cereal ; 
cereal crop until reaped. 

chiecha (thieclia), the season 
between the reaping and 
final harvesting of the crops 
and the subsequent sowing. 

chiecha, ( < chie = back, and 

(1) petticoat, skirt. 

(2) ceremonial waist-orna- 
ment consisting of very 
thick white cotton rope, 

(3) belt of woven cotton 
(chakra, ohatsa). 

chiecha, the waist. 

chiechie (thieti), the wild 
turmeric plant (curcuma). 

chiechiekhe (tsiatikhu), a 
species of cicada. 

chiede, a species of wild fig 

chiega (kiga), to dilate ; to 
force open, tear apart, 
chiehi, to break bit by bit, to 
crumble, (vb. trans.) 
chiehuba ( 1 ) peach-tree (also 
mezarsibo) ; (2) the tree phyl- 
lanthus emblica (khulhu). 
chiehusi (1) peach (mezarsi) ; 
(2) the fruit of phyllanthus 
emblica (khulhusi) . 
chiekechie (thiketi), penia, 
a tabu day observed by the 
Angamis to prevent a blight 
or rot attacking the cereal 

chiekesia (chiesie, thisa) 
penia, a tabu day observed 
by the Angamis to prevent 
the withering or failure of 
the grain in the ear. 
chiekhra, a species of small 
bird with blue feathers on 
the back. 

chiekhrie, sparrow, 
chiekra, a species of hornet, 
chiekra (chiikra), a block for 
cutting up meat, etc. on. 
chiekra (chiekro), clod ; a 
lump of earth. 

chiekrachienienuo, a species 
of swallow or martin, 
chiekrii (tsiekrii), a migratory 
bird, probably a species of 

chie_kru (chiikrii), a species 
of solanum which bears a 
yellow fruit (prob. solanum 

130 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [ISfoS., XXIX , 

cMekra, a plant, a species of 

cMe^kra, porcupine, 
ctiie^kru, streamers of plan- 
tain leaf attached to cup of 
the same material when used 
in Angami ceremonial, 
cliieiievil, a feast to which the 
participants all contribute, 
chiemiakej ii (thimikej ii) 

penia, a tabu day observed 
by the Amgamis because the 
roots of the rice plants are 
not growing properly, 
chiemou (shemon), cordia 
myxa L., a species of tree, 
the bark and leave, of which 
yield a brownish dye. 
cMena (tsiena), wormwood. 
cMenuo (thino), clan, 
chienuopfii, a species of large 
snake (probably the hama- 
dryad, ophiophagus elaps). 
cMenyie (pinyie), an edible 
fungus common on chestnut 

cMepfii, an edible fruit (sola- 
num sp.) having a very 
bitter taste. 

chiepfii, stub ; the stump of 
small trees when the upper 
part is cut off. 

chiepfii, back-strap; a band 
of plaited cane, or leather, 
passing round the waist of 
the weaver, in order to 
maintain the tension of the 

cMepfiikerei, a species of 
small snake or slowworm 
(probably the latter). 
cMepha, belt ; a piece of 
leather or other material tied 
round the waist, 
chiepha, a species of cane 
(calamus mminalis). 

ctiieptia, wild quince or apple. 

chieptira, a species of small 

diiephra, to break, or tear 
apart, or split (using the 
two hands to do it). 

chiephrie, a noose used as a 
snare for catching birds. 

cMerha, to tear. 

chiehra, half a fathom, a yard. 

chierhe, a dart, consisting of a 
piece of sharpened bamboo 
for use as a spear ; a javelin. 

chierMe (tsarha, tsiarWa), 
to slip, to lose one’s foot- 

chie“"rhuo, to undo. 

chie_rhuo, to tear off length- 
wise, sliver. 

chierie (chieria), the eight 
month of the Angami year, 
approximately August. 

chierie (chieri), a species of 
wild fig tree which yields 
edible fruit. 

chiesa, to fire successive shots 
as from the right and left 
barrels of a double-barrelled 

chiesa, the bastard sago palm 
(caryota urens, Linn.). 

chiesi, a species of tree, Litsala 

chieshii (thishu), fresh paddy, 
from the last harvest (paddy 
more than one harvest old is 
Gdlledi zugwe ot zuwe). 
chietsh (tichti, tltsll), ^ 
the stalk of which has an 
acid taste, a species of 

chietsilt a head of rice or other 
cereal plant. 

1933 ] 

A7igami-Engli$h Dictionary 


cMe-tha (kitha), to prolong ; 
to puli ; to lengthen out. 

cliie-tEa (tsietlia), (1) out- 
crops of rock.; 

(2) a great boulder inhabited 
by a spirit or godling. 

(3) stones erected in a line. 

chleOlie, to clasp round the 
waist, hold (in wrestling). 

€Me_t!ie, (wb. trans.) snap; 
break pieces off (of a cord, 
string, etc.) ; to break a 
bridge (of a stream or river) ; 
to break a mark (of a spear). 

cMethno, to miss (in shooting). 
(From chie^ shoot, and 
kemethuo, empty). 

_cliievu, the simal tree {Bom- 
tax malaharicum). 

“chievii, a species of large 


“ctihii, pick up, lift. 

■“dihii, hear. 

-chii, do, perform, make, 
-chii, tsii, grow, spring up. 
•“Chil (chiiu), that (that one). 
“Ctiii, bead. 

-cliii, wedge, be wedged in. 
-chtiii, ache, pain. 

"dihil, a large basket for 
storing rice. 

„chtl, eat. 

(1) wild animal. 

(2) flesh. 

clititiba, a bench of planks or 
bamboos on which are 
placed the baskets for storing 

chhilbe, chiibelia, boiled 

cliubllo, cud ; undigested food 
of ruminating animals. 

chflbuonge, stag-beetle. 

chilchbail (khncbtl), the grub 
(nymph) of the larger dragon 

chhucha, to buy meat, cut it 
up and retail it. 

chhiichii, a generic for the 
smaller cats (wild). 

chhuchlinhaphieh, the Indian 
marten ; stone-marten. 

chhiihuo, cbuwhuo, to hunt. 

cbhuhuomia, cbilwhuomia, 
huntsman, hunter ; one who 

chhiihyakezakechij, a tabu 
day observed by any Anga- 
mi village when a commun- 
ity from another village is 
entertained with fresh meat. 

chiido, a genus of flowering 
tree, wendlandia, 

chiige, lid of basket for stor- 
ing x^addy . 

chiige, a ceremony entailing 
the sacrifice of a small pig 
to procure health for human 
beings or domestic animals. 

chiigesei, a drill, or bow-drill, 
for boring holes in beads, 

chiigie, a wooden bar placed 
by the side of paddy bas- 
kets for protecting them. 

chiikanyii, a species of wild 
leguminous plant, the leaves 
of which are eaten as a 

chiikhu, a species of small 
beetle wrhich eats dry meat. 

chiikra, block for chopping 
meat, wood, etc. 

chiikrti, gland; any internal 
callosity in the flesh. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

cfilikril, see chiehrii, 

ctillli, a small tree, alangium 
indicum (formerly marlea 

cfihlili, a species, of bracken 
(pteris aquilina), 

dihiikou, run or path made 
by the smaller wild animals 
in the jungle. 

chhiilousou, an animal, pro- 
bably legendary, which is 
believed never to come out 
of its hole in the ^ound 
until it is about to die. It 
is unlucky to see it. It is 
possibly identical with 

chiiluoii (tsulo), a water in- 
sect found in rice terraces. 

chhilmei, “the brush”; the 
tail of an animal given in 
hunting to the man who first 
touched the wounded beast, 
in addition to his usual 

chiimerie, garlic. 

chhtimia, hair or fur of deer 
or of the smaller cats. (cf. 

chhiimou, hoof. 

chhiinouphe, a foetus taken 
out of the womb of any 
animal killed. 

cfohiinuo, small basket for 
storing paddy {chhii, q.v., 
and rmo,= child). 

chhupa, (1) an intestinal 
parasite of cattle. 

(2) a small red wormlike 
insect found in water, 

chhiiphie, the lung (of animals 

chtifiphra, the baskets for 
storing , grain, when , kept 
separately outside the house 
for fear of fire. 

chhiipliou, ligaments of nerves 
passing ■ through .the necfe 
of animals; probably the 
ligament of nuchae. 

chiirha (rhaehli), tubercul- 
osis adnitis. 

chiirhaii, vulture. 

chhiirhei, raw meat ; uncook- 
ed flesh. 

chhiirhei (chhiirhi), tick; a 
parasitic insect which at- 
taches itself to animals. 

chhlirhie, a stri]D of meat. 

chhiirhu, (1) the heart, kid- 
ney, spleen and the psoas 
muscle, which are forbidden 
to be burnt by Angami 
custom in the belief that 
the burning of these pre- 
vents their cattle from in- 
creasing. They may. how- 
ever, be boiled — provided 
none of the water they are 
boiled in comes in contact 
with fire. 

(2) the funeral meat which 
according to Angami cus- 
tom is regarded as tabu to 
the clan of the deceased 
after the second day of the 
funeral. The term is also 
applied to the meat eaten 
by pullers of a memorial 
stone, in which case it 
must be consumed, if at all, 
on the day the stone is set 

(rhu is from kerhu, unclean.) 

(chhii) rhu, to divide {meat}.- 
into equal parts. 

1933 ] 

Angami- English Dictionary 


clilittrlieo, shares of meat 
given : to acquaintances by 
the performer of a ceremony 
of social status. 

chlitiria, intestine (of animals), 
ctitiilrie, firefly ; glowworm, 
chliilru, bone (of animals), 
cliflrii, to lie, tell lies. 

chhiiro, to lie in wait for or 
stalk game; ‘-still hunt- 

cfihiisa, meat which is not 
regarded as tabu by the 
Angamis and can be eaten 
under any circumstances 
( opposite of chhurhu ) . {sa is 
fiom kemesa, cleap). 

chhiisa, ache more. 

clilisa, do more, make more. 

chtise (chiiphi), do much or 

chbiise (chhiiphi), ache very 

chilse, a small barrel or 
torpedo -shaped bead made 
from the shell of the conch, 
chhiise, liver (of animals). 

chhilsepe, a ceremonial rite 
performed at the Sekrengi 
with the liver of a sacrificed 
fowl chopped up with 

chilsia, then, after that. 

chhiishilihe, colugo, flying 
lemur (galeopithecm volans). 

clihlisi, chili; red pepper 

clitisuo (chllslio), nasty 
disagreeable to taste ; not 

chilsno, must not do. 
ctihtisno, fat (of animals). 

chhusuosi, tallow ; intestine 
fat of cattle. 

chhiiterhrilzha, the right of a 
man who has killed enemies 
- or wild animals to w^ear 
certain ornaments or use 
certain distinctions on his 

chhutsie, lard; pig’s fat for 

chhiitsu, “ the mask ” ; the 
head of an animal, given in 
hunting to the man who first 
wounds or kills the animal. 

chutsii, an ornament consist- 
ing of a triangular segment 
of conch shell, used as an 
end piece for necklaces. 

chhiivase, abomasum, the 
digestive stomach of a 

chhilvosu, chhuv^, a rare 
species of mammal reported 
to feed on earth-worms and 
to resemble the young of the 

chhiiya, the share of the 
second man to touch the 
dead body of an animal 
killed in bunting (excluding 
the killer himself). This 
share consists of two ribs, 
whatever other share he 
may, or may not, get, (ya,= 

chiiya, does ; eats, etc. {ya^ 
pres, continuative suffix). 

chhiiyha, raw and undried 

chhuze, meat for sale. 

chhilzhie, barking deer 
{cervulus muntjac), 

chiizia, carnelian bead. 

chhuzhiebuonge, lesser stag 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX, 

clilillzhiecliilkrtl, wild olive 
■ ' tree. 

chtiiizMegare, a species of 
wild vegetable. 

ctiliiizhienyie, a kind of tree, 
probably a species of box- 

chhilzhti, (1) bide, skin (of 

(2) sleeping place of wild 

cfifiuzli, uncooked meat, 


d, the sixth letter and the 
third consonant in the 
Angami Naga alphabet, 
pronunciation d dental, 
not palatal. 

“"da, chop (used of cutting on 
a block). 

/da, to clear jungle. 

-da, to accuse, to charge with, 
-da, perhaps ; seemingly. 

“da, cake, ‘"fid’’, dollop 
applied to any flat piece of 
softish material, e.g. a cake 
of yeast or a loaf of bread; > 
= honey-comb. 

„da, stick on ; cause to adhere. 

dada, dadai, briskly, smartly, 

dadi, serious accusation 
(generally with the implica- 
tion of falsehood). 

dadoii, cunning, 
dadu, slow, sluggish, clumsy, 
dahon, fort, 
dai, quick. 

dapfii, (vb. intrans.) to adhere, 

dapfemla, dakkwemia, mail 
runners ( < Hindustani d^aib). 

dapM, the line round the 
head ■ below which the skin 
is shaven. 

darhe (tstirhe), the hair in 
front when combed down 
unto the forehead or. worn 
in a fringe, 
darn, medicine, 
dasie, the hair in front when 
brushed upwards from the 

dathuo (dara), empty honey- 

"da, end, stump (as of a 
cigarette or a pencil) ; hence 
dd great, important (as in 
ungumvudmi, our greatest 
enemy) always with a bad 

“d^, (1) to cut a notch ; nick, 

(2) to escarp, make a slope 
perpendicular by cutting. 

(3) buttress, (n.). 

(4) (adj.) middling; mean, 

(5) any short unit of space or 
time (n) [?<(!) ]. 

/dd, thigh. 

/dd, suffix to denote the 
male among certain domes- 
tic animals (as thudd, bull). 
__dd, (1) skill, cunning, wisdom 

(2) weave (vh.). 

-.dd, thought, plan, scheme, 
ddchii, stupid, unintelligent, 
dadei (dddi), tightly plaited ; 
closely woven, 

"dd^dd, stout, ^ sturdy 

(mostly used of children) . 
""dd-dd, occupation, task 

(particularly of house work) . 
ddjii, try, atfcempt ; tempt. 

1933 ] 


Angami-English Dictionary 

-dajlij to prepare oneself, 
get ready. . 

_d§jii (doje), without skill; 
resourceless, unresourcefuL 

damia^ a species of tree hav- 
ing a thick bark and small 
white flowers. 

daphi, eccentric action ; 
peculiar behaviour. 

dam, wendlandia exserta, a 
species of spiraea-like tree 
having a scented white 

darti, loosely plaited or 

d^rie, to imitate. 

d&sa, new plan, new scheme. 

d^sliii, the first month of the 
Angami year, approximately 

dasB, a scheme resulting 

d§tlia, dance performed by 
men with spear and shield. 

d&thno, futile scheme, a 
scheme which is bound to 

da^zha, ambitious. 

da_z!ia, big, strong (of cattle, 

“"de, cut, chop — of cutting 
through wood not placed on 
a block, nor growing in the 
ground from the roots. 

-de, equal. 

_de, vb. trans. (1) fold (of 
cloth, papers, etc.) 

(2) dam, to stop a water 

“dei (di), thick, opaque 
(used of closely woven cloth 
or of thick forest) ; stout, 
thick-set (of men and 

-dei (di), prohibit, . prevent : 
(hence) to set up an 
obstacle, as a board placed 
in a gap to stop animals. 

.-dei, burn (of fuel only). 

deichliraii, telchlirati, the 
common Mynah, an Indian 

deidei (didi), sticky, gluey, 

deipa (jupa), occiput; the 
back of the head or skull, 
derei, deri, but. 

di, rule ; reign ; to govern 
(a people). 

di, young paddy; the young 
rice plant. 

di, and; participial suffix 
corresj^onding roughly to 
“ing” in English, but 
perhaps more often with the 
sense of the past) participle 

di. What! 
dia (da), four, 
dia, to give drink, 
dichli, to hoe ; to loosen the 
earth and remove weeds 
when the crop is growing, 
“die, prisoner, captive, 
die (de), word ; a spoken sign 
which conveys an idea ; a 
topic ; a sentence, 
dieba, theme ; subject ; 

matter under discussion, 
diebe, murmur; mutter, 

diebou, a babbler, chatter- 

diebou, to vociferate, clamour, 
to make an uproar (of a 
number of persons), 
diebou, vociferous, chattering, 
loquacious, garrulous. 

136 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

suggestion, project 
(with the idea of futility). 

plan, counsel, discus- 

die kliie, to slander, wantonly 
malign, start trouble be- 
tween friends. 

diekhrall, a dream foreboding 
a quarrel, e.g. a dream of 
collecting water-snails. 

diekhroo, to backbite ; sneak ; 
tell tales. 

diekrie, vociferate, clamour 
(of a single person). 

diekrie, false rumour. 

diekrii, a species of egg-eating 
migratory bird. 

dieli, reserved ; of few words ; 

dielie, message. 

dieliemia, messenger. 

dienya, complaint ; allegation. 

dierha, coarse or indecent 

dieruo (dierori), a ceremony 
to avert evil resulting from 
unlucky words spoken. 

dieshii, slander. 

diete, captive ; a person taken 
in war. 

diete, an agreement. 

dieth^, straightforward, 
honest, trustworthy. 

dievi, dievii, euphemism ; 
metaphorical or jocular 
expression to avoid “ calling 
a spade a spade e.g. 
^‘song’’ for litigious dis- 
pute ”, bitter ” (kepfu) for 
distilled liquor ” (dzuharo), 
kemezo for ke^khrie. 

dieze, obedient. 

dima, tump; to^ heap up 
earth about the foot of the 
stems of the rice. , 

dimesa, to clear the stem of 
the rice-plant by stripping 
the decayed and superfluous 
leaves, . 'and ' by removing 
adjacent weeds. 

dizil, to weed ; to remove the 
weeds from the rice-field. 

dou, to make terraces for the 
purpose of cultivation. 

dou, vb. tr., to erect; to set 

doulei (dull), an eight-anna 

"du, to sow. 

~du, to cut (e.g. cut down a 
tree ; cut into lengths for 
firewood ; cut a limb with a 

_du, to clip, lop ; to cut the 

ducha, handle of hoe. 

duchu, to cut or split into 
small pieces. 

du^da, to stun ; strike so as 
to render senseless. 

du~da, to flatten ; to strike a 
thing forcibly as to make it 

duda, to incise, make shallow 
cuts in. 

dude, to dent ; to strike so as 
to leave a depression. 

dukhra, to cut or break as- 
under by a blow. 

dulfi, a bamboo frame, made 
to spin round a central up- 
right, used for winding 

dulhe, to strip ; take ofi the 


Angami- English Dictionary 


dukhri, kill ; slay; 
duo (do), to apply a medicine 
of any kind to an injury to 
relieve a pain, or stop bleed- 
ing, as a temporary 

duo, conjointly, by twos, 
together (used especially in 
personal names of twin 
brothers, Duopielie, Duosiel- 
hou,etG. from heduo, q.v.). 
-duo/diio (da_da), house 

-~duo~duo (dMa), astringent 
in taste (like tannin or crab 

dupha, to break a hole 
through anything, 
duphapha, to cut up into very 
small fragments, 
dophra (dupha), to find water 
by digging. 

duphra, to break (used of 
breaking compact and 
brittle or fragible substances 
with a blade, e.g. it may be 
used of breaking a man’s 
head with a spade), 
dupha, to kill with a single 
blow delivered by hand or 
with a staff. 
du~the, fist. 

du„the, cut asunder, slice in 

dutsa, break (by striking or 

dza, to place any object on 
others supporting it so as to 
leave a space underneath, 
as a pot on the hearth stones 
between which the fire is 
built, or a plank across a 

dza, crotch, fork (in combina- 
tion with “ tree ”, river ”, 
etc. see rilrdza, seidza). 

dzadza, fear, nervousness, 

dzadza, light ; without weight 
(see medza), 

dzalhi, one handed. 

dzau, nightjar. 

dzamvii, jamvti, purify, 
absolve from guilt. 

""dze, to meet ; to wait for in 
order to meet on the way. 

-dze, story (for thedze ) ; (hence) 
about, concerning. 

-dze, pack; wrap up. 

_dze, cook thoroughly ; to 
cook so as to make very 

-dze, to remonstrate ; to 
demand an explanation 
from a person reported to 
have spoken ill of one. 

dzedze, sticky. 

“"dzie, to roll the edge of a 
leaf to make a cup. 

-dzie, to wear (of a cloth 
only), to put on a cloth or 

-dzie (bi), hand. 

dzieda (bida), to clap, to 

dziekha, bikba, ring, bracelet, 

dziekhathuo, bikhatho, 

bracelets (of a woman). 

dziekbrii, knuckles of the 
phalanges, the second joint 
of the finger's ; also, the 
knuckles of the hand. 

dziekinuo (bichtino), hunger. 

dziekrii (bikru), thumb. ' 

dzielhi (bilhi), a single hand 
or arm (as distinct from 
dziere) ; a single handful. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

dziemM (biwhi), a rail, as of 
a bridge, to prevent danger 
from falling (lit. ‘‘ band- 

dzlemvii, a person so consti- 
tuted that animals avoid 
his touch. Thus if he pull 
a string to scare birds they 
fly from the field, and if he 
spread birdlime for them 
none get caught. If such a 
man apply his hands to a fly 
blown wound the maggots 
leave it, and if a snake bite 
him the snake dies. 

dziene, a tabu day observed 
by the Angamis when a new 
chiekrau, or tsiakrau (first 
sower) or liedepfu (first 
reaper) is appointed for a 

dziepa (bipa), an armlet of 
red plaited cane worn on the 
upper arm, 

dziera, handle (used when 
large enough to accom- 
modate the whole hand). 

dzieraii, praying mantis. 

dziere (bire), the two hands : 
double handful ; as much as 
can be scooped up with 
both hands held together. 

dzierepa (birepa), gauntlets 
made of cloth and worn as 
a badge indicating that the 
wearer has had an intrigue 
with two sisters. 

dziesupa (bisupa), gauntlets 
made of cloth worn on the 
forearm in ceremonial dress. 

dziezhii (bizhii), slap, smack. 

dziezhil (bizhu), the palm of 
the hand, 

dzii, properly Jit, q.v. 

"“dzil, water ; fluid. 

““dzll, short. , 

-dzii, eggs ; testicles, 
to meet, 

dzuba, standing water (as In 
, a terraced field, and also 
applied to water kept at hand 
in the house, in which ease 
the second syllable is slight- 
ly accented. <dzil, . 
ba, remain, in both cases). 

dziiba, a device for automati- 
cally scaring birds and 
rats, which is worked by 
water. A bamboo, consist- 
ing of two sections with the 
lower section bored below 
the node which joins the 
two, is pivoted on a horizon- 
tal stick, so that m stream 
runs into the upper section 
which overbalances when 
full, empties itself and falls 
back with a bang against a 
horizontal bamboo laid on 
the ground so that the 
lower section will strike it. 
{Accent on first syllable.) 

dziiba, the point at which a 
water channel begins; also 
the first branch channel led 
from the main channel, 
subsequent leads being 
called dzuchie. (Accent on 
second syllable.) 

dziibe, pool or deep, in a 
river ; the still deep stretches 
of water as distinguished 
from the alternating rapids 
in a hill river. 

dziibou, pitcher; water pot; 
jar for storing water. 

""dzu^cha, water- channel ; 

-dzu~“cha, a kind of taro or 
“ kachu ’ V ^ variety of 
colocasia antiguorum. 

1933 ) 

Angami-English Dictionary 

139 ' 

dziicMe (dziitsi), clean or 
pore water. 

dztikhoti, spring ; well. 

dztikhu, skater (an insect) ; 
also any water-bird. 

dztiki (dziirte), dried leaves. 

dzilki, in front of, before. 

dztikrel (dzilkri), pure water ; 
clean water. 

dzilkrie, turbid water ; muddy 

dzilkra, current ; flowing 

dzilku, cold water. 

dztila, a spring caused by 
percolation, through the 
soil, of water flowing in a 
channel or stream further 
up the hill. 

dziiie, hot water. 

dzdlei (jiili), a small variety 
of bamboo; “jilli”, 
(arundinaria degans, Kurz). 

dztliha, the act of catching 
birds by putting bird-lime 
at a place where birds come 
to drink water. 

dziilhi, monorchid ; having 
only one testicle. 

dziili, a bamboo aqueduct. 

dztiiie, underground stream ; 
a stream of water running 
for a short distance under 
a stone or under the surface 
of the earth, 

dztllierliie (penia), a tabu 
day observed by the 
Angamis to prevent the 
washing away of field by 

dztiiuo, spring; an outflow 
of water from the ground. 

dzlimou (pMemu), batatas ; 
sweet potato. 

dztinuo, taro, colomsia anti- 
quorum, “kachu ’'. 

dzilnuoni, dropsy. 

dziinyhii, a species of snake, 
so called because common 
in irrigated land, 
dzilpha, water lead connect- 
ing one irrigated terrace 
with another. 

dztipfe, water proof ; (tirdpfe, 
of cloth ; kenyhou, rain 
cloak made from pandanus 
leaves or from strips of 

dziipfe (dziikwe), well; to 
make a pit in the ground 
for water supply. 

dziipfe, a kind of caterpillar, 
dziiphrielie (phriedzii), a 
continually watered culti- 
vation; a terrace which is 
irrigated in the dry season, 
dziirad, water-bird, 
dziirda, boiling water, 
dziirhu, dirty water ; slops, 
dziiriapfii, elder sister ; elder 
cousin (female ; paternal), 
dziiriau, elder brother ; elder 
cousin (male ; paternal) . 
dzuriikite, dry taro leaves, 
dzurii, fresh taro leaves, 
dzii^rii, shuttle ; spindle, 
dziiseva, the act of puri- 
fication performed early in 
the morning of the Sekrengi 
genna day when all men 
and boys go to the village 
spring for purification by 
sprinkling water on their 
foreheads and on ail 
their weapons. 

dzilshu, a comb used in 
weaving for straightening 
the threads composing the 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [NB., XXIX, 

. ■dztislillr^ ( d 25 ti z ii r 4 , 
dzilsire), water spider, 
dzuttiezou, drowning in 
flowing water which sweeps 
away the body. 

dzilthoukiva, a tabu day 
observed by the Angamis to 
prevent Are, Water is 

sprinkled on the houses by a 

dziitouphra, wild duck, wild 
goose, or any bird of similar 
appearance and habits, 
dzilva, water leech. 

dzuva (keva), water-fall; 


dziiwe, intermittent spring 

which dries up when the 
rainfall is absent or light. 

dzUweii, beloved (of a 


dziiweu, beloved (of a 


dziiyie, water channel ; 

aqueduct ; irrigation canal, 
dziiyie (voyie, voche), gutter- 
spout, consisting of a split 
bamboo placed in a current 
of water to carry out a 
head of water as for washing 
or for fllling vessels. 

dzuzei, lonely ; lonesome ; 
feeling of depression or fear 
resulting from solitude ; 
dark outlook, (zei from 
kezei, darkness). 

dziizie, optimistic : bright 
outlook ; in particular the 
feeling of relief and pleasure 
experienced by a person on 
meeting a fellow creature; 
the opposite of dziizeL 
(zie from kezie, light). 

dzii zii (dzazhii), young and 

tender taro leaves. 

dzll_ztl, the. top leaf of .a taro 

dzilzu, (1 ) the .liquor, obtained 
from fermented rice. 

. (2) surplus water in irrigated 
terraces ; (also dzilzou), 

E. ; 

e, the seventh letter, and the 
fourth vowel in the Angami 
Naga alphabet ; pronounced 
as '‘e” in event The 
diphthong ei is pronounced 
as '"e” in ‘‘fete’’ or '‘a’’ 
in fate ’k 

e, ei, yes. 

ei, and interjection used to 
call attention. 

ei (eich), an expression of 
surprise, dislike or fear, 


f, the eighth letter and the 
fourth consonant in the 
Angami ISTaga alphabet ; 
pronunciation as '‘f’’ in 

fii, to warm, to smoke (transi- 
tive) by placing near a Are 
or lamp. 

fu, (1) (vb. intransitive) smell : 
stink ; emit an ohensive 

(2) (also transitive) to cause 
a person to perceive a bad 
odor, mhare Icesuo a fiiwe, 
where a is accusative, not 

fiifii, breeze, light wind, 
filge, bargeboards put up on 
the gable of his house by a 
zhathomia, i.e. a man who 
has performed the zhatho 
(zhathd) ceremony. 


Angami-English Dictionary 


filkrti, bitcli (female dog) that 
has whelped. 

ftilo, a species of lime. 

fllluo (fiila), a term used in 
thatching for the act of 
patching up the front of the 
thatch with old material to 
get a smooth surface, 

(kitha), the back gable 
of a house. 

ftlmie, the fringe of thatch 
overhanging the front gable 
of a house. 

filnu, bitch (female dog) that 
has never whelped. 

flini, female puppy. 

ftipfu, male dog. 

fliphrie, the plaited thatch on 
the front gable of a house as 
used by a man who has per- 
formed the sa {sJia) or shisha 

fiipruo (fiipr^), a thorny 
shrub the stem of which is 
used for cleaning teefch. 

f oiisei, strips of bamboo used 
in thatching to fasten the 
thatch to the roof. 

fOy&, stray dog. 

fiizemia, the man who leads 
the dogs when hunting. 


“ g ” is the ninth letter and the 
fifth consonant in the 
Angami alphabet. It is 
pronounced like “g’’ in 
''get;' " giggle'’ ; 

when preceded by n ”, as in 
singing ” (not as in finger). 

“ga (gha) open, pull apart, 
widen, stretch open, separ- 
ate, dilate (as of a hole in 

cloth, or of a brass bracelet 
made looser by prizing apart 
the ends). 

■"ga,y vegetable, curry, any-, 
thing eaten as relish with 


“ga, (1) winnow. 

(2) hover (as a hawk). 

_ga, to cock (of a gun) 
[probably <(i)]. 

gabou, curry vessel for taking; 
to the fields, made of gourd 
or bamboo. 

gadzii, vegetable soup. 

ga"dzu, an edible plant with a 
leaf resembling a primrose 
leaf, and a slightly bitter 

gadziisi, the fruit oiga^'dzil, 

gaja, any green vegetable- 
plant (from ga, vegetable, 
and pegd, green). 

gaka, curry given to a person 
by a neighbour . 

gakhra, a vegetable having a. 
sour taste (Mrc2=sour). 

gakra, an edible plant growing 
in damp places. 

gakrie, the mustard plant, 
gakhrieki, dry mustard leaves, 
gamouii, an edible fern, 
gamvii, old (used) thatch, 
ganya, a thorny tree the leaves 
and fruit of which are 
edible, pouzolzia, 
ganya, any vegetable, 
gapa, an edible plant of the 
genus plantago ; ground 
plantain leaf. 

gapfuii, an edible plant having 
a bitter taste. 

gaphe, place reserved for grow- 
ing thatch. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

-gapliie, a tree with a very 
white wood much used for 
utensils, and an edible leaf. 

gara, a creeping plant, having 
a small red flower, and 

gare, a kind of sour vegetable, 
also found wild. 

garei, an edible plant. 

gareipe, the caterpillar of one 
or more of the hawk-moths, 

gasie, a tree having a red 
flower, a white wood similar 
to gaphie. 

gashliia, an edible fern. 

ga-tha, an edible herb. 

ga-tha, the small thatching 
grass {saccharum sp.), 

gathere, a small flowering 
tree, the leaf of which is 
eaten as a vegetable. 

gaii, an edible creeping plant, 
probably a species of momor- 

gazhie, a sour edible plant. 

gazhiethon, young shoot of 

“■ge, to pound (as in husking 
rice, with a pestle). 

~ge, (1) to grind (as in a 
quern) ; 

(2) to press between two 
bodies (as a paper under a 
book on a table). 

“ge, the post in the centre of a 
house carrying the roof tree 
at the middle between the 
fore and aft gables, 

~ge (get), ‘'Let us go'% m 
expression used when a per- 
son calls another to come a 
way (or to join in some com- 
mon task). 

: _ge,' drill, bore a hole. 

-_ge, cover, close with a lid. 

get, to cut ; to saw. 

gei, upon, on. 

gel (ghei, gi, ghi), kill. 

geizhie, to strangle a chicken, 
in order to take omens from 
the position of its legs in 
death, as at the Sekrengi 

gie (yie), to support or to pro- 
tect (as with a rail). 

gou, hang, suspend, hang up. 

gou, to go as an animal on all 
fours (used of any animal 
from an elephant to a lizard, 
also of a crab — , but not of 
a snake) . 

goudza, a species of frog. 

gouraii (gorail), (1) vein, (2) 
a parasitic worm found in 
the crops of fowls, (3) a 
kind of water insect. 

gu, Give! A word used when 
asking for a thing which is 
being oflered by the giver. 
(Of. Chang give.) 

guo, to scorch food or any- 
thing else at the fire. 

guobou, a small variety of 
land crab. 

guodzil, marshy place, wet 

guogu, a dark variety of land 

guohe, a yellow variety of land 

guokra, ■ a large yellowish 
species of frog. 

guonye, a large and odorous 
species of frog. 

guosa, a species of frog found 
in woods and in dry places, 
much prized as food. 


Angami-English Dictionary 


giiotha, any land crab ’ other 
than guogu. 

guotliie, a reddish and gregari- 
ous variety of land crab. 

geoto, a small and noisy 
species of frog. 

gttornuo, a species of frog. 

gwi (rM), to scrape away 

gwi (wi), mithan (bos 
frontalis), domestic bison’’ 
or gayal. 

gwizie (wizie), gad fly ; breeze 


‘‘H” is the tenth letter and 
the sixth consonant in the 
Angami vocabulary. It is 
pronounced as ^‘h” in 
‘‘hope”, “hoe,” 

“ha, breathe ; inhale and 

“ha, this ; pointing out a 
thing near by. 

_ha, dig up (as potatoes or 

hadztl, before this, before. 

haha, bat (the animal — Cheiro- 

hahaM, flippancy. 

hah! (ha i) in this way, thus. 

haM, 'these* 

haki, here. 

hanii, here. 

hara, hereabouts ; here, 
hara, scarlet, vermilion. 

harie. Hi ] Look here 1 Hallo ! 
Behold 1 

hasla, hereafter.. 

hatsa, this side; colL come 

here ! 

hau, hauwa, this, this one. 

ha, hah, Eh? What? (What 
did you say ?) 

“ha, bore, make a hole (with 
the idea of making an entry 
into a receptacle. Thus it 
could be used of piercing a 
gourd for liquor to be 
poured in, or of digging a 
well, but not of piercing a 

_ha, dig. 

“he, be generous. 

“he, raise. 

“he, to cover (as a piece of 
meat with a leaf). 

_he, to fan ; to blow, sufflate. 

-.he, (1) to shade or ward ofl 
the sun. 

(2) to build a “lean-to” 
against a house. 

(3) to apply a poultice, 

“he (whe), to visit a girl to 
serenade her, drink with her 
and court her (said to be 
derived from whe used of 
vultures gathered together 
where a corpse is). 

heba, a place for taking lunch 
or supper either in the field 
or outside the village gate. 

hecha (hetsa), broken by 

hecha, blown down (of houses); 
laid by winds (of crops). 

hecha (habielie), a child’s 
game of the nature of tig. 

hechii, a sort of platform 
(generally circular in shape) 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S. , XXIX^ 

where young people sit 
around a fire to dxink on 
winter evenings. 

to break by bits, crumble, 

■"M (wM), to extract with a 
stick or tongs from fire (as 
roasted chestnuts taken 
from the embers). 

-M, to bore a hole in wood 
by means of an iron point 
heated red hot. 

like this. 

hichii, gnaw. 

Mekie, horn of buffalo or 
■ mithan used as a drinking 

hiela, dig up, disclose, reveal 
(in particular of buried 
treasure or of a secret). 

hieii, quota of drink for con- 
sumption whether before or 
after it is poured out. 

hielie, endure, show fortitude. 

Meluo, ' hieluocMe, Wait ! 
(used as an order in the 
imperative only). 

hieluo, forbid. 

-hie, we (of persons speaking 
exclusive of persons ad- 

.^hie, feast. 

-hie (he), to raise the price of 
anything, as in bargaining, 
or in bidding at an auction 

-hie, show forbearance, exer- 
cise self-control, 

\hie, open, uncover. 

i |, .-.hie, don't 1 (a prohibitive 

f ! particle, also used as a pro- 

hibitive infix in verbs). 

„hie, dig ; plough (of breaking 
up the ground of irrigated 
land preparatory to pudd- 

j ; ; ■ 

j ^ -.hie, tie on a cloth round the 

j I . shoulders to carry a child 

on the back, 

hieba, shelf for cups, 
hiebou, a cup made of a 

narrow-waisted gourd, 
hieka, we (see hie above). 

hiekhei, handle (of the cup or 
of the drinking vessel). 

hiekhou, a round bottomed 
cup made from a gourd. 

hiemvii, relish ; snacks of 
food taken with rice beer, 
z% (usually salted to pro- 
voke thirst). 

hienia, we two, exclusive of 
the person addressed. 

[N.B. — inclusive of the per- 
son addressed it is avu or 

hiepou, bamboo jug 

hiesha, dregs, lees, of rice beer 
left in the cup after drink- 

hiesha (vahe), gourd for 
carrying liquor. 

hiesi, little bamboo mug used 
particularly to take out to 
the fields. 

hiesia (hesia, thehesia), the 
afternoon (lit. the time 
following the interval for 
the midday drink when 
working in the fields, 

hieshie, bad luck ; ill fate ; 
evil destiny (used primarily 
of death whether of man or 
his domestic animals, but 
not exclusively). 


Angami- English Dictionary 


liievi, good destiny (parti- 
cularly with an implication 
of fortunate coincidence).' 

ho, an expression of regret, or 
of emphasis. 

hoii, an exclamation of sur- 

“hon, to dry anything at a 

“-hou, to go round forming a 
circle, of persons; to 
surround {with a fence). 

_hou, roam ; to wander about. 

hounyie, cattle-egret. 

houpfii (houtu), a species of 
wild ginger with an edible 

hure, file (an instrument for 
cutting or making smooth 
metals ; tooth and 
many and small). 

”huo (whuo), drive ; chase. 

_huo, some; part of a thing. 

huocha, sand ; sandy place. 

huochakhro (huochiekhro), 
a migratory bird, named 
after the sound of its call. 

huochanya, sand. 

huoy^ (huoyia), a few; a 

huphienuo, a species of wild 

hushii, an edible plant (pro- 
bably a polygonum). 

hutha, a kind of thorny tree 
bearing a small white 

hutuo (heto), a thorny tree 
bearing a red flower, Ery- 
thrina snberosa, ‘‘Flame of 
the forest 

hutu, a name given to two 
species of cuckoo (clearly 
named from the sound of 
the call). 

hii, to peel; to strip off the 

hu, to urge ; incite ; to goad. 

-hiihii, slovenly, slatternly. 

„huhu (hruhrii), careless, 
hurried (and so, -forgetful). 

1 . 

“ I ” is the eleventh letter and 
the fifth vowel in the Angann 
alphabet. It is pronounced 
as“i’^in “iir’ oras “i^’in 

i, like this ; this way. 

idle, do so, do thus. 

ihie, don’t do so. 

ima ? ime ? is it like this ? 

iphre, (it is) like this. 

isi, so ; so it is said (e.g, 
Lhuvisilie isiwe =“ Lhu visile 
says so”), 

ituo, it will be so ; like this. 

itse, if this is the case. 

iwa, in this manner, thus. 
[Used also as a verb, -e.g. 
iwalie~*‘ do it in , this 
manner ; iwaward, n viltuo-- 
“ if you do this sort of thing, 
I will beat you ”,] 

iya, it is done this way. 

ize (iza), exactly so (used 
sarcastically of what should 
have been done differently^. 
e.g.¥rexLGh,paremmple\ a 
precise translation of ize). 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N-S., XXIX § 

/ 4 .: : 

J ’’ is the twelfth letter and 
the se venth consonant in the 
Angami alphabet. It is 
pronounced as j ” in 
“ joy judged 

ja, (1) to be offended ; to be 

(2) bless ; to wish a person 
happiness and prosperity. 

-ja, dam ; to confine water by 
making a ridge of earth or 
stone, to embank ; to stand 
in a line or round an object ; 
to fly in company (of birds). 

jau (dzau), the little owl 
(? athene noctua). 

be guilty. 

knock, strike (as one’s 
heel against a wall, or elbow 
on a post, or of two stones 
together, or a flint and 

“j^ (je), pluck ; exfoliate ; to 
strip off the leaf of a plant. 

”j^ (dze, dz^), cheek, the side 
of the face. 

(j^)» to lure. 

j&hunyii (jehunyii), an edible 

j^jo (jnju), a species of small 
gregarious bird, so called 
from its note. 

jakha (jekha), to strike so as 
to set off (as of a trap or the 
hammers of a gun) ; to fill 
or block a hole, as with a 
nail or anything else that 
is struck. 

jSme (jeme), a hollow in the 
ground caused by striking 
it with a heavy implement. 

■jamvil (jemvii), -bruise, abra- 
' sion (caused by the - contact 
. of the flesh with some hard 
. object. ■■ It would ' not ■ be 
applied to bruises’ caused by 
■ whipping, ,,for : , instance, 
which would be vnmu)^ 

j^nia (jenyie, jonge), to strike 
, so as to cause a pit, dent or 
■ break (as in the edge of a 
tin struck with the back of 
a dao). 

japha (jepha), break a hole’ in. 

•japhr^- (jephra), to break :a 
thing into pieces. 

j^ru (jeru), the scarlet fruit of 
a wild creeper [used as a 
simile for a person outward- 
ly pleasant but inwardly 

j&tenuo, a species of very 
small fish found in streams 
(tabu to cattle owmers), 

jathoii, an edible plant. 

jdyie (jegie), a species of bird. 

jowM (kupritsii), a iegumi* 
nous bush, the leaves of 
which are used as soap 
(Flemingia sf.)* 

juu, a species of small bird 

jii (”dzu), the shaft of a spear. 

ju (-dzii), slow, lazy, sluggish. 

jii (-.dzii), none, nil. 

jiiba, beam used in w^eaving, 
round which the warp 

jii d& ,(dzB***do), a ■ \Torn- 

jii^-da (dzii^do), weaving, 
jiiketaukhra, last month. 


A ngami-English Dictionary 


fjliklirie, sword ’’ used in 
weaving for beating np the 

-jtinyti, heddle, 

jlipa, an embroidered spear. 

Jlipa (dziipa), pair of breast- 
rods, nsed in weaving (one 
alone would also be spoken 
of as jilpa, but the pa 
indicates duality). 

JQpa-jilnyii, loom ( i.e. the 
weaving apparatus without 
thread or cloth, v. thejil), 

jiipou, shed stick. 

.jiipfuro, the rods on which 
the warp is laid out when 
setting up the loom. 

jupfiiru, flint-lock gun. 

jiiru, shuttle. {N.B , — The 

Angami shuttle consists of a 
simple spindle without a 

jiishii, brush for combing and 
straightening the warp. 

jlltse, laze-rod. 

jlizhie, two upright stakes 
fixed in the ground three or 
four feet apart to which the 
beam, is fastened when 


is the thirteenth letter 
and the eighth consonant in 
the Angami alphabet. It is 
pronounced like k ’’ in 
smoke/’ ‘^kick.” 

""ka, remove; to take out by 
means of spoon or a sharp 

-~ka, give. [N.B , — this root ka 
is used uninfiected in asking 

for a thing let me see/’ 
give me.”] 

-ka, (1) lose ; perish. 

(2) skip ; hop. 

kadi, dead loss ; great loss. 

kaka, See kepfti~kaka, not 
sounding genuine/ sounding 

kakie, stiff ; not easily bent. 

kakrie, hasty, rough, careless 
(of a person who is casual 
and not thorough in his 
work or speech). 

karha, to dig out by opening 
up (as a thorn with a pin; 
so also to make a tear or 
slit in cloth). 

kase, a great loss. 

katou, a caterpillar of the 
geometrid family of moths 

kayie (kawe), heir. 

kaza (keza), pay, salary . 

ka_za, loss ; damage. 

““ke, descend ; go down. 

-’ke, tush, canine tooth. 

_ke, sugar-cane (called nukri- 
cha by the Khonoma group, 
because used to feed mother- 
less infants). 

-ke, vb. hollow out, scoop out, 
carve (of w^ood or stone). 

ke, a prefix denoting a noun 
or adjective. 

ke”ba, a fail trap. 

ke_ba, gong. 

keba, the state or condition of 
being, existing, (that) which 
exists (from the verb ha, is). 

kebachil, residence ; dwelling 

148 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX,. 

keba, prepare mud for plaster- 
ing walls or floor. 

keba, a bamboo clapper for 
scaring birds and animals 
from the fields. 

kebe, (1) crowded; packed 
close; thronged (both of 
place filled and of the 
individuals filling it). 

(2) to speak ill of ; backbite 
(with the implication of 

(3) to boil. 

ke~bi, devil-possessed. 

ke_bi, taking two at a time. 

kebie, fall trap (for wild 
animals of some size). 

kebou, confound ; to put into 

kebou (kebu), noise ; public 

keboulie, the act of linking 
the arms. 

kebvii, confuse; to put into 

ke/chha, cooking ; preparation 
of food. 

ke-ciia=(l) reverberation, 
noise (as of the turmoil of a 
crowd, or of a hammering 
on wood). 

(2) worry, disturbance. 

ke_cha, reduplication, 
quickening up, (as of a man 
hammering with slow blows, 
or driving cattle too slowly). 

ke„cha, kecha, wrestling. 

ke_cha (kesha), long. 

-kecha, a ravine; valley 
between two hills. : 

kechachie (keshathi), ever- 
lasting ; forever. ^ ^ 

kechahuo, greedy ; gluttonous. 

kechartl, dainty ; fastidious ; 
particular in the matter of 

kechavuo, convalescent (Adj.), 
kechazie, lazy ; indifferent 

ke-che . (ke-chle, ketM),„ 

(1) adze. 

(2) equal in height, level. 
(of separate entities). 

ke”chie, spoon, 
ke-chie, n. wet ; dampness. 
ke_chie, hole. 

ke_chie (keshe), crochet- 
work, knitting, cross- 
stitching, netting, (verb 
—chie or she ) . 
ke/chhii (ke/shu), lift up. 
ke_chhu (ke-shii), threaten, 
kechii, to judge, 
ke/chii, small. 

ke-chii, (1) disease ; sickness. 
(2) investigation, decision, 

kexchii, (l)work; action. 

(2) overflowing ; too full (of a 
Med vessel, or of crops 
sown so as to transgress 
the boundary of a field). 

ke-chii, victuals ; food; edib- 

kechiilhie, malicious ; mis- 

kechiipa, captious ; perverse ; 

kechiipa, hardy; able to bear 

kechiirei , reddish ; of ' the' 
complexion of human 
beings, or of the natural 
colour of wood. 

kechtirhuo,' ' meat presented 
to a friend generally at time 
of ceremonial feasts in 


A ngami- English Dictionary 


exchaiige for similar compli- 
ments received or expected. 

■.kecliliri, gnarled, twisted (of 

‘kechlirova, malingering. - 
;kechur!i, liar. 

■ kechilrno , disorderly . 

kechlisia, sensitive; unable 
to bear pain. 

ke_cia, (1) examine; choose; 

(2) accuse falsely; slander; 

ke~“da, chopped (on a block) 

[< da}. 

keda, tempt (in Biblical 
seiise) ; test; try (to find 
out what is in a person’s 

ke"“de, abuse ; reprove, 
ke-de, equal ; alike. 

ke-^de, stamp on, trample; 
press down (as of cooked 
rice in a pot). 

ke"'dei, delay or hinder. 

ke~dei, closely woven, imper- 
vious (of basketry or cloth). 

ke/dei, oblique ; askew (so 
as not to be seen clearly). 

ke-dei, throw ; hurl, 
ke-dei, burnt (of wood only), 
ke-di, king ; chief ; kingdom, 
ke-di, change, 
kediba, throne 

ke~dia, rectangular ; having 
four corners. 

ke-dia, the scarlet minivet (a 
small bird). 

kedie (kediemia), slave; 

kedieki, prison, 
kedierhe, agree; compromise. 

kediese, agree; compromise, 
kedieze, to obey reciprocally ; 
to take one another’s word. 

kediki, palace, 
kedinuo, prince, 
kedipfii, queen, 
kedada, cunning ; clever, 
keda, test ; tempt, 
kedaia, interrogate, 
kedou, chatter (as teeth), 
keda, weaving. 

kedajii, experiment, try, 
practice (as of a new game 
or trick). 

kedapa, presumptuousness. 

ke-du, a kind of tree, having 
a yellow wood with proper- 
ties that cause violent irrita- 
tion to many individuals. 

ke-du, to slice, used of the 
downward stroke of per- 
sons fighting with daos, or 
of the stroke of a pig with 
its tushes. 

ke/du, to fail to bear proper 
fruit after flowering, used of 
Job’s Tears {coix lachryma) 

ke^duo, (1) to mouth, mum- 
ble (of a toothless man 
trying to chew). 

(2) to try, test. 

ke-duo, a kind of thatching 
grass (? a species of andro- 

ke-duo, parallel ; side by 

keduoy§ (keducM), a little 
(either as noun or adverb). 

kedzahuru (horu), a kind of 
shrub which yields black 
fruit (Leca sp.). 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S,, XXIX, 

kedzi (1) to wind (as thread). 
(2) to be entangled (as by 
the feet in creepers). 

kedzleguo (kebigo), com- 
petitive shooting or throw- 
ing at a target. 

kedziekerie, underdone, hur- 
riedly and inadequately pre- 
pared (of food or drink prin- 

kedzierh, a collective noun 
applied to persons respon- 
sible for the act of displac- 
ing and misplacing articles 
without reference to one 

kedzo (kedzie), flying squir- 
rel (jMromys), 

ke""dzu, short* 

ke/dzu, wavering, hesitating, 
ke-dzii, flail, 
kexdzii, hoe. 
ke-dzii, poor, 
ke-dzii, meet, 
kedziikri, in haste, 
kedziile, optimistic (with im- 
plication that the optimism 
is an excuse for inaction), 
kedziilie, talkative, vocifer- 
ous (particularly of persons 
whose tongues have been 
loosened by liquor). 

kedziiluo, casual ; careless ; 
not strict in religious obser- 

kedziirhi, sloppy, watery (of 
cooked food). 

kefu, a small tree dwelling 
mammal (probably a para- 

kega, sprain. 

kega, tighten, make taut. 

ke""ge, to twist, to turn (e.g.,,. 
.screw or unscrew);, to shift 
(as a ' post) with a lever" 
applied to the foot of the 
object shifted. 

ke-ge, ( 1 ) to sprinkle ; to 
scatter in drops. 

(2) a cover, lid. 

ke_ge, wave, flourish ; to spin. 

ke_gei (keg!), fight ; make 
war (both noun and verb). 

ke/gei (kegi), fight, quarrel 
(without weapons of war- 
applied to private fighting 
as distinct from warfare). 

-kegei (kegi), a cut made as 
by a saw ( < gei = saw) . 

-ke/gei (kegi), to sharpen 
slightly, put an edge on. 

kegou (kegu), hanging ; hung 
up ; entangled (< gou). 

kegu or kegou, creeping ; one 
that crawls (< gou). 

kegu, to break, crunch, champ 
(of beads or cowries rubbed 
together in the hand, or of 
water-snails put whole into 
the mouth with their shells). 

ke-hie, (1) to warn. 

(2) to raise, revive (as of an 
old law suit). 

ke\hie, (A) feast. 

(B) (1) to compete in game ; 
a popular game among the 
Angami girls resembling 
skipping but without the 
rope. The jumping is 
continued till the loser tires 
and gives in. 

(2) the game itself. 

ke-hie,- child’s wrapper ; a 
cloth for putting round the 
child when carrying it on 
the back. 


Angami’English Dictionary 


kelile“kelili, higgledy-piggle- 

■ dy, Imgger-mugger. ' 

ke/liou, whoever, whatever. 

ke-hon (keliil), to bend. 

ke^liou, (1) to assemble,; to 

; .hold meeting. , 

(2) assembly ; meeting (n.). 

ketioukeriio, carelessly ; 

ketiouki, conventicle, church, 

ke-ho, a singing, "'ho-ho”- 

ke-hii (kehuo), to breathe 

ke-hu, to dry (paddy). 

ke~hii, to wave one's cloth, to 
shake (trans.). 

ke/hil, failure (to pay a debt 
at the date agreed upon) . 

ke_hu, urge; to incite; (in 
jumping) to break away, by 
alighting on it, the ridge of 
earth formed in front of the 
last jumper's footprints. 

kej^, fault. 

ke-ja, to strike one thing 
against another, 

ke„ja, to pollard or prune, a 
tree or stump so that all 
the side shoots are taken off 
leaving only the main stem ; 
if applied to bamboos he^ja 
implies the cutting off of 
all the bamboos in the 
clump, leaving only their 


ke^ka, (1) to flick, flip, poke, 
push (with a cane, bamboo 
or other pliant instrument) 
(cane: thepe). 

(2) to pick with a needle or 
.knitting . needle (as ^ in 
knitting or darning). 

ke/ka, elevate (from a hori- 
zontal or oblique position 
to an oblique or more nearly 
upright position; if raised 
to the vertical pedou is 
used, not keJca), 

ke_ka, loss, usually in sense 
of financial loss as on a 

kekakemhe, doom, ruin, 
extinction (used only in 
oaths or abuse, < 
loss and burnt out 


ke”kha, last (as of a line of 
men marching or birds 

ke-kha, prohibition, to 

ke_kha, clip, bind, fasten 
(used of any encircling 
fastening, as a bracelet or 
wrist watch, of binding or 
clipping with metal clips ; 
also of lashing with bamboo 
ties that encircle (e.g.) a 

ke/khou (vb.), to push, elbow, 
close up. 

ke-khou, knock, rap (with the 

kekhra, that which is spread 
to cover or receive an object 
on a clean surface ; may be 
applied also to a flat surface 
of prepared earth. 

kekhravu, stupid, idiotic 

ke“khra, sour, tart, acid. 

ke”khr^, repeat (of repeating 
correctly words uttered first 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N. S . , XXIX , 

ke-khra, an inferior kind of 
thatching grass (probably a 

ke^khra, to beat (as for game 
in the jungle, making a noise, 

ke-'khre, containing salt, 
saltish, sufficiently salted to 
be palatable, 

ke^khre, (1) the ham, the 
hollow at the back of the 
knee, the popliteal space 
(generally of humans, cf. 

(2) to fold. 

ke~khre, reduction (in price) ; 
reduced price. 

kekhrekelhe, relish; savoury 

ke'^khrie, ferociousness; 

ke-khrie, love, affection, 

ke-^khrie, intrigue, fornication, 
liaison, illicit love affair. 

kekhriekhrii, barefaced; 
shameless; impudent. 

kekhru, to shake or work 
about an object that is loose 
in its socket (as a loose tooth, 
or handle). 

kekhru -tsii, burial-place, 


ke-khrii, lavation, washing 
(i.e. the act of washing some- 

ke-khril, (1) tough, hard, 

(2) stale, bad (of food). 

ke_khrii, a prop, an object 
placed under another to ele- 
vate it. 

kexkhrii, to beat (as for game 
in the jungle, but quietly, 
shaking trees, etc. ci. kekhrd). 

kekhrMzIi, awkw^ard, 
unskilful, clumsy, stupid, 
ke^khruo, help ; assistance. 
ke_khruo, subscribe (to fund, 
in cash or in kind). ■ 

kekhuosi, half-hearted, soft, 

' ' weak (of ■ person , working 
without energy), 
kekinyi, a visit of ceremony 
paid by one community to 
another to keep up aiicieiit 
alliances and cement new 
ones. Paid after the 
Sekrengi genna. 

ke^kie (vb.), (1) call (to some 
one at a distance). 

(2) ricochet, 
ke^kie, (n.) parroquet. 

ke^kie, (ke_kia), (1) call, act 
of calling. 

(2) act of showing, 
ke/kre, derisive, mocking. 
ke_kre, laughter, mirth. 

ke-krei, another; other; 

ke_krei, ring ; tinkle. 

kekrie, to whisper, speak 
with bated breath (on 
account of awe), 

kekriepie, to carry a thing 
together, i.e., when tw^o or 
more persons combine to 
do so. 

ke'”kru, flow, current, 
ke-kru, kekru, to eat or' drink 
from a single dish or cup. 
ke_kra, kekru,' unimpaired ; ; 

without hole or fault. 
kekrurhe (adj.), uniform, har- 

ke/kril, wrong, mistake, error, 
ke-krii (adj.), rotten (of a hole 
in a tree where a branch has 


Angami-English Dictionary 


rotted) or of any decayed 
vegetable matter, also of an 
nicer on a living body. 

kexkril, fall, act of falling. 

ke_.kru, (1) ad j., dark (applied 
to tbe darker patches of 
variable or fluid materials 
such as water, and parti- 
cularly cloud. 

(2) civet cat ; in particular 
the lesser civet, viverricula 

kekrilda, an offensive smell, 
resembling that of the civet 
eat, which sometimes 
attaches itself to the clothes 
or bodies of persons entering 
the Jungle. 

kekriikrilva, the larger Indian 
civet (viverra zihetha). 

ke"~ia, find out by exhaustive 

ke-la (vb.), (1) unroll. 

(2) sort out. 

(3) give back, return (trans.). 

(4) return (intrans.). 

ke/la (n., adj.), last. 

ke/la (vb.), save, rescue, 

ke\la (vb.), to cause to feel 
something hard or rough, e.g. 
of a pebble slipped down the 
neck, or a stone under an 
apparently smooth surface, 
or of the proverbial pea 
under the princess’s mat- 

keJa (vb.), (1) spill. 

(2) abuse, or scold, recipro- 

keiakelie, (1) to search 
thoroughly, examine in 

(2) as a noun '' Salvation” 
(a modern use). 

kelakelleu, Saviour (a recently 
made word). 

kelalie, saved ; rescued, 
kelalie, slow, lazy, inattentive, 
ke* la, thread ; yarn. 

ke-ia, to waggle (used of 
causing the end of any long 
and thin object to oscillate). 

ke~la, a kind of tree (? a 

kelada, weak-minded, men- 
tally defective. 

kelaguo, the cocoon and pupa 
of a kind of insect. 

kelaguo, eugenia^ a kind of tree 
(one of the myrtacece) on 
which the pupa heldguo is 

kelashu, blue, 
kelayhu, clumsy; inexpert. 

ke”"le, cause to tremble or 
quiver, shake gently. 

ke\le, kele, thought ; opinion ; 

ke\le, to make a hole in the 
ground by prizing out stones 
and scraping out the earth 
below them. 

ke-le, (1) (adj.) hot ; >by 

(2) the pudenda, male or 

ke\le, kele, to pinch, nip with 

ke_le, (1) to nibble, bite with 
the front teeth. 

(2) to remain without food. 
ke“lei (ke~li), marrow. 

ke/lei, single out (for punish- 
ment or blame which others 
should share). 
ke~lei (ke~li), rest, repose. 

154 , ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX, 

keJel, to throw (of a stone 
or lump of earth or any com- 
pact object, not of a stick or 
a spear). 

keleivilnuo, a 'chicken with 
scanty feathers. 

keleza, to divide into equal 
parts (of funeral meats 
divided among relatives). 

kelha, spread. 

kexlhe, (1) to feel excess of 
heat. , 

(2) to inhale, draw in (oi 
breath taken sharply into 
the lungs, or of water drawn 
into a squirt). 

ke/lhe (n.), dainty or tasteful 

ke/lhe (vb.), disrobe ; let fail 
the cloth from the shoulders. 

kelhi, (1) awry (adj.); >(2, 
vb.) to cold shoulder, boy- 
cott, to refuse participation 
in anything (on account of 
ill feeling). 

kelhie, malicious, mischievous, 

kelMia, to go back on a 

kelhisu, to bid as at an auc- 
tion; to compete at a bar- 

keihite, to seal a bargain by 
paying earnest money. 

kelhi_tha, bargain; discussion 
of the price in Wying and 

Hence (? sarcastically)— 

keihFtha, cheapen, beat 
down, make disingenuous 
offers much below the real 

ke^hou (keihu), throw; cast. 

ke-lhou (keihu), (1) ' nature, 
physical condition or appear- 

(2) phratry, subdivision of 
tribe (rare). 

keJhou, do earth-work (as in 
■ making an embankment or 


keihouzha, age. 
ke~li, squirrel, 
ke/li (bvlirii), bull-roarer, 
ke/li, surplus, remainder, 
ke-li, sing. 

kc'-li, felis chaus or affinisy 
one of the jungle cats, said 
by Angamis to suffer from 
chronic dyspepsia, whence 
persons similarly afflicted 
seek to drink from the 
drinking vessel of a man 
who has killed one, which 
cures their complaint. 
When in the throes of 
stomach-ache this feline 
shrieks aloud and is so obtuse 
to all but its sufferings that 
a man may catch it alive. 
keHi, exchange. 
keHie, tickle. 

ke-lie, call, send for ; send 
order for. 

keHie (kelia), wear round the 

-kelie (in compounds) implies 
a personal contact or 
possession ,< Z ie = take. 

kelikeria, a kind of squirrel 
possessing a disagreeable 

kelishiishamio, a kind of cat 
or rodent (?) reported to 
destroy elephants by gnaw- 
ing at their stomachs (< 
keliz=:B, wild dyspeptic cat). 

1933 ] 

Angami’English Dictionary 

155 ^ 

kelivaclillj a severe colic -pain 
(<kell, the wild dyspeptic 
feline^ and = stomach - 


ke”iii, to pick off stones from 
the earth. 

ke-le, salate ; greet. 

ke“!u (kholu), a species of 
small boring beetle which 
eats away dry bamboos and 
timber; the holes made by 
such insects. 

ke_-iu, (1) Foreign object in the 
eye; smarting in the eye 
caused by such particle. 

(2) bitterness, rankling 
caused in the mind by offen- 
sive words, or by the sight 
of a personal enemy. 

kelou, the grubs of various- 
beetles, found in the wood 
of dead and living trees and 
used as food, chiefly or per- 
haps exclusively those of 
lamellicorns such as the stag- 
beetle (lucanus) and the Her- 
cules beetle {dynastes). ?> 

keiouga, cowardly ; timid. 

ke^luo, keluo, amiable, good- 

ke-iuo, keluo, fat, obese. 

keluohuo, (1) dumb (of human 
beings) ; 

(2) barren (of trees, crops, 
etc. that fail to bear fruit). 

keluokela, frank, candid, 

ke^ma, to feel discomfort, be 
uncomfortable (as with ill- 
fitting clothes or on account 
of some irritation). 

ke-ma, (1) (vb. intrans.) unite 
(e.g. of the sides of a cut 
or wound) ; congeal (as of 

feathers with bird-lime, or 
cloth with glue). 

(2) (in compounds with trans. 
vb.) join, cause to Join (e.g. 
6i6^emu=place in contact). 
keme’“ba, blunt (of the' point, 
only, not of the edge ; opp. 
of kemethe). 
keme-ba, rotten. 
keme„ba, kissing. 
keme“chu (vb.), recriminate, 
indulge in reciprocal abuse 
(c/. mfra, kemehie), 

keme-chii {adj.), (l) idle, lazy. 

(2) dirty, filthy, ugly, dis- 

keme-Chii (adj.), clean, neat, 
keme’~da, to work in each 
other's field alternatively, 
keme-da, cunning, adroit,, 

kemehe, pale, wanting in 
pigmentation (of flesh or 
leaves not exposed to the 
sun); yellowish. 

keme“Me (vb.), recriminate in 
loud tones, shout reciprocal 
abuse [cf, supra ^ hemechu). 

(adj.) rough (of surface, as 
sand paper). 

(n.) that which a dog or pig 
has bitten and dropped or 
left (usually of food, etc.). 

keme-.hie, within reach, reach- 
able, able to reach {<mehie 

keme~hou, lecherous (of fowls, 
also of human beings), 
keme-hou (adj.), desirable, 
making covetous (of the pro- 
perty coveted). 

keme_hou, to fight as cocks 
do; also of persons quar- 
relling or back-biting. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX. 

kemehli, to take fresh air, go 
out for change of air (after 
remaining at home on 
account of illness, etc.). 

keme-la (noun), moaner, 
groaner, ‘ dismal jimmy ’ (in 
the phrase hemeld Jcemerei= 

‘ does nothing but moan ’ of 
a very sick man, also meta- 
phorically == nothing but a 

keme-la, kemela (n.), that 
which is asked for (v. rarely 
if ever used). 

keme-la (adj.), crazy, idiot, 
half-witted ; stupid. 

kemelha, boastful, 

keme~”luo, one that is soft or 
fragile (in contradistinction 
to others that are less so). 

keme-iuo (noun), that which 
is stout (usually of thread, 
rope, etc. in distinction to 
weaker threads, etc.). 

keme_luo, that which yields 
a lather (as soap). 

kemema, tasteless. 

keme-na, that which emits a 
stench or stink. 

keme-na, dandy; fop; vain; 
flirtatious (always with refer- 
ence to a person who is seek- 
ing to make an effect on 
persons of the opposite sex). 

kemenya, a soft) grained rice 
used particularly in brewing. 

kemepo, reckless, rash, hasty. 

kemerarii, make red ; usually 
in compounds, as in the 
phrase bie- kemerarii vb. = 
scratch until red (with 

keme^re, narrow place, 
ravine, gorge. 

keme-re, face to face, with the 
face near that of another, 

■ as when whispering. 

keme-re, fidgety , finicky , 
restless, erratic ; used also 
of persons eating a little of 
this and ■ a little of that 
instead of making a proper 

keme-rei, meet and twist 
together, vb. intrans., used 
of birds flying round one 
another when mating or 
fighting, of lovers linking 
arms, bnt always with the 
implication of the twisting 
of two strands which meet 
from opposite directions. 

keme„rei, the state of being 

keme”rie, that which is red. 

keme_rie, inspiring fear or 
awe, dreadful, terrible - 

keme“rii, purblind. 

keme/rii, circular. 

keme-rii, reciprocal expecta- 
tion, as of two persons 
awaiting one another, or 
arranging to meet. 

kemexrii, destitute. 

keme-rii, hunger. 

keme~ruo, (1) a reciprocal act 
of fondling with the hands 
between two persons, used 
also of animals ; > 

(2) a kind of painful boil 
or tumour which the sufferer 
cannot leave alone. 

keme-ruo, , ' roan ; , a ■ colour 
approaching brown or grey 
composed of hairs or spots 
of different colours giving a 
uniform appearance to the 

1933] Angami-English Dictionary I57 

kemethe, pointed, having a 
sharp point (v. kemebd). 
kemeya, wideness, 
kemeya, reciprocal licking. 

kemeya (kemyenga), prodi- 

keme""yie, famous. 

keme”yie, (kemeli), cheap- 

keme^zhie, trouble, 
keme zMe, weariness. 

keiiie_zMe, pitiable, miser- 

kemezo, keep company (a. 
euphemism for IceJchrik), 

kemhe, a blowing (with the 

ke~mie, polish; to give the 
finishing touch. 

ke_mie, pestle for pounding 

Article No. 16 . 

N^esi on the Vakatakas of the Central Provinces anH 
Berar, and their Country, 4th to 8th Centu^ Id 

By T. A. Wbllsted. 

It is comparatively speaking only within recent years 
that any detailed attention has been paid to the Vakatak« 
dynasty. Epigraphieal research is gradually revealincr tb^ 
ve^ important role played by these rulers in Gupta Indfa md 
it IS hoped therefore that the following notes may be considerprl 
of interest. The sites described below are linked by Gupta tvna 
brick remains a,nd their period further determined by evidence 
afforded by sculptural and epigraphieal material. 

A number of the settlements of the Vakataka period are 

Vakataka settlements general map of the 

near B-amtisk. ulstriet, Plate 5, jSg. 1, 

Of these the townsite at Mansar is the 
only one that has so far been investigated in any detail but a 
general description of the group will not be out of place 

Khindsi Bheugarh, and Ghughusgarh appear to be mainly 
outpost settlements situated on high ground commanding a 
Wide view of the surrounding country. ' ® 

I’ougli-stone and brick 
fort on the hill top immediately to the west of the Sur rivpr 
gorge and 300 ft. above the plain level 2 . Below this on the 
north side of the hill and now normally covered by the water 
m the UTigation reservoir is a settlement the extent of which it 
is impossible to determine. 

* 1 of these notes I gratefully ackiiowledo-e mv 

indebtedness to the following gentlemen : ^ 

Dr. G. B. Hunter, of Kagpur University, who has t«irAT, ^ 
great deal of trouble in helping with literatme and wilout wTose 
^Tmadtf the investigations would not have 

Mr. K. N. Dikshit, of the Indian Museum, Calcutta whose 
opmions Md help m tra^g literature have been invaluable’- 

Mr. W. V. Grigson, D. C. Nagpur, and Mr. M. A. Suboor of the 

iKK.dpS'S',’"’”" “ "» 

Mr. G, Francis for a number of suggestions • 
tion SS “^ach’help in the prepara- 

2 Similarly at Pavnar in Wardha District is another highly mterestin v 
site, with a high strong old fort overlooking a river The identifieB+,v>^ 
of this place with Pravarapur of the Vakftaka ooppe^t t ^v 
probable, m which case it may be considered as the city found^ bv 
Pravar^ena I, an early Vakataka ruler and the capital of tee d^ity- 

( 159 ) 

160 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

At Blieugarli no brick remains Iiave as yet been located^ 
but the bill which rises nearly 400 ft. from the plain is 
extensively terraced and fortified with drystone walling. 

Grhughusgarh, where there are stone and brick remains ^ is 
400 ft. above the river level and seems intended to guard the 
northern approach to Xandpur from the Satpura range^ in the 
foothills of which it is situated. 

Across the river from Xandpur and Ghughusgarh are 
scattered brick ruins in thick jungle, the full extent of which 
still remain to be determined. 

Of the two major sites Mansar and Xandpur, the latter 
although apparently smaller, occupies a 
Stronger position and iMike the former 
has been extensively lortified. 

Advantage has been taken of the hilly nature of the site 
to ring the town with massive drystone walling which whilst 
nowhere of any great height varies in width from 10 to 20 ft. 
at the top and is so placed that every use is made of the 
natural slope of the ground, with the result that an attacking 
host would be confronted with almost impossible slopes of 
considerably more than 100 ft. in some cases. 

These fortifications are roughly in the form of an equilateral 
triangle, apex to the south, with the length of each side about 
1 mile. 

The site is bounded on the W.SW. by the Dhobigota nallah 
and on the E.SE. by the Pench river and is obviously one of 
great strength. 

Preliminary reconnaissance of the walled enclosure suggests 
that not all of it was used for erecting buildings and whilst 
part is definitely unsuitable owing to its hilly nature, it is 
possible that other apparently suitable spots, now blank, were 
once occupied by huts of flimsy type which must have perished 
without leaving any trace. 

There seems at any rate to have been an overflow to the 
south bank of the Dhobigota nallah, as brick fragments are 
found in one or two fields there. 

In the southern portion of the wailed enclosure is the ruin 
of a large building, which, from its layout and imusual size, was 
possibly a palace. Whilst nothing now remains above ground 
beyond brick rubble the lines of the walls are easy to follow and 
are shown in the plan, Plate 6, fig. 2. 

The existence of extensive ruins in association wi'th the 
name Xandpur (Xandipura) is significant. One of the copper 
plate grants f of Prabhavati Gupta, the Vakataka Queen 
Regent, was issued from Xandivardhana, which has been 
identified tentatively with Xagardhan, 4 miles to the south of 

i Poona plates. Ep, Ind., VoL XV. 

1933 ] Vahatalcas. of the Central Provinces and Berar 161 

Bamtek.^ Brick fragments, are certainly found in a field near- 
Nagardhan but none appear to be of sufficient size to warrant 
the supposition that they are derived from the large ' Gupta " 
type bricks, about 18" x9"x3", such as occur so plentifully 
at Mansar, Khindsi, Nandpur, and Ghughusgarh. In fact the 
Nagardhan bricks appear to be I’ecent and are indistinguishable 
from the brick debris at the modern fort in that village ^ and 
there are thus stronger grounds for supposing that at Nandpur 
we have the remains of the ancient Nandivardhana,^ and not 
at Nagardhan as hitherto suggested. 

The occurrence of ‘ Gupta ’ type bricks and the rums of 
Mansab wffiat was assumed to be a Buddhist 

monastery near Mansar were first noted 
many years ago ^ but no proper examination of the area would 
appear to have been made. In 1928 a certain amount of 
interesting material came to light and led to the examination 
of the whole area surrounding Mansar tank, with the result 
that the traces of an extensive townsite were discovered. 

The extreme hmits of occupation were roughly 2 miles 
from east to west and 1 J miles from north to south, and whilst 
a large part must have been thinly settled, the evidence of close 
settlement to the east, south-east, and south of the tank is 
sufficient to indicate a town of some size. (Plan, Plate 7.) 

During the course of investigations a number of carved 
stone fragments w^ere found at surface on the hill slopes to the 
south of the lake These are assignable to the early centuries 
of the Christian era and a few are shown in the illustrations, 
Plate 11. One of these, of some interest, is a fragment of stone, 
cut with characters of 5th century A.n., shown in Plate 6, fig. 1. 

Much of the original layout of the site is now difficult to 
trace, particularly in the eastern portion^ traversed by the 
railway, from which ballast has been quarried for many years 
and where since investigations started almost all traces have 
gone, thanks to villagers, ballast work, and erosion. 

In the middle section, monastery Site and hill B on the 
plan, much more remains. Hill B was apparently overbuilt 
with temples and all surface finds of sculpture have come from 

1 R. B. Hira Lai, Iiiscr. ; C. P. and Berar, No. 4. 

Adopted also by K. P. Jayaswal, J.B.O.EB.r XIX, 1 and 2. 

2 Tile Nagardhan bricks are almost exactly half size, large fragments 

are therefore almost indistinguishable from small fragments of ‘ Gupta ’ 
type brick, and unless great care is taken in examination, misleading 
conclusions are easily arrived at. ^ ^ 

2 Two engraved seals have been found at Nandpur ; one reading 
« — deva ’ and the other ' Rudradeva ’ in characters of the 3rd and 4th 
century a.d. They date therefore to about the time of Pravarasena I. 
Rudradeva may be the alternative name of Rudrasena I, the successor of 
Pravarasena, but the absence of any titles on the seal makes it unlikely 
that it was a royal one. 

4 P.W.D. note 112 of 1906, and Nagpur Gazetteer, 1908. 

5 Some of these are now in the Nagpur Museum. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX ^ 

■there. Such as have been found exhibit considerable skiU and 
mastery in execution and from the' quantity and diversity of 
'Character niust represent a very large number of images. The 
stone used is a fine-grained aluminous sandstone, easy to work 
and permitting a fine finish. 

A notable feature of the town is the mile-long stone facing 
of the Mansar tank, drybuilt of large boulders and stone slabs, 
reaching its greatest development at the monasterj?” site ; this is 
shown in Plate 12. 

In marked contrast to Nandpur there is at Mansar no 
evidence of fortification, though the surrounding hills appear 
to have been occupied by watch-posts. The western post 
(WO on plan) was j)ossibiy in signal communication with 
Bheiigarh 8 miles to the north-w^est, the eastern post (EO 
on plan) may have been similarly in touch with Kinds! 6 miles 
to the east, whilst the main hill to the north and hill B to the 
south of the tank overlook the country for many miles. The 
old north road runs through the eastern end of the town and in 
view of the persistence of trade routes is almost certain to have 
formed one of the original lines of communication . It is traceable 
for a distance of nearly 20 miles. 

This is a piece of raised ground at the eastern end of the 
, o,.. tank and is nearly 11 acres in extent. In 

the centre is a large mound winch rises to 
a height of 40 ft. above the level and resembles the ruined 
stump of a Buddhist stupa in its general appearance, an 
impression which is not confirmed by a close examination, wiiich 
reveals traces of a rectangular building measuring 150 ft. x85 ft. 
in the centre of the mound. It is possibly therefore the remains 
of a vihara or even of a secular building with siirrounding 
courts, but whatever its character, which can only be revealed 
by excavation, it obviously covered a group of buildings of 
great importance. i 

Until quite recently the site has been used by villagers as a 
brick quarry, so much So that it has been possible to obtain a 
very tolerable idea of the ground plan as revealed by this 
destruction. This is showai in Plate 8. 

The site is so situated that it receives no drainage from 
outside, soil erosion thus playing a very small part in the 
silting of the courts, which must be due largely to the debris 
from the buildings. The inner court of nearly 3 acres is silted 
to a depth of at least 5 ft. and the outer court of over 7 aicres 
to a depth of about 3 ft. 

The width of the walls varies from 1|- to 4| ft. and 
although walls are nowhere visible above ground, judging from 
the excavations made by villagers, wail heights of 1 Tor' 12 ft. 
including foundations,* still remain. Although so much damage 
has been done in the past there is evidence that considerable 
lengths of wall have escaped aiid even where bricks have been 

1933] Vahatahas of the Central Provinces and Berar 


quarried the foundations have probably escaped in many cases 
by the caving in of earth from the sides. The bricks used in 
this construction are of t3rpical large size, measuring about 
17'" X 9'' X 3"', but are not strictly uniform., size variations of I" 
or so in any of the dimensions being common. 

The peculiar construction of a small brick lined depression 
lltar Site exposed in a cutting at the Mansar man- 

ganese mine attracted attention and led to 
a careful examination. Part was undoubtedly lost due to 
mining work but enough remained to make the mode of con- 
struction quite clear. It is shown in plan and section in Plate 9, 
and its location at S in the town plan, Plate 7. 

The centre of the depression was occupied by a complex of 
earthen pots, horse bones, charred wood, and earth. Most of 
the pots were in small pieces, hopelessly mixed up, and gave the 
impression of having been arranged in a heap, probably of 
several layers and then smashed by the force of earth from 
above. This rendered the separation very difficult but sufficient 
pots were obtained complete or in sufficiently large fragments 
to allow of the identification of 15 shapes (see Plate 10). From 
the quantity and character of the residue it is certain that several 
times this number of types were originally represented and 
the total number of pots were possibly a couple of hundred. 

The following objects were recovered from the complex : — 

1. A fragment of porous, brick (?), of pumice-like appear- 
ance, flat on one side and rounded on the other ; size 4|-" x 2^" 


2. A dark-red stone implement, smooth but unpolished, 
with a semi-circular razor-like edge; size lf"xl|"x|". 

3. A hght-red stone implement, smooth and polished, with 
blunt edges ; size 5" X 2 ^"' x f 

4. A circular stone grinder, diameter 9", thickness 3", 
wdth a depression in the centre of the upper surface 2" across 
and lY deep. 

5. A triangular brick, texture very fine and smooth, 

colour light brick-red, edges rounded, and from the centre of 
the base which at this point appears to have been pared away 
apparently by a knife after manufacture, three parallel lines 
running to the apex ; size, height of triangle 5^', base 4^", 
thickness Y' 5 Imes depressed in the brick ¥ ^pa^rt. 

6. A terra-cotta human figure of coarse texture, height 
possibly intended as a toy. 

7. A copper toe (?) ring, made from a single piece of 
coarse wire in the form of a three-ringed spiral (probably modern). 

8. Charred wood fragments. 

9. Three circular stone discs, two 4" dia. by thick, one 
3" dia. by -|h 

10. Horse bones, small fragments mostly badly decayed, 
but some teeth readily recognizable. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

It was tiie imcovering of this and its destruction during' 

ry ’ 1 Qu f mining work, due to ignorance, that led 

Brick Shatt. eventually to the examination of the 

Mansar area, the results of which are given in these notes. 

The location is shown at T in the town plan, Plate 7. 

This shaft reached to within 2 feet of the surface and 
extended downwards to the junction of the surface soil with 
bedrock 14 feet from the surface, its total height therefore 
was 12 feet.^ 

Of square plan, with walls of single brick construction, 
the space enclosed was about 4-| sq. ft. The bricks were of 
large size, 18'' x Near the bottom, making a lower 

chamber 15" deep, was a false floor of brick. The bottom of 
the lower chamber was also paved with brick and rested directly 
on bedrock. 

In the upper part of the shaft was filled earth from w^hich 
was recovered a small snake image of greenish soapstone and 
some pottery 

Beneath the false floor was a large spherical pot, 1 ft. in 
diameter containing ashes ; with it also wm’e several small pots. 
Altogether 17 comj)lete pots were recovered, some of wiiich are 
shown in the photograph, Plate 5, fig. 2. 

It is presumably a burial shaft. 

As the Yakatakas favoured Saivaism, the presence of a 
T- , number of lingas at Mansar and else- 

^ ^ ‘ where is to be expected. At Mansar no 

less than 6 have been found, some apparently still occupying the 
ground where they were originally erected. At Khindsi there is 
another, now propped up outside a small shrine close to the 
irrigation embankment. It has obviously come from the 
settlement close by, now submerged by the reservoir. One has 
also been found at Nandpur. These 8 lingas are all very 
similar, about 5 ft. high with a roxmded upper part of 1 to i| ft. 
Joining directly to a square shaft. 

On the whole, decay at Mansar has gone so far that excava- 

Pros ectsof likely to yield much in the 

Exe^Ttion. of results, with two exceptions, the 

Monastery and Hill B sites, w^hich are 
both very promising. At Nandpur the situation is somewhat 
different as the ruins have become jungle-covered, and being off 
the beaten track are likely to have escaped brick quarrying and 
destruction by villagers. Promising excavation sites here 
appear to be the supposed palace site and a large raised mound 
some distance to the north-east of it. At this latter place 
there are the remains of buildings on a square raised site, with 
a large linga embedded in the ground. It is presumably a 

I British Museum : Acquisition No. 1987 of 1930. 

1933] VaJcatakas of the Central Provinces and Berar 


temple area. Judging from the fragments visible in the soil 
it is likely to yield amongst other things a good deal of pottery. 

A claim has been put forward that ■ at the^ time of' 
„ , ■ , ' ^ Pravarasena I the Vakataka rule extended 

o^er the greater part of northern and 
southern India, with the capital at or near 
GanJ-Nachne in Central India and that only as a result of the 
rise of ^ the Gupta Empire were the Vakatakas driven to seek 
their main fortune in the south.^ That this powerful empire 
should have been paralysed by the defeat of feudatories at the 
" battle ’ of Kausambi and have remained in a state of inaction 

for at least one, probably two, years imtil the return from the 
south of Samudra Gupta and the subsequent * battle ^ at Bran 
seems most improbable. If the Vakatakas had been paramount 
in the north it is hard to understand why, after Kausambi, 
in which they themselves were not involved, they were 
apjjarently unable to overrmr Gupta territory and at the least 
seriously embarrass Samudra Gupta’s southern campaign. 
Failing that, at the " battle ’ of Eran, with haK the empire 
already lost, a final des|)erate effort to retrieve fortune would 
surely have been made, which w^ould, on the defeat and death 
of Rudi’asena I have resulted in complete collapse, bankruptcy 
of the State, and the revolt of the south. The remarkable 
recuperation under Eudrasena’s successor Prithivisena I shows 
the resources of the State practically intact and must indicate 
that whatever influence the Vakatakas may have had in the 
north the main strength of the empire was in the south.^ 

As a result of the ' defeat ’ at Bran influence in northern 

India ceased but even so they appear to have been considered 
so important that their neutrahty in the north, essential to the 
consolidation of the Gupta power, had to be ensured by the 
betrothal of Samudra Gupta’s grand-daughter to Prithivisena’s 

Further, Vindhyasakti, founder of the dynasty, is recorded 
as a Naga general whose conquests were largely in the very 
territories afterwards recognized not only as integral and 
important parts of the Vakataka dominions but also to a great 
extent as the ‘ home ’ districts.^ 

It is difficult to avoid the inference that what he conquered 
for his masters he kept for himself. It explains the administra- 
tion of outlying districts from the Central Provinces “ and 

1, 4^ and 6. K. P. Jayaswal, J.B.OM.S., XIX, 1 and 2. 

2 ’vVitness the rapidity with which the Gupta Deccan province 
passed again under the Vakatakas and also their defeat of the Kadarabas. 

3 In view of the great power of the Guptas and the high importance, 

from the point of view of prestige, attached to the marriage of a daughter 
of an imperial house, the importance of this maiTiage appears to have 
received less attention than it deserves. Coming after the ‘ defeat ’ of 
the Vakatakas at Eran it is a remarkable tribute to the anxiety of the 
Guptas. . ■ 

166 Journal of the Asialic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 1933] 

renders the location' of the capital at CTanj-Xacliiie^iiiiiikel^^ on 
account both of its northern position and its situation in feudatory 
territory d The last condition might perhaps be justifiable if 
the political position in the north was stable, wMcli Judging by 
the ease with which the Guptas rose to power it was not. 

On the whole therefore the Vakatakas would certainly 
appear as rulers whose main strength lay in the south. 

A suggestion has been made that the capital was near 
■ Kamtek ^ and it certainly appears to have 
Position of the claims to consideration : situated in the 
eapi a . Nagpur country in which as home ” 

territory the capital would be expected; roughly at the geo- 
graphic centre of the sphere of influence ; intimately associated 
with the known records®; and with the traces of extensive 
settlements in the near neighbourhood, Ramtek must have 
occupied a position of great importance in the Vakataka empire. 

^ No. 53 and 54; EJ,y XVII, 12. Inscriptions of Vyagliradeva, 

2 JJ.H., VI, Vakataka Supplement suggests that the capital was 
near Ramtek at the time of PrabhavatT Gupta and Pravaraseiia II. 

2 Plate 1, No. 1 is a place map of the toown records which analyse 
as follows : — 

Feudatory . . 7, (Ajanta 3, Naelme 4). 

Royal .. 1 each, Jubbulpore, Chhindwara, Sconi, Bala- 

ghat, Chamak, and Riddhapiir * 

1 from Nandi vardhana 1 both near 
1 found at IChindsi ** j Ramtek. 

* Riddhapur plates were issued at, and the Mansar 5th century 
fragment was found near, Ramtek. 

** Usually recorded as from Ramtek. Mr. Suboor of the Nagpur 
Museum informs me that it was actually found during the construction 
of the reservoir at Khindsi. 

In view^ of the supposed predominance of the Vakatakas in the north 
it is disappointing that no record, even feudatory, has been found further 
north than Nachne. 

[N.S.^ XXIX, 1933] Yakatakas ofC.P, and Berar 


Note.^ — Inscriptions, Sinoe writing the above I have been 
fortunate in securing an entirely new Vakataka copperplate 
grant comprising four plates, ring and seal complete and in 
excellent preservation. Professor Mirashi of Nagpur Univer- 
sity, who has kindly undertaken the editing of these plates and 
who hopes to publish them shortly, informs me that they record 
the grant by Pravarasena II, of a village to a Brahmin. The 
plates were issued from Narattangavari in the 23rd regnal year. 
The find-spot is about 8 miles south of Katangi in the Baiaghat 
district, Central Provinces, 31 miles W.-S.W. of Baiaghat and 
34 miles N.E. of Ramtek. On the map of inscription find-spots 
its position would be roughly halfway between Ramtek and 
Baiaghat and a little to the north of a line Joining them. 

T. A. W. 

Ramtek, C.F., 

4:th July, 1934. 

Fig. L Place Map of Vakataka Inscriptions. 


1 Ty/oe^, 




QH/iTxin^/jcH/^ c^v/rs '* I 



CoPPiS/^ PlA 59S 





Co^£p PaptES. 



^^X.Pk^//PT//ve<3ir;) *> 1 



/V^CPA/^ /as ^ 



3(, IHjM£:P/q, 


/ho/ja /9/a/m 9/ /pcrezJ^ Pr^hA 4 

Fig. 2. Vakataka Inscriptions. 

TQNN S/t£& 




i'Vatrg «-««.-« 

Tbw^ Siiies 

J^HQsejqt • _ 


?» # U 



Fig. 2. Potteries and Lingas discovered at Mansar. 


Pi ATE 8. 

JPASB, XXIX, 1933. 

Carved stone fragments found at Manaar to the south of 

JPASB, XXIX, 1933. 

Plate 12. 


Fig. 1. Monastery site from the Xorth-east. 

Fig. 2. Central Mound Monastery site from the West. 

Article No. |7. 

A few types of Sedentary Games of Lower Bengal. 
By Jatindea Mohan Datta. 

[Communicated by Dr. S, L. Hora.) 

Tile types of sedentary games described below are played 
by the local people of^the districts of 24-Parganas, HoWali, 
and Hoogbly. There is an erroneous impression that these 
games are not indigenous but have been imported from up- 
country. The author (an inhabitant of Panihati, about 10 
miles north of Calcutta on the Ganges) learnt these games about 
do years ago. It has been ascertained from old men of 70 
and over that the games were prevalent in their boyhood. 
X noticed them being j^layed by the Bengalees 

Burdwan, Midnapore, Banaghat, Santipur, Khulna, 

and Barisal. 


The diagram^ used for the game of Tant-fant is shown 
in hgiire 1. It is generally drawn on floor with a piece of 

charcoal or broken brick. 
ABC persons play the 

game. At the commence- 
ment of the game each 
player places three distinc- 
tive pieces on the three 
cross-points (ABC or BEF) 
of his side of the square, 
•y the fii’st move, a piece 
is slrifted to the central line 
TT. The game is won, 
when ail the three pieces 
belonging to a player lie in a 
straight line anywhere 
(horizontally, vertically, or 
obliquely) with the excep- 
tion of the starting line. 

Fig. 1. [^‘ Bas-Gupta has des- 

^ 7 -., cribed this type of game from 

Vmrampore (Quart. Journ. Bangiya BaMtya Parishad, XIV, pp. 
242, 243, 1314 B.S.) under the local name oi Tin’^guU pait pait, 
but mifortunately his description is very meagre. In the game 
described above no piece of the adversary is to be removed 
iinm the board, but in the Vikxampore game as soon as three 
pieces are arranged in a straight line, a piece of the adversary .is 
removed from the board. In this way the winner of the game 

( 167 ) 

168 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Befigc^^^ [N.S«, XXIX, 

will be one wvlio remores from the board all the three pieces 
of liis opponent wdthoiit losing any one of liis piece. According 
to Ba,s-Giipta the popularity of the game is on the wane. 


The diagram used in playing the game of Lau-kata-kati 
is shown in figure 2. . The game is played by two persons 
with 18 pieces ; each player places liis 
nine distinctive pieces on the nine cross- 
points of his triangle leaving the apex 
vacant. In the first move, a piece is 
shifted to the central point 0 and then the 
usual rules of draughts are follow'ed, wdth 
the exception that only one piece can 
be captured at a time. One, ivho captures 
all the nine pieces of his adversary, is the 

[Humphries (Joiirn. Proc, Asiat. Soc. Ben- 
gal, II, p. 123, 1906) refers to an identical 
game played at Bargarh in the United 
Provinces. Ricference may also be made 
to a similar game played in. the Central 
Provinces (H. C. Das-Giipta, Jotmi. Proc, 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XXII, p, 212, 1926), 
though the board is somewhat different and 22 ballets are needed 
to play the game. S. L. H.f 


The diagram used in playing the game of Mn>ghal-Pathmi 
(in the vernacular name reference is made to the well-knowm 
wars between the Moghuls and the Pathans in Bengal) is showm 
in figure 3. Two players are necessary to play the game, and each 
player has 16 distinctive pieces. At the commencement 
of the game, each player arranges his pieces in his half of the 
board and in this way the central line is left vacant. The game 
is played like draughts and two or more pieces of the opponent 
can be removed at a time. 

In some localities, another horizontal line is drawn in each 
triangle and then each player has 19 pieces to play with. 

[This game has been described by B. Das-Gupta (Quart. 
Journ. Bangiya Sahitya Parishad, XIV, pp. 239, 240, 1314 B.S.) 
under the title of Sola-guti Mangal Pata, in w’^hich reference is 
made to 16 pieces used by each player as well as to the 
Moghul-Pathan wars in Bengal The board is used in playing 
several types of games and reference may here be made to the 
Bornean game Bimoe described by Jacobson (Tijdsch. IncL 
Tool-, Landen Volkenhunde, LVIII, pp. 8-10, 1919), the Ahfurah 
GuUi of U.P. described by Humphery (Journ. Proc. Asiat. Soc. 

1933] J. few types of Sedentary Games of Lower Bengal 169 

Bengal^ II j p. 121, 1906), Atharagiitiala teora of C.P. described by 
H. O. Das- Gupta (Journ. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, XX, 166, 1924), 





















/ _ 








Fia. 3. 

Lam Pusri or Sipahi Kat of the Teesta Valley (Jowrn. Proc. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, XXIX, p. 10, 1933), etc. etc. S. L. H.] 


The diagrani used in playing the game of Bagli-bandi is 
shown in figure 4. As its name indicates, it is a kind of tiger- 

play. [The game has already 
been described by Humphries 
{Joiirn. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 
II, pp. 123, 124, 1906) under the 
local name Bagh Gutti from 
the Karwi Subdivision in the 
United Provinces, and by H. 0. 
Das-Gupta from British Garhwal 
mBdgh-Batti (Journ. Proc. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, XXIII, p . 297 , 1927 ) . 
Chabbis-guti Bagh-cJial described 
by B. Das-Gupta from Vikram- 
pore (Quart. Journ. Bangiya 
Sahitya Parishad, XIV, pp . 240 , 

. 241, 1314' B.S.) is a similar game, 

■ . . but " .is- ;■ played with . 26 ■ ' instead 
of 22 pieces. Its popularity is 
said to be on the wane. Attention may also be directed to a 

l10 Jour 7 ial of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S,, XXIX, 1933] 

Punjab game called Sher-bahm^ {H. G. Das-Giipta, ibid,, 
p. 145,. 1926) played on an identical board but with 19 pieces 
as 'goats’ instead of 20. In -pls^ymg Sher-bakar, 15 pieces are 
distributed equally in 3 circles,, whereas the rema.hiiiig 4 pieces 
are placed in the 4th circle at the commencement of the game. 
8, B E,] 

The author has seen the diagram of Bagh-bandi on the 
lid of an old-fashioned wooden chest, • which from the traditions 
of the family of the owmer must be 125 years old. 

Article No„ 18. 

■SadasiTa Worship in Early Bengal : A Study In History® 

Art and Religion. 

By Haridas Mitra. 



S'UMMABY . . ■ . . . . . . . . 171 

Part i. Epigraphy and History (Religious and Political) .. 174 
(a) Introduction : History of the Senas .. ..174 

{b) The Royal Seal of the Sena Kings of Bengal, and Sadas$iva 

Worship .. ,, .. •• ..18! 

Part ii. Psychology and Ritual . . . . . . 187 

Part III. Iconography and Art . .. .. 201 

Appendixes I to VI . . ■ , . . . . . 219 

Plates 13 to 18. 


The Royal Seal of the Sena Kings of Bengal, and 
Sada^iva Worship. 

The Seals, in cast metal, attached to copperplates of the 
Sena dynasty of Bengal, show in relief a ten-armed and many- 
faced form — first identified by Prinsep, while editing , the 
Bakharganja (Idiipur) plate of Ke§ava Sena, as a form of Siva. 
Specific mention of the seal as the Saddsiva Mudrd in Vi^varupa 
Sena’s Madan-pada Inscription suggested the first clues to the 
identification of the figure, subsequently, in the now defunct 
Aitihdsih Oitra • (VoL 1), edited by Babu Akshaya-kumar 
Maitreya, Rajshahi. 

The exact procedure of issuing deeds of gift : — the pracMce 
of: fixing seals— -fully attested to in the Dharma-Mstras, 
e.g. Ydjnavalhya'Samhitd and Mitdlcsard, miA the Niti-^astras, 
e.g. Kau^ilya’s Artha-sdstra. 

Descriptions of Sada^iva— not found in the Purdy^as, 
commonly, though the name occurs. Sadasiva— not mentioned 
by Hemadxi, who wrote between 1260-1309 A.o. 

Descriptions met with in the Tantrika Texts— e.g. JfaM- 
nirvaTia Tantram — ^and in the NibavAhas, e,g, ^dradatilaham. 

Of this form of Siva indicated in Seiia seals, there are three 
remarkable stone images in the Varendra Research Society, 
Rajshahi — two with small one-line votive inscriptions. And 

( 171 ) 

172 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

these apparently meaningless- Epigrapiis are nevertheless- 
important as fixing for the present, the upper-limit of Sadasiva 
worship* Paleeographic considerations must place the earliest 
specimen, between 950-1050 a.c. and the latest example, in 
the latter half of the 12th centnry A.c. 

(Vareiidra Research Society.' Abbreviated : 

These three specimens in the T,B.S, disclose a remarkable 
family likeness and they also illustrate an interesting phase in 
the nintnal assimilation and approximation of Brahmanism and 
the Buddhistic faith. All the three specimens present the 
Abliaya-mudrd in the Vijdlchydna style, and the V arada-rnudrd 
in the Bhumisjparm pose, while the pedestal in each shows the 
peculiar and non-Brahmanic sculj)tural device of an elephant 
sitting between two lions. 

The other two Sadasiva Images in stone, in the Vahgiya 
Sahitya Parisad, Calcutta, belong altogether to a new type. 

(Vaiigiya Sahitya Parisad. Abbrev, : V.8,P.) 

The three specimens in the are characterised by 

feminine grace, while the two other ones in the F./S.P. are 
marked by masculine vigour and majesty and are also later in 
age than the former set. 

Besides the Anulia, of the other Sena Inscriptions — 
the Tapandighi seal calls for special notice. 

Detailed descriptions of the Sadasiva seals, and the tw^o 
groups of Images in stone, viz. the V.B,S, set and the V.8.P, 

Comparisons will show that the figures on the seals disagree 
with the stone-images, as also with descriptions of Sadasiva 
found in literary texts — ^which last, again, are seemingly contra- 
dictory with one another. The figures in stone and on 
the seals are of greater importance than literary texts. 

Descriptions of Sadasiva from all available Sources. 

Some of tloL% Dhydna-slokas not handed down in perfect 
state of preservation. Different readings and mistakes had 
already crept in as early as the time of Gadadhara (15th 
century) the earliest commentator consulted on Saradd- 
tilakam — showing that Sadasiva worship was falling out of 
popular favour as early as the 14th- 15th centuries. 

But the worship of Sadasiva is coeval with the Tantras 
and the Saivagamas, as Sadasiva occupies an important 

position in Tantrika cosmogony, while according to the latter 
(Saivagamas), He is the Highest and the most Supreme Being 
— corresponding to Vasudeva of the Vaisnavagamas and Para- 
brahma of the Vedantins. 

The apparent contradictions, mutually — of the Dhydnas 
and descriptions of Sadasiva — explicable. Causes of the 
multiplicity and divergence of conceptions for the same deity — 
e.g. Sadasiva. 


Saddsim WorsJii'p in Early Bengal 


Propositions deducible from the above considerations : — 

(a) The literary descriptions of Sadasiva now available 

might be later in age than the conceptions 
represented by the stone images. 

(b) The Dhyanas might be earlier. 

(c) The images might be indicative of new concepts 

about the deity, in vogue at the time. 

(d) The Dhyana corresponding to the form of Sadasiva 

in question may be no longer extant. It is 
known that mantras for other deities are lost. 

(e) Lastly, the images which are Tantrika (?) might have 

been introduced by the vSenas, who came from 
^ the South (or by similar other persons) and 

might belong to the Kerala School of Tantras. 

The discovery of Sadasiva Images earlier than the Senas 
must place the date of introduction of the conception from 
the South, before or about the Pala period. Sadasiva worship 
had already a long history even in the times of &hkaraoarya 
(8th century a.c.) and Lak^mana Be^ika (lOth century a.c.). 

’ It possibly grew to be a regular cult about the Pala and 
the Sena periods. The existent specimens of Sadasiva agree 
closely with the description given in the Oaruda Purd'rpam and 
in the South. Indian Saiv%ama — UUara-kdmikdgama (not 
earlier than the 5th-6th centuries a.c.). Authorities are all 
in agreement that Sadasiva represents the Akasa Tattva and 
His five faces the five elements. 

The necessity of symbolic meanings in explaining the 
many apparently contradictory elements in deities. 

The symbolic significances of Sadasiva’s Ayndhas, Mudrds, 


The position of Saiva worship during the Senas. Con- 

Probable time and way of introduction of the Saivagamic 
concept into Bengal. Time and extension of Sadasiva worship. 

Pabt I. Epio-eaphy and Histoey (Religious and 

{a) Introduction: History of the Senas, 

§ 1. Of the many chiefs and princes who asserted indepen- 
dence or carved out kingdom s, on the eve of the disruption of 
the mighty PaJa Empire of Bengal, the most important were 
the Senas, 

§ 2. The Sena Kings of Bengal claimed descent from the 
Lunar Brahma-Ksattriya clan of Karnata, and as such, were 
foreign settlers in Bengal. It is, however, unknown when and 
how they came. The first Senas might have come to Bengal 
as vassals or feudatories of invaders like the Calukya Vikra- 
mahkadeva Tribhuvanamalla Paramardideva, or the Kalacuri 
Cedi Emperor Karna, or the Cola Rajendra I, or, perhaps, even 

§ 3. Taking advantage of the weakened state of the Pila 
Empire, the first Senas seem to have established themselves in 
the comparatively inaccessible and inhospitable hill-tracts 
(bordering West Bengal) which the Aryans had not adequately 

Thus securely settled in these strong recesses, the Sena 
princes might have gathered strength and gradually spread 
their arms towards North and East Bengal (ultimately driving 
the Pala Kings to Magadha) when they assumed Imperial 

§4. The Sena Kings seem to have possessed more than 
one provincial capital. 

Some of the Sena Kings were great patrons of letters while 
all are described as successful warriors. They w^ere also great 
builders. Some of their temples are known to have been 
triumphs of architectural skill. 

§5. The following account of the Sena family may be 
gathered from their hitherto discovered epigraphic records ^ : — 

1 For General History of the Senas, see 

{a) Ramaprasad Chanda: I Gauda-rajamW {¥.B, 8oc., 

Rajsliahi), pp. 38-77. 

(6) R. D. Banerjee : I aW I * History of Bengal *, 

Vol. I. Chapters X-XII ; Vol. II. Chapter I. 

(c) N. N. Vasu : Si'MtS : The Castes and Sects of 

Bengal ‘ The Royal Dynasties of Bengal, Vol. I. 

{d) Nanigopal M ajumd air : Inscriptions of Bengal^ Vol III. 

Rajshahi, 1929). 

(e) Hem Chandra Ray : The Bynastic History of Northern India, early 
mediaeval period, Vol. 1. Calcutta University Press, 1931, pp. 362 ff. 

( 174 ) 

[N.S .5 XXIX, 1933] Saddsiva Worship) in Early Bengal 175 

In tile family of a prince named Virasena of the Lunar 
Ksattriya dynasty of Karnata, were born many illustrious 
princes — ornamenting the Radha country, where they evidently 
shifted and settled. 

Ill their family was born the heroic Samanta Sena, the 
crest-gem of Erahma-Ksattriya clan and the receptacle of many 
virtues. He undertook conquering expeditions and alone, won 
back the royal fortune of the Karnatas from enemies killed in 
battle. In old age he retired to a hermitage on the banks of 
the Ganges. 

His equally virtuous and illustrious son Hemanta Sena 
was a devout Saiva. His virtuous wife was Yaso Devi 

Hemanta Sena’s son was Vijaya Sena. He was the first 
prince of this family to have attained independent sovereignty, 
Vijaya Sena is said to have outshone Sahasahka by his 

prowess ; he scared away the Lord of the Gaudas, defeated the 
King of Kamarupa and conquered Kalihga. He is also said to 
have defeated and imprisoned Kings Nanyadeva 
flT, Raghava and Vardhana . But Vijaya Sena’s naval 
expedition for conquering the western provinces seems to have 
been unsuccessful. Vijaya Sena performed numerous Vedic 
sacrifices. He erected a magnificent temple dedicated to 
Pradyumnesvara and dug a spacious tank in front of it.^ 

A copperplate grant of Vijaya Sena in the 62nd year of his 
reign ascribes to him a full title, namely — 

His principal queen was the Sura Siy princess Vilasa Devi 

Her son was Ballala Sena. He possessed great learning 
and w^as a heroic and virtuous man. The authorship of two 
literary works, viz. the Ddnasdgara and the Adbhutasdgara, 
the first — a compilation (Nihandha) on Smriti, and the second — 
another on Jyotisa (Divination), is ascribed to him. His full 
title was — 

^ King of Mitbila. 

2 Vijaya Sena’s Pradyumnesvara Temple Pra^asti composed 

by Umapatidhara, which is the oldest record hitherto discovered of the 
Sena dynasty, enabled to locate exactly the site of the Temple at Village 
Deopad^j Police Station Godagadi, District RSjshahi. The partial 
excavation (by V.E. Soc., Rajshahi) of the spacious tank which is still 
called Padum-Shahar, led, in 1919, to the discovery of many stone-images 
as also of other relics in terra-cotta and stone. 

176 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal . [N.S., XXIX, 

asrf^cTw f^i^r-wyc 

■ .' 's» 


Ballala Sena’s son was the famous Laksmaiia Sena whose 
motker , Rama Devi was a Calukya princess, 

■ Laksmana.Sena erected pillars of victory, at Purl, Kasi .and 
Prayaga, at which places he also performed sacrifices. In his 
youth Laksinana Sena sported with .Kalinga damsels, 

kamarupa was conquered by him. One of Laksmaiia Sena’s 
queens was Taiidra Devi or Tada Devi 

As noble and pious king, Laksmaiia Sena was a great 
patron of letters and gathered round him, poets like Jayadeva 
and Dhoyi, and scholars like Halayudha, Verses of his own 
composition as also of his contemporary poets are, given in the 
anthology Saduktikarnamritaiii ^ by Srldharadasa 

son of Vatudasa one of Laksmaiia Sena’s cour- 

tiers. Lak^mana Sena’s full title was — 



Laksmaiia’ s name is connected with an era called 
Laksmana Sam vat (La, Sam.) which is still current in Mithila. 
The initial date of this era has not, however, been exactly deter- 
mined as yet. According to the Muhammadan historians, 
Muhammad-i-Bakhtyar captured by surprise with a mere 
handful of men the Sena capital said to have been situated at 
a place called Xudia, which however cannot now be exactly 
located. After Laksmana the Sena kingdom gradually dimi- 
nished in extent and eventually vanished from Bengal. 

§6. Three sons of Laksmana are known, ail of whom 
succeeded their father one after another. They ruled in East 
Bengal, as independent sovereigns. The eldest was Madhava 
iTT'sr^. The next two sons of Laksmana — Visvarupa Sena 
t5?r and kesava Sena are said to have been brave 

1 (a) R. Pischel : * Die Hofdichter des Lakemana Sena ' * On the Court- 
poets of A. G.G.N,, 39, 1893; and M. Chakravarti : J,P,A.S.B, (N.S.), 
2, 1906, pp. 157 ff. ; Dr. M. Winternitz : Geschichte der indischen Litteratiir. 
Vol. Ill, p. 54. 

(6) M. Wintemitz: Geschichie, Vol. Ill, pp. 166 ff. 

Saduktikarnamritam — compiled in 1205. Both the father and the 
son were in L.’s services. The anthology contains chiefly verses of 
Bengal poets such as Dhoyi and Jayadeva. 446 poets are quoted 
altogether. Amongst them are Gangadhara who is known by an inscrip- 
tion of 1137 A.C. and five other poets who are related to him, all of whom 
lived between 1050 and 1150 A.c. 

177 " 

1933 ] ^^addmva Worship in E(XTly Bengal 

and pious kings who defeated the Yavana or Miihamniadan 
hordes in battle. Their full titles were — 

arsitTfer *r?:trfcT 


^ficf n 

And ... ... ••■ 

... ... d.. II 

♦ ' 

§ 7. The name of a Buddhist King Madhu Sena, who was 
still ruling in a.c. 1289, with the Imperial title, is disclosed 
in a Buddhist MS. of Panca-raJcsd discovered from Nepal. 
The final colophon ^ rims as— 

“ iT?:%=>g?:-tT5Cflr«Va--Ef^*r?:T3rTf^?;T5T-=^5Fr^%’sr?:-frH 

HK ft I ” ^ 

§8. Of the Epigraphic records of the Sena family, hitherto 
discovered, the earliest is Vijaj^a Sena’s Pradyumnessvara 
Temple Prasasti, composed by Umapatidhara.^ A 
Copperplate Grant ^ issued in his 62 regnal year has also been 

It was a deed of gift for a religious ceremony performed 
his Queen Vilasa Devi. The land was in Khadi Visaya 

under Paundravardhana-bhukti conferred 

upon one Udayakara-sarman of Vatsya gotra and 

a student of the Asvalayana-sakha of the Rigveda as Balcsh^d 
of the Kanaka-tuia-puru§a Mahadana sacrifice, performed 
by the Queen. 

1 Illustrated in Vanglya Sahitya Parisat Patrikd { V,S.P.P.), Vol. 27,. 
No. I, plate 18. 

2 The ruling families of the Punjab Hill States Punch, Suket, MancU, 
Junga, and KasmTr claim their descents from scions of the Sena dynasty 
of Bengal, who took refuge in the Punjab after the Muhammadan occupa- 
tion of Bengal. These traditions found in their dynastic chronicles are, 
however, not yet historically proved. 

3 EJ., Vol. I. 

^ The record is noticed in R. D. Banerjee’s History of Bengal (in 
Bengali), Vol. I, pp. 291-2. Since the above was written, it has been 
edited by Mr. Banerjee in £?./., Vol. XV, Part VI. 

5 VVrongiy read as (31) thirty-first regnal, year by R. D. Banerjee [if 
the reading (62) suggested first by Nalinikanta Bhatta^aii (?) be correct]. 

1 7 8 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N. S , , XXIX, 

§ 9. Only one inscribed record of Ballala Sena’s reign lias 
been' hitherto' discovered. This is the copperplate inscription 
discovered at Sitahati — Naihati villages, district Burdwan, 
Katwa Subdivision, Bengal. It records fche gift by Ballala 
Sena of a village in Uttara-radha-Mandala inider 

Vardhamana-bhnkti to one, ^rimM Vasudeva barman of the 
Bharadvaja gotra, follower of the Kaiithunaa School of the 
Sama Veda, as the DaJcsind of Hemasva Mahadana 
ceremony performed by the Queen-mother Vilasa Devi on the 
occasion of a solar eclipse on the 16th day of Vai^akha, in the 
11th regnal year.^ 

§ 10. Xo less than six copperplate inscriptions of Laks- 
mana Sena’s reign have been hitherto discovered. 

(i) The Tapandighi (district Dinajpur) plate of the third 

regnal year, Bhadra 3, records the gift of Villahistl 

village in Varendra-mandala under the Paundra- 
vardhana-bhukti to Isvara-deva-Sarman of Bharadvaja gotra 
and follower of the Kauthuma School of the Sanaa Veda, in 
honour of the adored Lord Narayana as the Daksina of Hema- 
^varatha-dana. The record was issued from the victorious camp 
' situated at Sri-Vikramapura.^ 

(ii) The Anulia (district Nadia) plate, issued from the 

victorious camp situated at Sri-Vikramapura, also of the third 
regnal year Bhadra 9, <f., records the gift of Vyagbratati 

sETT’srw^ village under the Paundra-vardhana-bhukti to Raghu- 
deva-^arman, of the Kau^ika gotra and a student of the Kanva 
School of the Yajurveda.® 

(iii) The recently discovered copperplate^ from Govinda- 
pur (district 24-Pargamias, near Baruipur) — also dated in the 
third regnal year (without mention of the exact day) and issued 
from the victorious camp situated at ^ri- Vikramapura, records 
the gift by Laksmana Sena of a certain measure of land in 
Sri- Vardhamana-bhnkti to Upadhyaya Sri-Vyasadeva-vSarman 
of the Vatsya gdtra and a follower of the Kauthuma School of 
the Sama Veda, on the auspicious occasion of the Coronation, 
in honour of the adored Lord Narayana, for the increase of the 
merit and the fame of the King’s parents and person. 

(iv) The Sundarbans (Jay-nagar, district 24-Pargannas) 
plate of Laksmana Sena is no longer traceable. It recorded 

1 First edited by Tarak-candra Ray — Vanglya Sahiiya Parisat PatrikUf 
-(F.jS.P.P.), 1.317 (B.S.). The latest edition of the inscription is by R. D. 
Banorjee in P.7., Vol. XIV. 

3 (a) Vol. XLIV, 1875, Part I, 

(h) F./8.P.P,, Vol. XVIL 

3 (a) First edited by Babn Akshaya Kumar Maitreya, in the now 
defunct Bengali Magazine Aitihasik Oitra^ Vol. I, 1st Series. 

(b) 1900. Part I. 

^ Amulyacaran Vidyabhushan— 

Bharatavarsa — Phalgum^ 1332 (B.S,). 


SaddMva Worshij:) in Early Beyigal 

179 ^’ 

the gift of a certain measure of land in lOiadi-inandak 

under Paundra-vardbana-bhukti to ^i-Krisnadliaradeva- 
ferniaii student of the Asvalayana-saklia of, 

the Eigvedaj in honour of the adored Lord Narayana in the 
third ( ? ) regnal year, Magha 10 (?) d 

(f) The Madhai-nagar (district Pabna) plate records the 
gift of the Bapaniya pataka village in Paiindra-vardhana- 
hhukti under Vareiidra-mandala to G5vinda-deva-Sarman of: 
the Kausika gotra and a student of the Paipjpalada School of 
the Atharva Veda, as the Baksina of the Hemasva-ratha-dana 
ceremony. The date and the year of issue of the record are 
worn away.^ 

(vi) The most recently discovered copperplate^ of Lak§- 
inaiia Sena from Saktipur (district Murshidabad) is dated in the 
sixth regnal year Sravana 'o. It was issued from the 

victorious camp situated in Sri-Vikramapura, and records the 
gift of some ^XK pdtahas of land, consisting of Raghavahatta, etc. 
under Sri Madhiigiri Mandala in the vicinity^of Kumbhinagara, 
at the South of the Kahkagrama-bhukti, to Acarya Sri-Kiivera- 
deva-Sarman, a follower of the Kauthuma-sakha of the Sama 
Veda. The pious gift was made on the occasion of a solar 
eclipse in honour of the adored Lord Narayana and for advance- 
ment of the merit and the fame of the King’s parents and 

The six patakas of land, Raghavahatta, etc . were given in 
exchange for a plot called Chatrapataka. The^ latter was held 
by Gay ala Brahmana Haridasa as a gift from Sri Ballala Sena. 
The Minister of peace and war Sdndhi-vigrahika, Tripurari 
Naha w^as the Dutaka of this particular deed of Laksmana Sena, 
in whose other records the Dutaka is Narayana Batta. 

The only notice available of another comparatively little 
known copperplate of Laksmana Sena — the lost Bhowal (Bhaoal) 
inscription, has recently been brought to light. It was probab- 
ly granted in the 37th (or, misreading for 27th?) regnal year 
and the contents of the plate were similar to those of the 

1 (a) Partly deciphered, by the late Pandit Bamgati Nyayaratna, at 
the end of his book on the History of Bengali Literature ( 

(t) Babu Mahim*candra Ray : Gaude Brahmana, Calcutta, 1886, gives 
a, fuller but inaccurate version. 

2 (a) Aiiihasika Gitra, VoL I, 1st Series. 

(6) J.P.A.S,B, (New Series), VoL V. 

3 First edited by Ramescandra Basu — Ldkmnayia Sener Navdviskrita 

Tdmrasana, V.S,P,P., Vol. XXXVII ; Readings of the topographical 
portion and, of the year and date corrected by Nalinikanta Bhatta^ali — 
Laksmana SBner Navaviskrita S'aktipur-iaaan 0 Prdclna Vanger Bhaugo- 
lika-vibhdga, f V*S.P,P., VoL 


180 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ■ [N.S., XXIX, 

MadMI-nagar grant, which unmistakably ' belonged to later 
years, in the reign of Laksmana Sena d 

K stone-image of Candi (which may be identified as of the 
Mahalaksmi ' form) now at Dal bazar, Dacca, was installed in 
Laksmana Sena’s third regnal year by one Xarayana, probably 
a royal officer in Vahga.^ 

§11. Only one copperplate inscription of VisFartipa Sena 
was hitherto known. But, recently, another partly mutilated 
copperplate record of the same king has been found from 
Eastern Bengal.® 

It recorded donations by the king in perpetuity, of pieces 
of land, containing gardens and plantations and situated in 
different parts of Eastern Bengal, which were either purchased 
or got as gifts from princes and ministers by the donee himself, 
viz. Avallika Pandita Halayudha of the Vatsya g5tra and a 
student of a portion of the Kanva School of the Yajurveda. 
Two princes of the Sena dynasty are mentioned in the donation 
portion of the inscription. One is Sada Sena and the other 
Purusottama Sena. Their relationship with Visvarupa is not 
given, but as they are called Kumaras, they might be his sons. 

The Madanpada (Dt. Faridpur) Copperplate^ Inscription 
of Visvarupa Sena records the gift of some land in Paiindra- 
vardhana-bhukti under Vikramapura-bhaga of Vanga to Visva- 
rupa-deva ^^arman, a reciter of the Vedas, in the fourteenth 
regnal year, Asvina 1, ^ . 

§ 12. The Idilpur (Dt. Bakharganja) Copperplate,® no longer 
traceable-rthe only one inscription of Kesava Sena recorded the 
gift of Talapada-pataka village, in Pauiidra-var- 

dhana-bhukti under Vikramapura-bhaga of Vanga to Sri Isvara- 
deva Sarman, a reciter of the Vedas, in the .third regnal 
year, Jyaistha.® 

1 (a) Nalinikanta Bhatta4alT : ^ The lost Bhowal copperplate of Laks- 
ymna Sena Deva of Bengal", LH.Q., Vol, III, No. l,AIarcii, 1927. 

’ (6) For the Bengali Version of N. B.’s article, see 

'Q I) cnV I 

0|yv!>.N!>b'?9 1 

2 J.P.A.S.B,, New Series, Vol. IX, p. 290, pi. XXII-XXIV. 

2 Haraprasad Sastrl : Copper -plate Grant of VisvaTfipa S^na of 

Bengal \ Vol. II, No. 1, March 1926. A portion (of the Copper- 

plate) with writings on both sides has been cut away and melted. Probably 
the plate was later in date than the other Madanpada Inscription, as the 
descriptive or panegyric ilohas oi the first, do not all occur in the latter, 
which is less elaborate. 

4 J.A,S.B., Vol. LXV (1896), Part I, p, 11. 

5 J.A.S B,, Vol. VII (1838), date lost. 

^ 'The Senas, who followed the Palas in Magadha, have left an 
inscription at the great temple of JageSvar beyond Almora, which though 
very imperfect allows the name Madhava Sena to be read.’ It records 
the gift of some land by MSdhava Sena on that institution. — Atkinson : 
Notes on the History of the Himala/ya of the N.W,P, of India^ Chapter III, 
,p. 50, and Chapter IV, p. 15. 


1933] Sadmiva Worshiq^ in Early Bengal 181 

{h) The Royal Seal of the Sena Kings of Bengcd , 
and Saddsiva Worship, 

While editing, for the first time, in 1838, the Bakhargailja 
( I diipiir) copper-plate grant inscription ofKesava Sena, Prinsep 
called attention to the ten-handed, many-faced form (in relief) 
in the seal— 'an elaborately executed figure of Siva, cast in 
copper, of great delicac^T' and taste; ’d The seal is a circular 
disc with beaded rim and closely ri vetted to the top of the 
grant. See Plate 13, Fig. 1. 

The established procedure of issuing deeds of gift re- 
quired the Indian' kings to.- authenticate the documents by 
attaching their ' respective dynastic Bahchana-^ ot 

crests.' This practice is fully , attested to by tbe Bharm'a-^ 

1 J,A.8.B;(imS),Yol VII. , ■ 

2 YajHavalkya Acarddhyaya. Edjadharma' 
praJcaranam and Vijfiane^vara’s commentary. Slokas, 318-20 ; 


^T3TTfiTiT1f^qfrfTTpC=3?T5rT^ il 9 !1 

w m frravl i' 

iiil-’crfw n ^ itt \\ 


While commenting upon- these Texts, Vijnanesvara gives, by the way, 
the exact procedure ol issuing deeds of gift in his time. 

^nw: ^rr, 

wfgs=si4f; »(?r ^ ’^f5RSIT>?: 

1%p8if!f«7q%sr wwra ; ^T^sr ■g 1%%$^ 
arT%®r, '9»3rew!’?’CTJnf^srT ’9«nj, ^gwr 

f^%af ?tre*f, fst^ wftra’Rt '^tw; s^tstt- 

'^j^^trrgr®rf«ffT, ssk^ ’ 9 ^af%^r'?arrft^T *r 

%sr I 

182 Journal of the Asiaiic Society/ of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 
and ftftf Xiti^-WTW Sastras. 

The seal in these inscriptions is called a Mudm which in 
this connection has to be distinguished from its current use to 
designate a coin. Etymologically, it means, according to the 
Trikandasesa, ‘ that which gives assurance of authen- 

ticity \ 

The use of seals has been known in India from early times, 
as may be seen in the clay seals discovered in many places.^ 

With King’s officials, churches, as well as private indivi- 
duals it usually took the form of a regular seal, and also of signet 
lings and an apt illustration is supplied by the Skt. drama 
M'lidrdrdksasam, The royal grants of the Gupta Emperors as 
well as their vassals and of all subsequent dynasties, ruling even 
over small provinces, disclose the use of the M%d.m or the seal. 
It would appear that the royal seal used to remain in the 

mil I 

1 KauiUtyam Arthasastram (Mysore Sanskrit Ser.) and English Tran- 
slation of Ditto, (both by R. Shama Sastri) 

I The practice of forming Royal 



“’»cre^ I ^^^sI5f^^^srr f% ktsitst: gfa?- 

^Ta[ I ’^TsatimsrT 'CT'g^^T^ f%ae?gT<j i 

t;?. ^ siTfHfW’^rsrg^s’^fTTfsr 



■sfTsf^wrg w 

f% -sfresiT^ II 

A.SJ.B; 1011-12. Excavations at Bhita. Seals and sealines; 
pp. 44-61. A.S.I.B., 1903-4. Excavations at Basarh. 

3 Imp. Oaz. Indian Empire, Yoh VI, pp. 29-34, 

1933 ] 

SaMsiva Worship i7i Early Bengal 


careful custody of a keeper, a responsible, officer under tlie 
designation of Mahdnmdrddhyalcsa} 

Asior tiie copperplate grants of the Sena Kings, the seal 
on the Aiiiilia (Dt. Nadia, Bengal) Plate discloses a many-faced 
and ten-armed male deity seated in' the Malidpairndsa-na 

The seal on the Anuiia Plate is not named, but specific 
mention of a similar seal as Saddsiva Mudrd in the 

Idilpur Copperplate of Kesava Sena, suggested the first clue to 

Other Sena Inscription-seals, 

The seal in the Sitahati-Naihati Plate of Ballala Sena 
contains a similar ten-armed sealed image of Siva.® A similar 
seal was noticed on the lost (24:-Parganas) Jayanagar Plate of 
Laksmana Sena.^ Such a seal also exists on the Madhai-nagar 

But the seal on the Tapandighi Plate of Laksmana Sena 
shows the same figure in a slightly different style Similar 
seal on the Bakharganja (Idilpur) grant of Kesava Sena is 
expressly called the Saddsiva Mudrd? 

The Madanpada Copper-plate Inscription of Vi^varupa 
Sena says that the seal represents (a seal of) the Saddsiva 
Mudrd ' Sadasiva-mudraya mudrayitva 

The image of Sadasiva thus found on the royal seal of Sena 
Kings of Bengal is not an imaginary one, invented for the 
purpose of the seal. There are both literary and monumental 
proofs about the worship of a deity of this name, which obvi- 
ously belongs to a variety of the Sivaite cult. 

The royal seals of the Buddhist Kings of the Pala and 
Candra Dynasties of Bengal may rightly suggest that the image 
in the seal of the Sena Kings may not be absolutely unconnec- 
ted with their religious faith. 

Of this identical form of Siva there are three remarkable 
stone images (two with small one-line votive inscriptions) in 
the museum of the Varendra Research Society, Rajshahi. 
Two other stone-images of this type have also been collected by 
the Vahgiya Sahitya Parisad, Calcutta. 

1 Of. Mahamndfddhikrita, (to which the term must correspond) of 
Laksmana Sena’s copperplates. 

2 i ^ Aitihasik Citra (1st Series), Part I. 

s Illustrated VoL 

XIV.: ■ 

4 Vide 's (|g$i) r 

5 J.F,A.SB, (N.S.), Vol. V.' , 

6 Illustrated in EJ., Vol. XII (1913-14), Plate 3. 

7 J.P,A.S.B, (N.S.), Vol. X, pp. 99, 104. 

8 J.A.S.B,, 1896, 1’art I, p. 11. 

184 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX 

Prom a consideration of the localities from which the^e 
stone images were collected, it would clearly appear that an 
acral Toihip of Siva in this particular form prevailed m 

^^^Talaeographic considerations may he of some help 
mining the approximate period of the two inscribed 

in deter - 

(Ink Impressioa of the Epigraph.) 

The Inscription on the Pedestal of another Image [No. 2^-] 
is a small votive inscription consisting of one line. This 
also seems to contain the name of the Donor, which however is 
peculiar and unintelligible. It would be useless to reconstruct 
the name, into Sanskrit as it might be of DeSi or even non- 
Aryan origin, or it might be hopelessly corrupt beyond 

„ C(b) 3 , „ C{b) 1 

1 The F.B./S., Museum No. -y^^and No. 

2 Inscription:— * * 

Yaiamana-Vali-ka[bh,n?-]yavuskri[bh,n ?]yiyakah H 

**!■ ?-] ?] II 

N. Gf. the ‘na w’ and ‘bh h’ in. the Pehoa Pra^asti of the time of 
Mahendra Pala of Kanauj. It is not certain, whether the eighth and the 
eleventh aksara within brackets, is ‘ bha ’ or ‘ na ’. 

image^e gpjgj.a_pjj on the pedestal of the oldest one of them 
Y.B.S. No. ^4^ consists of one line only, which, though not 

clear, obviously indicates the name of the . . pjy ^ 

It is undoubtedly near m age to the f 

Inscription (of 966 a.c.) of the Kamboja King. Fpr th. 

are similar to the slightly more developed forms, m tne JJii aj 
pur and in the Krisnadvarika Temple Inscription of Nayapala 
at Gaya. On the other hand the epigraphic^ alp^ ot 

sut {4ava. un uiitJ utmciji hcuxxka. ^ ^ / al a. 

inscription is more developed than the Pehoa Scrip^^^^^^^ 

900 AC 1 Of. the Pehoa ‘sr na’ and ‘v bha . iheretoie tne 
very probable date of the Epigraph is about 9o0-10o0 a.c. 


Baddsiva Worshi 20 in Early Bengal 


restoration.^ The script used, is intermediate between (Vijaya 
Sena’s) Beopada and (Gopala Ill’s) Manda Inscriptions, on the 
one side, and (A^oka Caila’s) Buddhagaya Inscription (1170 
A.C.), on the other. 

Therefore the Epigraph may be safely placed in the latter 
half of the 12th c., A. 0. 

(Ink Impression of the Epigraph.) 

Chronologically the time indicated by these three speci- 
mens of Sada^iva in the V.E.S. synchronizes, also with a 
troublous period of Bengal History. Repeated attacks by rival 
kings or military adventurers from all sides and irruption of 
Mongol hordes from the North, coupled with the weakness of 
the ruling princes, hastened the downfall of the mighty 
Pala empire. The Senas also were similar military adventurers 
from Southern India and they gradually established them- 
selves ill Bengal. 

Ail their cppper-plates (some of which are no longer 
traceable) most probably had the Sadasiva Seal. 

The seal on the Anulia plate of Laksmana Sena shows a 
seated figure with 10 hands on a lotus throne. Three of the 
faces of the figure are noticeable and they are crowned. See 
Plate 14, Fig. L 

R1 — ^presents Abhayamndrd in Vydhhydna style. 

R2 — Danda {Sahtil:). 


R4 — Vajra (or Khapvdnga 'I). 

R5 — Varadamudrd in Bhumisparsa Btjle. 

LI — indistinct (had Aksaautra 1 ) ; held below RL 

L2 — Lotus (I/^paZa ?). 

L3 — Damarii, 

Ij4:—-Sarpa, . 

L5— “indistinct ; (Vljapural). 

Of the seals on other Sena plates the one on the Tapan- 
dighi plate, in the Vahgiya Sahitya Parisat, Calcutta, calls for 
special notice — not only on account of its better state of 

1 Inscription: — 

Banapati tamvamamna 

186 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.j XXIX, 1933] 

preservation but because; the front and the only visible face is 
peculiar. The figure is ten-armed, seated on lotus throne. 
The front and the only visible face has round eyes and is 
furious-looking with dangling ' locks of clotted hair and snake 
garland. This is very probably the Aghora face of Siva* See 
Plate 13, Fig. 2. ' ■ 

B/1 — Abhayamudm. 

R2 — Vajra. 

RS— something with a point ; (Ahkusa ?) Danda* 

R4 — Damaru. 

R5 — Varadamudrd, 

LI- — indistinct; {Ahsasutra'i), 

L2 — Lotus. 

L4 — Sarpa» 

L5 — indistinct ; ( Vlfa^mra ? ). 

Part II. Psychology and Ritual. 

There are forms of ^iva (beionging to the Tantrika and also 
to the Pauranika forms of worship) both terrible and benign., 
some being only partial manifestations ( of the deity 
(e.g. Virabhadra ). 

No form of vSiva, called Sadasiva, is mentioned by 
Hemadri ^ who has dealt at length with the Pauranik concep- 
tions of Deities.^ But Sadasiva is not totally unknown to the 

Descriptions of Sada^^va are found in the Tantrika 
NihandTia-^ and Texts. Of these, the conception of 
the form, expressly called Sadasiva^ is x^^i’tly in agreement 
with the figure on the seals. But one other Sada§iva-dhyana 
^ is totally different and that about Sadasiva (unified 
with Devi) of slightly different form. 

To the mantra called Prasada^, there are two alto- 

gether different ^Tir Dhyana-s.® While the deity invoked by 
the Prdsdda Mantram is elsewhere called expressly, 


Comparison will show that the Dhyana-s referred to 
above, are seemingly self-contradictory, and in disagreement 
with the figure of Sadasiva, stamped on the seals and also 
with the somewhat similar images in stone. 

1 Hemadri wrote between (1260-1309 a.c.). Vide 

M. Winternitz : Oeschichte der indischen Litteratur, Voi. Ill, p. 502. 

2 Hemadri : Vrata-khaiidam (Bibliotheca Indica). 

3 Sri-Visnudliarmmottaram. Chapter 48, Part III ; 

(Sri-Venkatesvara Press, Bombay). 

4 In Mahanirvana-tantram, Ullasa 14, Slokas 31-37. 

^ 8 «c j. 

5 In Saradatilakam, 1 8th Patala 

^ In A. Avalon; Satcakra<niropanam, Tantrih Texts, VoL II, Sloka 


7 In Saradatilakam XRE^: [ 

^ One in Tantrasara, Chapter II, and the other in 

' Prapaficasara, Chapter 26. 

In Rudrayamala Patala 48— { F.B./S?., MS. No. 214) 

{ Rasika-mohan’s Edition), Patala 50. Also, see Appendix II 


^0 The Dhyana-§loka of SadS^iya (given in MaMnirvana- 

iantTcim, 14th ullasa ), and quoted by the late Pandit Rajanikanta 

CakravartT, while editing the Anulia Plate (Aitihasik Citra, Vol. 1, 1st Ser.) 

{187 ) 

188 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

The images in stone and on the seal are of greater import- 
ance than literary texts, their evidences, being more definite and 
tangible ; and the apparently meaningless votive inscriptions 
on two of the images, are nevertheless important as affording 
for the present the upper limit of the age of Sadasiva worship 
in Bengal. 

The causes of this multiplicity and divergence of concep- 
tions of the same deity may be stated as follows : 

The Dhyana ^Tir varies according to the Vlja 
A deity might have many fN'JFra’ Vljamantra-^ from which 
severally, the ww Dhyana-^ are evolved. 

Some Vlja is of a general character corresponding to any 
and every form of the deity in question. Other Vljas are 
applicable only to particular forms of the deity. ^ 

Each Dhyana also corresponds to a peculiar state of mind 
( ) of the devotee ( ) who first worshipped the deity 
through any particular Vljamantra and the worship- 

per who first attained SiddM by the mantra is called 
its rsi.2 Also the concepts of deities have changed from 
time to time. Of. Tara ^ and Mahisamardinl.^ 

The following propositions may be deduced from the 
above considerations 

(а) The Sadasiva-dhyanas might be later in 

age than the conception represented by the 
stone images. In that case the ages of the 
Tantrik texts would be seriously affected — all 
of them being brought down to dates later than 
the 12th century. 

(б) The Bhyanas might be earlier. 

(c) The Dhyanas might be indication of new concepts 

of the deity, in vogue at the time. 

(d) The Mantra and consequently the Dhyana corres- 

ponding to the form of Sadasiva in question, 
may be no longer extant. 

^*1), agrees with the figure on the seal, only in 
general features and the number of hands, etc. The points of difference 
which are much greater than points of resemblance, were not recogni7.ed 
by the learned Pandit. 

1 This may explain causes of the apparent mutual contradictions 

of the many Dhyana61dkas for the one, Prasadamantra 

of Siva referred to above. For, the PrSsadamantra is of a 

general nature and corresponds to any form of Siva, whatsoever. 

2 ^ * Rudrayamala, Patala 50 (Edition of Rasika-mohana 


3 Cf. Tara — vide A. K. Maitreya : Tardtantram {V.Fi.S., Edition) 
Introduction, pp. 11, 15, 19. 

4 Mahiaa-mardinT— A, Avalon : 
Kulaeudamanitantram, Tantrih Texts, Vol. IV. Introduction, p. 14. 


Saddsiva Worsh^:) in Early Bengal 


It is known mantras for other deities, are lost.^ 

(e) Lastly, the images w^hich are Ttotrik might belong to 
the Kerala School and might have been 

introduced by people from other parts of India, like 
the Senas coming from the South into Bengal.^ 

As for the last proposition, the discovery of Sadasiva 
images earlier than the Senas is an argument against it ; then 
the date of introduction of the conception from the South, 
must be before or about the Pilla period.^ 

But as has been already said, Sadasiva is as old as the 
Tantras> His worship might have developed into a regular 
form of Religious creed or faith in Bengal much later, during 
the Palas and the Senas. The existence of Sadasiva [1] Paint- 
ings at Puri and Bhuvane^vara, and the mention of Sadasiva by 
Sahkaracarya (8th century a.c.) ^ and by Laksmaiia 

1 C£. Mahisa-mardim — in Kulacudamanitantram 

Tantrik Texts, Vol. IV. rntroduction, p. 13. 

2 There are evidences both indirect and direct, th?it MaMnirvana- 

tantram does not suit the Visnu-kranta (to which Bengal 

belongs) — one of the three main divisions of India, each having its own 
particular set of Tantrik works. 

For it is not quoted by Krisnananda (who was a fellow-studeut of Sri- 
Caitanya and who could have used the work for his Tcmtrasara). 

Neither is it quoted by his predecessors Brahmananda Giri and 
Purnananda Giri in Tara-raliasya and 8'yama-mhasya respectively, 
though, it is quoted in the modem Tantrik Nihandha, PranatosanilatS 

by Pranakrisna Visvas (or rather by his Pandit Ramtosan 

Vidyalaiikar ). 

Two of the known dates for Purnananda Giri, are— 1499 Saka=1577 

A.o. (date of ►Sritattva-cintamani ) — and 1466 Saka=lf^44 

A.G, (date of Briktakrama {Vide 

« 1 ’ Sahitya, 1325 B.S.) 

Also, Mahdnirvana-tantram is not included in the list of Tantras, 
suitable for the Visnukranta {vide Tantrik Texts, Vol. I, Introduction). 

3 [Vide Appendix I, for Siva-Dhyanas.] 

4 The oldest Tantrik MS. (in Gupta script) discovered, is dated 
609 A. c. Haraprasad SSstrT — Beport on SkL MSS., 1895-1900, Calcutta, 
190l,pp.3ff, ■ ■ 

The well known Tantrik Nihandha, Prapancasara is ascribed to 
^afikaracarya (published by Woodroffe in Tantrik Texts). This work 
was commented upon Ijy Padmapadacarya who ascribes it to Sankara 
Bhagavatpadacarya in the colophon. (A MB. copy of Padmapadacarya’s 
commentary, showing the final colophon, is in Varendra Research Society, 

As w^e know of only one Sahkaracarya who was styled ‘ Bhagavat- 
pdda ’ and also had a disciple named Padmapadacarya, the authorship of 

190 Jotirml of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S,, XXIX, 

Desika (10th century a.c.)^ — both Southerners, 

show that the cult was very widespread and that it had 
already a long history, in their times, 

Prapancasara is to be ascribed, to him, unless there be clearer evidences 
to the contrary. 

has given the names of his ancestors beginning from 
his great-grandfather — vide 

Saradatilakam, Edition of Samvat 1953, Rajaraje^vari Press, 

Benares : Patala 25, ^lokas 86-90 ; [new and critical ed. by A. Avalon : 
TantriJc Hexta, Vols. XVI and XVII, Patala 25, slokas 83-87] : 

tsfTfqW 1%'?^ II II [=?] 

f%#^ivrrrr ftgrr^Tfiivn pffT'^rav1%H vffl n cl's n 

arftTTsiT: ii === ii ] 

rOgi SJm'- I 

ft?IT^VnS rrai’g srai m II e'en II ] 

*rr»j i 

[TrrsO ^ ^ rwi^s^i 

11 C” II ['^'s] 

• • .. .. 114? II [’=^ii«=<!:] 

vfn #tTnV5[Tfflist% g g II 

The commentator Raghava-Bhatta has traced the spiritual 

descent Gurupamkti) of the author of while the 

disciples of Ksemaraja have offered salutations to preceptors — 

from SrTkaritha to Utpalacarya and from Laksmana 

to Ksemaraja — 

%ttf v^sfisirsTT ^?!?fw%siipsi«mTg'?f?f ii ^ ii 
— 3nK«CTfiT«% ?im2# 

Tjarw ^rr’ ?r«iT ^ 

v=?rsi^^: ‘ftsre fWwTSf*«?iKtwrgT’5itfsT’f?i 

^ 'WH^TSl "df-^ttiT! 1— Commentary : PadarthadarSa 

of Raghava Bhatta. 

Very possibly, this Abhinava gupta is identical with the 

Ka^mrian Saiva Philosopher of the same name, who was the author of 
Paramarthasara. He too had a disciple named 
Ksemaraja — the author of fevasutra-Vimar^ini who 

1933] Saddsiva W or ship in Early Bengal 191 

But the worship of Sadasiva is coeval with the Tantras^ as 
Sadaava occupies a prominent position in Tantrik cosmogony. 

According to the Tantrik psycho-physiological theories 
about the human nervous system, ‘the cerebrospinal axis 
with the connected sympathetic system contains a number of 
ganglionic centres and plexuses (Gakras, Padmas) from which 
nerves {Nddls, Birds, and Dharnanls) radiate o^er the head, 
trunk and limbs 

According to the mystical doctrines of the Tantras, the 
human body, is an exact reflection 

on a minor scale of the universe, In both are fourteen 

regions {ldkas)—t]ie seven upper and the seven nether worlds, 
counting from Satyaldka the highest, and these are represented 
by the Gakras, in human body. In both are also mountains, 
rivers, and the elemental bodily substances.^ 

The Baku, the personification of universal energy in the 
abstract, resides also in man, as the Kuxhdalini Bakti, The 
Supreme ^Spirit (as also his lower manifestations) reside in man, 
and the Sakta Tantras call it Paramasiva, corresponding to the 
Parabrahman of the Vedantins and Vasudeva of the same state 
of existence according to the Vaisnavagamas. According to 
the Sakta Tantras, one of these lower manifestations of Parama- 
siva — Sadasiva, has his seat in the Visuddha Cakra or 
the Bhdratlsthdna, the Cakra situated at the junction 

of the spinal cord with the medulla oblongata, which regulates 
the organs of articulation.^ 

beiongeci to Ilth century [end of the 10th and the beginning of the 1 1th 
■century — Winternitz : Geschichte. Vol. Ill, p. 445 and p. 19] 
must have therefore flourished some decades earlier, ‘—vide 


1 Br. B. N. Seal — The Physical Sciences oj the Hindus, pp. 23-7. 

Ditto.— Appendix C to B. K. Sarkar : The Positive Bach-ground of 

Hindu Sociology. Book I. Allahabad, 1914 — Hindu Physiology and 
Biology, Sections 4, 5. 

2 ^ 4 . Avalon : Mahdnirvdna Tantram. Introduction, pp. XX VT and 


wm: ■sfrfWKW’B 5T?I 

flifrw f*rai Pswtw i 

W ftcw ^1%^: II II 

192 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX, 

One form of Tantrik SddJiana aims at the, union of 
Kulakundalim with Paramasiva, who have their seats 

in the Mulddhdra (below the membrtim virile) and the 

Sahasrdra (the upper cerebrum)— corresponding to the 

^r5| Satya B,nd BhuJokas respectively, in the human body. 
The sleeping Kun^dalim is roused by subtle yogic procep and 
ascends from centre to centre and on reaching the Visuddha 
Gakra, it becomes Sdttvika The Gakra (Vimddha) 

represents AkakUattva and is also symbolical of 

Samhdra — for, on dissolution, all created things merge and 
disappear in the void 

The Prime cause (sffrfw, from which all the 

emanations of ^akti are evolved is called Mahalaksmi ^ by the 
fektas. She is both manifest^ and immanent 
She is both male and female, at the same time.^ _The 
Vaisnavas term this Prime cause— Vasudeva, while the Aga- 
manta (l^uddha) Saiva Agamas call It — Sadasiva.^ 

A. Avalon : Tantrik Texts ^ Vol. II, Commentary of Kalfcarana— 

VUuddha, the great lotus representing Akasa is so called, as it 

causes the purification of Jiva by visualising the vSupreme Spirit. 


Jrafff w^=<i^Tsf ii Ml 


sr^f^SIfTT II 

Durgasavta.4ati (Candt) with 7 commentaries Nirnaya-sagara Press ; 
Reprint by Sri- Venkate^vara Press, Bombay. 

Ibid.,V, ^ 

8 Ibid., V. J. 

“4 Vide Introduction to with 7 com- 

mentaries. Srivenkate^vara Press. 

5 For the Sadakhya or Sada^iva Tattva of the Ka^^mir Trika-sasfra 
(System), see t — 

— J. C. Chatter] i: Kashmir Shaivaism : Kashmir Series of Texts and 
Studies, Vol. II Fasc, 1; Srinagar, 1914, pp. 65-69; 

— ii '^lhi5fisfTsraTsr^T?rT#f^Kf%w-ft’^^T^fr: i 

I \ K.8.T.S., No. XIII. 

5iJr^w?r«rT i 

1933 ] 

193 " 

Saddsiva Worshvp in Early Bengal 

There are__ some differences., among the Sakta Taiitras,. 
Siiddha Saiva ikgamas, and the Puranas, regarding the position 
occupied by Sadasiva, the disposition of the five faces of 
Siva and so forth. In the Sakta Tantras, Sadasiva is only 
a manifestation of the Supreme being. He is practically 
the same with Ardhanarisvara 

Butj in the Saiva Agamas, Sadasiva is the highest and the 
Supreme being — formless, beyond the comprehension of anyone, 
subtle, luminous, and all-pervading.^ 

Authorities differ and are ^mutually contradictory as to 
the Tattva-s represented by Siva’s five faces and also the 
colours of these, latter.^ 

But the Saiva Agamas, Sakta Tantras, and the Puranas all 
absolutely agree that Isana (Sadasiva) represents the Akasa 
Tattva ^T^mw^^—space, and is of spotlessly white colour. 

The explanations hitherto suggested are not satisfactory. 
The following is a general description of Sada.4iva collected from 
ail available sources, together with vsymbolical meanings.^ , 

Authorities are absolutely in agreement that Lord Siva’s 
five faces represent the five elements, viz. earth ; Asrq water ; 


I! 9 !! 

For the Sadas^iva Tattva of S.I., Saiva Siddhantas, see : — 

— Der Qaiva-siddhayita. Fine Mystik Indiens nach den tamulischen 
Qiiellen bearbeitet nnd dar^yestellt von H. W, Schomerus. Evang, Liith. 
Missionar in Sudindieii. Leipzig. J. 0. Heinrichs’sche Buehhandiung, 11)12. 
Pp. 74, Lu, 148, :t7r>. 

‘Sadaciva, Bezeiehnung Qivas, sofern er diireh leeha-Qakti dem 
Sadfdvhya-Tattv^a inneiiwohnt.’ 

— S'ivajfidna ^SiddJm/ar of Arunandi Sivacharya. Translated vdtb. 
introduction, notes, glossary, etc. by J. N. Nallaswami Fillai (Madras, 
Meykandan Press, 1913). See Book III, 1. 19, II, 54 to 50 and the table 
of Tattvas. 

^ GopTnatha Ftao — Elements of Hindu Iconography, ^"ol. II, Part II, 
pp. 361-72. 

2 For, according to a Text of Saradatilakam — quoted in 

K all carana’s commentary 0*11 Satcakranirupanam, verse 28 

the elemental M and alas 

must be of the same colours, with the elements ( ) represented. But 

authorities do not seem to recognize this rule, in giving descriptions 
of Siva’s five faces For, see Appendix II, Texts Nos. 7, 8, 9, 19. « 

^ Sadasiva exists firstly as an independent deity and also one ol 
Siva’s five faces is named Sadasiva. 

[Vide Appendix TI.] 

194 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

energy (fire) ; wind and space ; wliile Sadasiva 
especially represents the Akasa Tattva, the element of space. 

Of these five faces of ■ Siva—that , called Isana, facing 
■upwards and of crystal- white' colour — represents Akdia, space ; 
that called Tatpurusa, facing East (or towards the front) and of 
the colour ' of the rising ■ ' sun,, i.e. golden yellow— represents 
wind, Fdy%; the grim face named Aghora, facing South (or to 
the right) of the colour of storm-clouds, i.e. dark -blue, repre- 
■•sents the all-destroying element of Fire, Agni ; the face termed 
Vamadeva, pointing towards the North (or the left) and of the 
colour of corals, i.e, red — represents the element of A¥ater, 
jala; while the remaining face called Sadyojata, facing West 
(or towards the back) and of the pearl-like hue of the full moon- — 
represents the element of Earth, Priihivi. 

' The Puranas also give, to the five, faces of Siva respectively, 
the additional names ■ ■of- Sadasiva, Mahadeva, Bhairava, 
Umavaktra and Nandivaktra. ^Each of these possesses two 
hands (making ten, in ail, for Siva) and each also has three 
eyes, with the exception of Vamadeva which is two-eyed.^ 

According to the Naiyayikas, — the distinctive (gii-s) 

'(qualities of the five elements, w^ww-s are Efipa (■‘^), Rasa 

(T¥), Gandha Sparsa (^w), and Sabda ( vr^ ) respec- 

tively. There is nothing' absolutely, against the view, and 
there will in all probability be no mistake in holding this — that 
Isana (Sadasiva) represents especially the while 

his five faces stand for the five elements.; and that the w^eapons 
and objects held in &va’s hands, as also the gestures indicated, 
viz., the Ayudha’S andhhe 'Mudrd-^ either represent or 
symbolise the .five, Rupa Rasa Gandha 

Sparsa:^'^ and Sabda, i.e., form, flavour, smell, touch, 
cmd sound. . This view will be fully developed as each of these 
Ayudha-s . and;\ the Mudrd-s is interpreted, . with respect to 
its possible uses, both Actual and Symbolical. 

The Lotus is one of ' the .most ' usual objects held in. the 
hands of Indian Images. ■ It is a symbol of eternal life, of 
perennial freshness and softness.^ 

The Padma w- (lotus) is constantly associated in the hymns 
and in poetry with the Solar deity, for lotuses open out on the 

^ Ii^a, Tatpurusa. Aghora, Vama, and Sadyojata^ are also described as 
separate minor deities both in the Puranas and the Sakta Tantras. Each 
of the Pauramk forms is five-faced and ten-armed. The Tantrik Proto- 
types of these are all four- faced, four-armed, and three -eyed with exception 
of Aghora who is ten-armed and has fearful protuberant teeth. They 
face respectively, the N.E., East (Front), Left, Right, and Back and are 
coloured white, like lightning, like colly rium, like saffron, and like 

2 A. K. Mai trey a : ^The Lotus oj Life "* — Rupam, Nos. 15 and 16: 
'The Indian Society of Oriental Art, Calcutta. 

1933 ] 

SaddMva Worship in Early Beyigal 


rising of tlie Sun. In tlie hands- of Visnu, it is symbolical 
of His power of protection. ■ 

Also, Visnu, carries the lotus, probably because he w'as 
really, in origin, a solar deity. ^ ' The identification is •well-known 
of Surya with Nar%^aiia, iwho is ' contemplated to be in the solar 

orb ill the well-kiiowm Dhydna Sloka : — 

etc. Also, details are given of the worship 
of the solar deity having Visnu’s form ).^ 

The female deities or goddesses carry the lotus m tlie^LUdkcimala 
a sweet smelling and beautiful flower , serving for 
a decoration or nose-gay. 

Also, according to a charming and well- knowui ■ poetical 
fancy noted, e.g,. m Edhitya-darpanam‘^ lotuses 

grow ill ' streams ; the River-goddesses Ganga and Yamuna 
therefore very appropriately -.carry; the^ lotus-flower in 'their 

.. The graceful 'colour, ..sweetness and . tenderness of lotuses, 
have fitly made them appropriate objects of comparison. In 
representing the hands and the feet of Images to ibe supported 
by lotuses (■ziifpaila-s)- as by soft' cushions— -the Artists certainly 
mean ^also to emphasize, that -the. 'hands, the. . .feet, .and . the 
lotuses vie with one another in 'colour, beauty .and tenderness, 
and they mutually serve' to. embellish one another. And such 
comparisons as pdiyi-padrria miA carandmbuja 

are therefore made doubly appropriate.^ The lotus is theref ore- 
symbolical chiefly of sparsa — touch and also in a minor degree 
of rupa—ioim, m6‘a— -taste, and gandha — smell. 

But as a symbol of the sparm-guna. Lord Siva carries 
the mlotpala (the blue lily — the Nymphcea stellata) 

evidently and simply because he carries the Moon, too, in his. 
matted: hair-locks. The love of the Moon and of the blue 
lilies had been the frequent- and favourite theme of Indian 
poets. The nilotpala is as much associated wuth the moon as^ 
the pacimn is with the sun. ' ' 

1 Vide V. Natesa Aiyar : Trimurti image m the Feshawar Museum, 
A.S.I.R* (1913-14), pp. 276-^80; Rai Bahadur Hiralal: TrimurHs in 
Btmdelkhand : Ind. (1918), pp. 136-38. 

Gopiiiatha RSo, op. cit., Yol. I, Part II, pp. 73-8 ; also Matsyapuranani 
(Anaiida4rama Edition), Chapter 8. 

,2 111 Gamda_ 2 ?^t/•ana^?^, P’Orvakhandam. (Bahga- 

vasf Press), Chapter 39. 

:5 Saliityadarpariam, Chapter VII, 

4 Hand (holding the S'ahkha) is over an utpala in VMM. 

E (a) 33 , E (a) 34 

Vxsnii-s — r-C — and — f-U — 

Left Foot supported by an utpala in VMM. Ganga 

and Saras vatl 

- H (f) 1 

. —vide Catalogue of VMM, Miisemn. 

H (0) I 
354 ^ 

196 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.^ XXIX, 

As the wife and the favourite son, respective! j of Siva, 
both the Devi ■ and Ganesa carry the moon as crest-gem. 
:Naturally, they also carry the blue lily instead of the 

red lotus, padma. 

Both in Buddhist and Brahmanic Iconography, the lotus 
is also shown in the hands, the feet, and on foot-priiits,^ as 
an auspicious sign.^ 

Dawlc^, Sida, Tanka, Vajra, IUiatvdhga^~-~we&^om for 
beating,* piercing, cutting, felling and smashing, respectively,^ 
These weapons represent Siva’s terrible aspect as the god of 
destruction—i.e. his aspect as the samMra-kartd, 

But we have authority ^ that there can be, really speaking no 
sharp division of the various forms of Siva (and of Kali, also) 
into the sdttmha, rdgasika, mid tmnasika as has been suggested 
in the case of other deitiesA ; 

In some conceptions of vSiva (and also of Kali) the sclUvika 
elements preponderate, while in some others the rdjasika 

1 Cf. Candl — Mvrlirahasyam, 6loka 13: Sakambhan’s hands are 
described to contain representations of lotuses, over which hover bees, 
drunk with honey. 

ftwft I 

. . .. .. .. .. li II 

2 Qf, also the Eight glorious emblems of Buddhist Iconography (Skt. 
Asta-Mangala, viz., Cakra, Sarikha, Chatra, Dhvaja, Mats^^a, ^rivatsa, 
Padma, and the Purna Kumbha) —Fide Waddell : Lamaism, pp. 392-93. 

" The blue lotus is represented either with all petals upright or with 
several of the outside rows turned back. The centre is always hidden 
and the always presented in profile. The pink lotus- flower is 

represented full-blown, with the centre apparent^ 

‘The representation of the blue lotus differs from the pink in that 
■ the petals are closed, elongated in form and presented in profile. 
Sometimes the first row of outside petals is turned back, but the centre of 
the utpala is always hidden by the petals.’ Alice Getty: Tim Gods of 
Northern Bttddhism {OlarmdonVress, 1914). Pp. 172-73. Padma; p. 98. 

3 The Khatvdhga is a weapon made from the shin-bone or forearm 
of a dead body, or from the legs of a bedstead for carrying a corpse to the 
cremation ground. The Khatvdhga is a sort of club, to w'hich a Kapala 

skull-cup is attached. 

It is naturally associated with ^iva in his (Bhairava and other) 
terrible aspects, or with Sakti in her Camuhda form. In form and 
practical use -it is half-club, Danda and half-trident, S'ula. 

4 Descriptions of weapons in Rao ; El. Hind. Ic., Vol. I, Part I, 

and in Babu Ramdas Sen’s Bharat-Rahasya, Part I. j 

Tfie Vajra, by itself is the subject of a special Monograph, by 
Chr. Blinkenberg: The Thunderstorm in religion and folk-lore; (Camb. 
Univ. Press, 1911). 

5 Introduction to Candi -Commentary, Nagojl-Bhatta. Edition 

with 7 Commentaries (Nirnayasagara Press; Reprint by Sri-Venkate- 

' livara Press). 

3 See, e.g. Virabhadra, in H. Krishna Sastri : South Indian Gods and 
‘ Goddesses (Madras Govt. Press, 1916), p. 159. 

1933] Baddsiva W orsMp in Early Bengal 197 

elements are in the majority, while again in others the tdmmiha 
qualities might be mostly present. 

But all these elements are co-existent in greater or smaller 
degree, in all forms of Siva and even of Kali; e.g. the weapons 
of war, etc. — especially, the hapdla (drinking cup)- and the 
khatvdnga represent the tdmasika aspects. The Vijapura 
(Giira Medica), and the bow and arrows stand for the rdjasika 
qualities. The Varamudrd^ abhayamwlrd, and aksa-sutra show 
the sdttvika elements of the deities. 

The bow and arrows^ pdsa^ anhusa. — The Texts giving the 
different symbolic meanings conveyed by these, are given else- 
where [in Appendix II § 4]. The subtle form of ydsa is wordly 
attachment, as it is the cause of bondage of the human soul. 
It stands for Icchdmkii {tamd-gun^a). 

The psychic form of the elephant-goad is 

superior knowledge, because it generates repugnance to wordly 
passion in human mind, which then naturally shuns things 
distasteful. It stands for sattva-gwj.a. The pdm and the 
ahkusa always go together. 

The arrows which are thrown from the bow, together with 
this latter, stand for rajd-guy,a. Attachment to wordly pursuits 
leads to acts. The objects of attachments (viz. rupa ; 

rasa ; gandJia ; sparsa ; sabda) — though sweet 

and pleasant at first, ultimately lead to sorrow and pain. 

In images when the left hand or one of the left hands holds 
the bow, the right hand or the corresponding right hand is used 
for arrows. These are taken out of the quiver at the back, 
with the fore and middle fingers. 

Damaru, GhaMd. — The first is a musical instrument and 
the second is a noise-making device — to be used also in war. 

These are symbols of the iabda-guna (of vSiva), of 

sound — the primal element which exists even before creation 
and also after its dissolution, and from which the universe is 
evolved, according to the Bpkdtavddins — the Bdbdikas. 

Vtjapura {Gitra Medica) — the symbol, of diva’s 
Kriydsakti, creative power. 

The myriads of created things floating in the vast expanse 
of space are represented by the countless seeds of the fruit, 
which also is the one — most liked by Ganesa (who again is a 
personification of space). The fruit {Gitra Medica) is a kind of 
lime of large size.^ The fruit must he also symbolical of Rasa 

1 Called — Madhii-karkatika, Jambira, also 

promiscuously, in the Ayurvedic Nighanius^ e.g. Vaidyalca* 

sahdasindhu of Pandit Ume^acandra Vidyaratna. In parts of N. Bengal, the 
name or for the fruit, might be most likely from 

2 C£. also Gane,la’s sugar-cane and TripurasundarT’s 

sugar-cane bow. 

198 Jo'imial of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

Aksamdld. — The garland of beads in Siva's hands most 
likely represents the letters of the alj)habet— the 
Matrika-varn.a-s, beginning with ‘ a \ and ending in ' ksa ' 
( Wmf^ — ).^ The Aksa-shtra is therefore a symbol 
at once of nifa and sabda? 

/Sarpamja— The snake Vasuki is explained in the 
texts quoted as Siva’s majesty and awe, which stun with fear, 
the three Avorlds. The coils of the cobra represent the principle 
of cosmic evolution or of life, while the deadly poison in its 
fangs, is a symbol of the contrary principle — involution or 
death. Its habit of giving of! sloughs periodically symbolises 
redncarnation and re-birth.^ 

Agni. — The purificatory sacred fire {agni) destroys and yet 
purifies. At the time of destruction, the flames of this holy fire, 
leap up in an all-destroying conflagration and consume 
the universe. But this destruction is only the prelude to 
creation, anew. 

Siva’s three eyes represent his three aspects as the creator 
the preserver, and the destroyer — or they stand for Siirya 
Gandra, and Agni. 

Kfixxina — as a weapon of destruction represents Siva’s 
tdmasiJca aspect. But as an instrument for the destruction of 
the forces of evil and avidyd, it symbolises the saUm-gu^a, 

Iconographically, the Aryan (Brahmanic) sword is always 
represented as straight; against this and in contradistinotioii, 
the demons have always the curved sword, ‘half bill- 

hook, half falchion, and equally suited for ripping up a foe, or 
for cutting a path through the jungle’.^ The form of the asura 
(demon) sword, might have also suggested itself from the cultiva- 
tor’s rude sickle, of which it was but a modification, showing 
that the asura civilisation was still crude and in its infancy 
— hardly above the primitive or rustic stage. Similarly their 
shield probably consisted of tough pieces of animal-hide only. 

3- Cf. the garland of severed heads — which are really the MatriM 
varnas, upon Goddess Kali’s body. Arthur Avalon : The Serpent Poiver 
{2nd revised ed.), Ganesh & Co., Madras. 1924. (Introduction, IV. The 
Garland of Letters; pp. 89-104 and especially pp. 102-4.) 

2 Of. the (broken) tusk of elephant in GaneAa’s hands from whieli 
highly polished looking-glasses of ivory were made and which (tusk) also 
the deity used as a stile in writing out the Mahabharata, most probably, 
represents Rupa (and Sabda, too). Similar, are the purposes of his 
string of beads. 

For the different kinds of materials used in making rosaries for 
Tantrik Worship, see Waddell: Lamaism, pp. 205-1 i; also — 

W ! 

^ S See, also, Havell: The Ideals of Indian Art (1911), Chapters IV and 

4 Hunter’s Orissa (1872), Vol. I, p. 295. 

1933 ] 

Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 


Comparisons being possible, only between objects having 
some points of similarity in common, such similes as the 
show that the Aryan sword possessed the 
suppleness of a creeper.. It might be' moved to and -fro, or, 
be violently twisted but the Aryan sword always retained its 
shape and resilience. 

For , the first time (?), in Vijayasena^s Deopada 
the Indian Kri^miia is compared to a hooded black cobra. ^ 

This possibly points to the date of introduction from the 
South (?): of the curved sword now so much in use in Bengal 
especially in the hands of the goddess Kali, whose special 
weapon it is. It is only a cutting weapon; it cannot pierce. 
The use of the Bengal khadga as a weapon of war must be 
more modern. .■ 

The Bengal of . Kali 'exactly looks like the fully 

expanded hood of a cobra seen from the profile and 

clearly, was fashioned after it.^ ■ . ' 

weilds -the sword ( ) then its 
corresponding left hand, must hold either the potsherd, ) for 
hold'ing blood of victims ■ or the 'shield :■ ( The' bow and 
the arrows, necessarily go together as also ' the sword ' and the 

The Digit of Moon on diva’s clotted locks of hair is 
the sixteenth lunar digit, Amd Raid containing, nectar. 

It is symbolical of Siva’s 'divine power 

^ EJ., Vol. I. Umapatidhara’s PradyumnMara Temple PraSasti». 
(Verse 6.) 

L. 6 ; — 

%sr mfwitT I 

L.7:— " F 

Kielborii’s translation of the above ^loka, Verse (6) : — 

^The battle-fields, crowded with adversaries challenged by his 
shrill -sounding .drams on which he made his hand playfully weiid the 
serpent-like sword, are still covered all over with multitudes of pearls, 
resembling large Cowries, from the cleft frontal globes of the arrays of 
opponents’ elephants, scattered (by him).’.- 

Certainly the reference is to a snake-charmer playing with his hands 
before a black cobra, to the accompaniment of the beating of drums, 
in a courtyard, strewn with consecrated or incanted ( sea-shells 
(cowries), ■ . . . , . . ^ ■■ 

2 The special and peculiar name for this weapon given in parts of 

Central Bengal is . According to the ma?^re armes, PulTnvihari 

Das, the word is probably derived * from or 1,’ rather, 

perhaps from , ®' — or «* — .'■■ 

3 Arthur Avalon : The Serpent Power (2nd revised ed.), Ganesh & Co., 
Madras, 1924. Description of the six centres, p. 68 ; — Siva is also spoken of 
as * possessed of the down-turned digit (Kala) of the Moon which constantly 

200 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 1933] 

Comparisons may be drawn also with the symboUcal repre- 
sentations of the five senses in Buddhist pamtmgs, viz. : 

(IV Sisht (by mirror); (2) hearing (by conch) ; (3) Smell 
—(vase of perfume) ; (4) Touch— (silk) ; and (5) Taste— 

^^™^Thus, the symbolical meanings suggested for Sadasiva a,iicl 
his Ayudhas and Varyas are fully supported by the Indian 
Texts, and also from the above Buddhistic analogy. 

drops nectar’— ‘This is the AmakalS’. Arthur Avalon: Tantnh texts, 

Voi. 11. l^T- 

1 Alice Getty: The Oods of Northern Buddhism (Clarendon Press, 
1914): Frontispiece (in colours): — Tibetan Temple Banner, portion 
marked J. 2; pp. 160-62. See also Introduction— Ge«eraZ Survey of 
Buddhism and its Bvolution by J . Beniker, p. xlix (6). 

Pabt III. Iconography anb Art. 

Following upon the death of Emperor Hari^a, a chaotic 
state of affairs arose, and Northern India and especially Bengal 
lapsed into a state of anarchy ( ). Towards the last 

part of the Gupta rule, the seat of Government was removed 
to Kanauj. This period further saw the over*growing with 
primeval forests and the irruption of the aborigines. 

But attempts were slowly made by the people of the soil 
to put together the broken fabric of society and religious 
and political life, and a period of reconstruction followed. 
But the reconstructed Brahmanical faith was not at all similar 
to its predecessor, Tantrika thought and practices had grown 
up deeply influencing Buddhism and Brahmanism alike. 
Slowly and surely, the octopus of Brahmanism also gathered 
strength and began to strangle and absorb Buddhism. 
Simultaneously with this process of assimilation of Buddhism 
to Brahmanism, internal disintegration was going on, in the 
religion itself, and Buddhism made during this period a 
dangerous compromise with the Brahmanic faith. Strange 
cults and sects arose — some of them curious mixtures of 
Brahmanism and Buddhism.^ 

Ultimately, there was no sharp line of demarcation 
between Mahay ana Buddhism and the Brahmanic mythology 
and images, and especially those connected with the cults of 

Both, Buddha and Siva, were self-controlled ; both 
practised yoga ; the one conquered Mara and his hosts, and 
the other vanquished the god of love — both were 
smarajit. Buddha was a person ,of extreme kindness and 
compassion for all created things. Siva extended his protection 
to ail : his retinue consists of ugly and despised goblins.^ 
Again, Buddha delivered sermons to promulgate his doctrines, 
while Siva graciously disclosed to the world, the hidden 

1 Vincent Smith: Early History oj India, 3rd Edition, pp. 367-68; 
B. B. Havell: The Ideals of Indian Art (1911), Chapter IV; Im^nrial 
Crasei^eer, Vol. II, Media© val India. 

2 To set ok his compassionateness all the more effectively, the 
Buddha is conceived to pass through whole cycles of birth: among all 
possible created beings — some of material bodies (quadrupeds for example) 
and a few of spiritual bodies ; * the life of the Buddha. .... . . . . . , .must, 

indeed, be conceived in an ample sense, according to the grandiose Indian 

conception — whereby, the biography. ... . .covers the whole series 

of countless births, under all forms of existence, which were necessary 
for the accumulation of the positive and negative characteristics 
manifested finally in the Great Being, the perfectly Illuminated’ — 
A. Foucher : The Beginnings of Buddhist Art, Preface by F. W. Thomas. 

( 201 ) 

202 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

mystical doctrines of the Tantra erar. The similarity between 
Buddha and feva is now complete. 

In the next stage, we find images of the Buddha being 
worshipped at Saiva shrines, and examples of such oblivious 
worship are existent even up to the present timesd On the 
other hand, Buddha as an incarnation of Vi^nii has the latter’s 
characteristic mark. 

To the same period, must belong the seated Siva Image (? ) 
with the Vydhhydna-mudrd from Magadha (in the 

Museum of the Varendra Besearch Society)^ and the seated 
Vi^nu Image), in MahdrdjaJlla pose, from 

Sagardighi, Bt. Murshidabad (now in the Vahglya Sahitya 
Parisat, Calcutta)/^ 

By slow and almost unconscious steps, the great mass of 
worshippers, during this period, were drawn tow^ards the 
Brahmanic faith. Those who did not pay homage to its grow- 
ing strength were mostly swept away helpless derelicts,'^ some 

1 Of. The image of the Buddha worshipped as 6iva, at Sibbadi 

Dist. Khulna, Bengal. Vide Professor S. C. Mitra — History of Jessore, 
Khulna, Part I, (Pmffp 'C^^^)~plate. 

Also, Cf. the image of Mahju^ri worshipped as the Brahmamc 
Tantrik Deity, Bhuvane^vari, at Bara, District Birbhvim— 

Maharaj Kumar Mahimarahjan Cakravarti : 

^Description of Birbhum, Part 11*, Plate 26 and pp. 67, 72. 

Another parallel and striking instance of the slow process of trans- 
formation of Buddhistic institutions into Brahmanic ones which still goes 
on in Nepal, is illustrated in— History of Nepal translated from the 
Parhatiya by Munshi Shew Shanker Singh and Pandit Shri Gunananda: 
'—with an Introductory sketch by the Editor, Daniel Wright, M.A., M.D., 
(Cambridge, 1877); Plate XI, p. 174, shows how an old, pure Buddhist 
Gaity a is being turned into a Muhhaliiigam, Of the specimens of 
several forms of Caityas given, the central one is an old, pure Buddhist 
mound-temple. That to the left is a mixed Hindu and Buddhist Shrine, 
combining the Lihga and JalJmrl with. Buddhist figures. 

2 See Catalogue, V.B.S. No. 

Avaiokitelvara also has a two-handed seated form resembling ^iva 
and carrying the trident with a serpent coiled round it — vide A. Getty : 
The Gods of Northern Buddhism, p. 56. 

3 Illustrated in Mr. R. D. Banerjee’s Vol. I, Plate 23. 

Put to the latter half of the 11th century or the first half of the 
12th century a.c., on the strength of resemblances with two other images 
from bhe same locality, one of which is inscribed.— See Descriptive List of 
Collections. V.jS.P> Museum. 

4 B.g. the Natha-PanthI sect now represented by the Yogi 

(«5^ ) caste of Bengal I V.S.P.P. 

1321 B.S., p. 231). 

( i ^ 

1933 ] 

SaddSiva W orehip in Early Bengal 


of whose miserable, descendants are to be met with even in 
the present times.^ 

Thongh BnddhistSj the later Pala Kings of Bengal favoured 
other religious sects also and made pious gifts to Brahmanas. 
Though Buddhism was the prevailing religion, the other 
religious cults were far from being extinct. 

Gn the other hand the Pdsupata Saivism especially must 
have enjoyed considerable popularity. ^ Narayanapala-deva’s 

I ‘^'Ja — ) { 

, I 1 

It is doubtful if the name Nathapanthl, for the sect is strictly accurate. 
The names given in the spiritual genealogy of Masters (Gurupankti 
) , successively teaching worship of any particular deity, all end 
with the honorific epithet ifjigy (lord). These teachers (Gurupankti) 
necessarily vary from deity to deity and are classed under three different 
groups — the Divine, the Beatified and the Human, i.e. the Divyaugha 
j the Sidhaugha and the Manavaugha respectively 

Vriddlia JaganmohanTarkMahkara : Mahamrvanata7itram (1^20 B.S.), 

p. 280', Note U9. 

The epithets Natha and l^vara both meaning ‘ Lord’ — are 

associated only with Siva. Therefore all Saiva shrines are indicated by 
either of these two epithets. Similarly the epithet Svami ‘ Master ’ 

is associated with Visnu, whose shrines are numerous in Southern India. 
M. A. Stein : Eajatarafigim (Translation) — i4a : i^vara in names of Siva 
Temples, — svamin in names of Visnu Temples. Canto iii, 263 n, and ii, 
369 n, ,’—i4vara, in names of Siva Temples, Canto i, 106 n. 

It is to foe noted that Jagannatha of Puri, is both a Saiva and 
Vaisnava Shrine. For, Jagannatha is the Bhairava of Vimaladev 

one of the fifty-one (51) PUha-saktis; while He is mentioned 
* as Sri Caitanya-deva’s famous hymn with the refrain 

Very probably the Natha-panthins represented some Non-Brahma, 
nic, or Buddhist sect deeply influenced by ^ivaite doctrines. 

The Yogi ( 'SlSt ) sect which has not been at all studied, is slowly 
disappearing and is also being absorbed by Brahmanism. 

1 Cf. also the Dharma worship still prevalent in Bengal, dis- 
covered through the labours of Pandits Haraprasad Gastrin, Nagendranath 
Vasu, and Mr. Dinesachandra Sen. 

( i si i ^ « *4 

3^“^ 1 1 ^(t\r 9^1^ 'ISCC ! } 

2 It is proved that the worship of Lakuli4a not only extended over 
Rajputana but had spread as far South as Mysore and as far East as 
Orissa. See D. R. Bhandarkar: AB.I.R*, 1906-7: Lakuliia, 

204 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

Bliagalpiir copperplate inscription records the gift of a village 
in favour of a Saiva Shrine and the Assembly of Pasupata- 
caryas ) at Kalasapota ( )} 

Similarly, Vaidyadeva’s Kamauli plates^ which may be 
assigned to the last quarter of the 11th or the first quarter of the 
12th century, begin with an invocation to the Varaha Incarna- 
tion of Vi^nu after the Mantra while 

Vaidyadeva calls himself, both Parama-mahesvara and Parama- 

Also similarly, the Assam plates of Vallabhadeva (dated, 
^aka Samvat 1107)^ invokes, after the Mantra 

firstly Gane^a and secondly Visnu in his Varaha 
Incarnation, while it records the foundation of an alms house 
Annasattra) or place for food-distribution , ( 
BhaUa-sdld) near a temple of the god Mahadeva (Siva) and 
an endowment in favour of it. 

The Belabo Grant by Bhbjavarman of the 11th century 
A.c. begins with an invocation to the Lunar deity — 
Candra. The king calls himself Parama-vaisnava.^ 

The dilapidated Vejnisar cop|)erplate inscri|)tion 

of Harivarman {10-1 1th century a.c.) very probably describes 
him as a Parama-vaisnava ® ; while Bhattabhavadeva 
Bhubanesvara Prasasti ® begins with the Mantra sriit 
followed by an invocation to Vi$nu. 

On the other hand, the earliest record of the Sena Dynasty 
— the (Deopada) Pradyumne^vara Temple Prasasti of Vi jay a - 
sena begins with the six-syllable Mantra of ^iva 

This is followed by an invocation sldka, each, 
to Umamahesvara to Pradyumnesvara and to 

the Lunar deity — Candra The inscription further informs 

that Vijayasena’s father Hemantasena was a devout Saiva 
while the Prasasti itself, the composition of poet Umapatidhara, 
belonged to the magnificent Pradyumnesvara Temple which 
Vijayasena had built. 

While the existent shrine of Nakule^vara (Lakulelvara) at Kaiighat, 
a suburb of Calcutta, must date from remote past as Nakule^vara is 
by tradition the Bhairava of one of the fifty-one PUha-$ahtis, also. 

But it is very probable that the plastic conceptions and representations 
of Siva-bhairava and of Bhringin especially, were deeply influenced 
by the doctrines of some fanatical Sivaite sects. " The shrivelled-up form of 
Bhringin is typical of S9me yOgl of the LakuMa Pa^upata or Kalamukha 
or some other extreme Si vait© sect. [F^*de Appendix IIL] 

1 I l Gauda-lekhamala (V.R.S. publication.} 

2 Ditto. Op, cit. 

3 Ditto. Op, cit, 


^ Nagendranath Vasu ,— Omtes and Sects of Bengal, VoL II, 
p, 215. 

6 JJ.I., Vol. VI. 


Sadaiiva Worship in Early Bengal 


Tiie Sltahati-Nailiati plate of Ballalasena opens witli an 
invocation sloha to Ardhanarisvara (dancing furiously at the 
evening twilight) after the Mantra ^ ^ ^ \ The record 

further informs that Ballalasena was a Paramamahesvara. 
Three of the plates of Lak§manasena open with the same 
invocation Mo has to Siva-— seated in Dhydna posture and to 
Candra while the Madhai-nagar has a beginning verse about 
Umamahesvara which is followed by another invo- 

cation to Candra, 

Each of these four inscriptions begins also with Visnu’s 
eight-syllable Mantra while they all 

^ agree in describing Laksmanasena as a Parama-vaisnavad But 

nevertheless there need not be supposed any real contradiction. 
Even now, a Saiva may give and do give offerings and prayers 
to other deities too, though his own special god may be ^iva. 

But Visvarupasena’s copperplate inscriptions invoke in 
the beginning sldJca^ Narayana, Surya and Candra, while Kesava- 
sena*s inscription begins with an invocation Moka each to 
Surya and Candra. Both are called and their inscrip- 
tions begin with the Mantra I Yet, all the 

copperplates of the Sena Dynasty, some of which are no 
longer traceable, very probably had the Sadasiva seal, while 
each of the Sena Emperors had an honorific title ending in 
the epithet 'SCi'K Sankara. 

From the above facts a transition and change in religious 
worship may be traceable and the following propositions are 
deducible : — 

The first Sena Kings were specially devoted to Saiva 
Worship and naturally their inscriptions had a seal with 
an engraved figure of Siva in the Sadasiva form. 

! Gradually Saiva Worship fell more and more in disfavour, 

while the Vaisnava and the Saura which could never have 
died out became more and more current in Eastern India. 
A transition from the Solar deity to Visnu or vice versa is 
^ only the next inevitable step, for Visnu is really in origin a 

Solar deity 

When the form of worship was changed, the practice of 
fixing the Sadasiva seals to copperplate grants must have 
been still adhered to, by the later Senas, only to keep up 
blindly the old tradition. 

But fortunately all the above deductions may be fully 
checked by facts. 

t Cf. the more specific appellation Pamwcf-namsm/ia in Jaynagar, 
Goviiidapur, and Madhainagar Hates. 

2 V. Natesa Aiyar : Trimurti image in the Peshawar Museum. 
AMJ.B, (1913-14), pp. 276-80; Rai Bahadur Hiralal: Trimurtis in 
Bandelhhand. Ind. Antiq. (1918), pp. 136-38. Also vide Note No. I, 
page 195 swpra. 

206 Journal of tM Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

Pal^ograpMc consideratioas mast place the earliest 
Sadaiiva image in the V.BB. between 950'-1050a.c. and the 
latest example' in the F./S.P. somewhat after the latter half of 
the 12th century a.c. The evidence of literary texts show that 
SadMiva Worship was fast falling out of popular favour in 
Bengal as early as the 14:th-15th centuries a.c. 

All sculptural styles, viz. the Old, the Medieeval, the 
Transitional, and the Advanced forms ^ are fully represented in 
the collection of Surya in the V,R,8,, while none , of the 
specimens some of which are inscribed may- be put to a period 
later than the 10th- 11th centuries a.c. 

In the Visnu group of images in the only a few 

specimens are in the old style, all the rest being in the Medisevai 
and Advanced styles, while most of the inscribed specimens 
date from 11th to 13th centuries a.c. 

Since vandalism did not choose out images of a particular 
period or sculptural style for destruction, and since there is 
nothing to disprove the fact that the images extant are equally 
representative of all the five principal Brahmanicai religious 
sects, the conclusion may be drawn that SadMiva Worship was 
almost wholly supplanted by Saiva Worship which partly gave 
place to the worship of Visnu. 

Detailed descriptions of tJie Saddsiva seals a7id of the images 
in clay -chlorite. 

The three Sada4iva images in black chlorite stone in the 
Museum of the Varendra Research Society disclose a remarkable 
family-likeness, which is far from being accidental. 

1 Regarding the principles on which this entirely new system of 
classification of the sculptural styles of Bengal are based, complete 
information and full discussions would be given in my forthcoming volume 
* On the MedijBval Art and Religious Worship of Eastern India.’ 

These main divisions are, however, more or less elastic and merge 
successively into one another, imperceptibly or by slow degrees. But the 
chief characteristics of the main periods are sufficiently settled and 
definite for all practical purposes. 

Some other scholars have also attempted similar classifications re- 
cently. See, Dr. Stella Kramrisch; ^Sculpture of Bengal \ in the Modern 
Eeview, Vol. XXXIII, No. 1, January, 1923 (Calcutta). In this illustrated 
article, are recorded the results of her examination of the art-treasures 
of the Varendra Research Society, Rajshahi. In her investigations, the 
learned doctor arrived at conclusions mostly similar or parallel with 
mine, being the only ones possible in the eases in view. 

f!t)i i a. 

^ ^ I In this Bengali article (also illustrated), Mr. BhattaiSall has 
traced only a few characteristics of the main divisions, in an interesting 
and brief manner. 

Also, see Dr. St. Kramrisch: *Pala and Sena Sculpture, Bupam, 
No. 40, October 1929, The Indian Soc. of Oriental Art, Calcutta. 

No systematic attempt at study and classification of these sculptural 
specimens and for correlating the Sculptural styles with the Epigraphic 
■data were however hitherto attempted. 


Sadmiva Worship in Early Bejigal 


Iconograpliically, these three specimens also illustrate a 
most interesting phasis in the mutual assimilation and approxi- 
mation of the Brahmanic and the Buddhistic faiths. For, not 
only, all these three images show the Ablhaya-mud7d-^^%i^'[ 
in Vydkhydna style and the Varada-mudrci 

in Bhumisparsa style ( — which styles are peculiar to 

Buddhistic images) but they all show on the pedestals, 
the architectural or sculptural device of an elephant sitting 
xeposedly between two lions. 

In the backgrounds ( fta: Ptthas ) of Brahmanic images, 
•one of the usual devices is that of the lion triumphing over 
the elephant.^ It might be symbolical of the triumxrh of know- 
ledge over stupidity— as the burning eyes of the lion peering out 
•of the darkness of the night, might stand for jhdnu-drsti; 
while the elephant in rut, which knows no goad, might be the 
personation of stupidity. 

!But the decorative device of an elephant sitting between 
two lions is absolutely rare in Brahmanic Iconography. In 
fact, these (Sada^iva) images alone among the Brahmanic ones 
in V,B.S» show this device, while it is a quite usiiai ornamental 
device in Buddhist images.^ 

However, the idea of ahimsd is not definitely trace- 

able to any Brahmanic text older than Buddhism, according to 
some scholars who think it to be of Non-Brahmanic origin.^ 

But, whosoever might have been first responsible for choos- 
ing the Vdhanm of Siva and his family, it is undeniable that 
nearly all these animals are mutually inimical. The Lion (of the 
Devi) and Siva’s Bull, Laksmi’s Owl and Gane^a’s Bat, Kartti- 
keya’s Peacock and diva’s coiling Serpents (in hair-locks), 
diva’s Snakes and Ganesa’s Bat and Sarasvati’s Swan — all these 
animals form pairs, whose mutual relationship is that between 
the eater and the victim ( ), or one of perpetual 
enmity which had become already proverbial in Panini’s ^ time. 

i 1 The common ornamental and sculptural devices have been nearly 

I* all noticed by scholars : — 

(The Mahara) : — Mr. Henry Cousens, Annual Keport (1903-4) — 

j The Makara in Hindu ornament. 

{The Lion over the Mephant) : — ^Mr. O. C. Gangoly. The Modern 
Review (September, 1919). — The story of the Lion and the Elephant, Also 
•see the comments on the above, in subsequent issues of the Review. 

(The Klrttimukha) : — Mr. O. C. Gangoly in the Rupam, No. I, The Ind. 
Soc. Or. Art, Cal. 1920. (The conclusions arrived at herein are not abso- 
lutely accurate, as the article is based on insufficient materials, so far 
as the Bengal school is concerned), 

2 E.g. The Elephant between Lions is found in the V.R.S, (Buddhist) 

Images, Nos. and 

266 245 260 

8 Vide Encyol. R.B. under AhiiHeS ; also see OhandBgya 3. 17. 

4 Cf. Pariini’s Sutrar- W — TI. 4. 9. 

!208 *J ouTTidt of tJiB ^SMitic Society^ of Bofiycil [^N".S.j 

SugIi animals must have been chosen only to bear out 
more po’v^erfuily Siva’s greatness. Before his divine presence, 
animals whose mutual enmities were proverbial forget their 
difference!? and hostilities, and all of these pay respectful 
homage^ and render most devoted services to their divine 
masters.^ ' 


The (late of the oldest Sadasiva image {V.R.S.) No. 

which is inscribed, has been approximately fixed as about 950-- 
1050 A.c. This specimen discloses complete assimilation and 
approximation of Brahmanism and Buddhistic faith. For, all 
the attendants of ^iva, his bull, etc. are totally absent. The 
pedestal shows the device of an elephant sitting composedly 
between two lions, one on either side. The fifth right hand, 
touching the lotus throne in the exact style of BhumisparSa, 
has the Varada-mudrd, The first right hand which is sadly 
mutilated seems to have been held over the breast in a pose 

1 With this, might be compared the scene of the animal world 
reverencing a sacred tree, figured in a relief, from the inner side of the- 
Second Architrave of the East gate of Sancl-stupa. 

Therein, Snakes and Garudas, and other mutually hostile 

creatures pay reverence to the Bodhi tree side by side. Vide Griinwedel : 
Buddhist Art in India, London, 1901, p. 50. 

2 Though the figures of Vahanas are generally represented on the 
pedestals of their particular deities, the converse is certainly not true. 

Thus, if figures of the Lions and the Elephant on the pedestals of 
SadaSiva Images are taken as representations of Vahanas, mistakes and 
contradictions will arise. For, firstly the Lion was never described in 
Pauranik or Tantrik texts as the Vahana of Siva in any of his forms. 
Secondly, if the elephant Is taken as the deity’s Vahana, greater doubts 
and difficulties will arise. 

Then the image might in the first instance be presumed to be that of 
an unknown form of the Buddhist Bodhisattva Samantabhadra 
who rides on an elephant or the (Sadasiva) Image might also be taken as 
representing the Tantrik deity — Tatpurusa. This Tatpurusa is the 
personification of the twenty-four syllable (Tatpurusa-) Mantra evolved 
from the Qayatrl, and is mounted on an elephant. 


Vide Vridha Jaganmohan Tarkalahkara : Mahanirvapa Tantram, p. 808, 

1320 B.s. ^1 i 

Probably this Tatpurusa is to be slightly differentiated from the other 
deity of the same name — the PflErit?afa-deva^5, an auxiliary deity to 
Sadaliva. Evidently, the Sadasiva images in the V,E.S. are represented 
as sitting on a lion-throne { ) mounted on an elephant. The lions 
are clearly parts of the throne. The Bull of Siva appears in Sadasiva 

Image, No. • and clearly four animals cannot be Vahanas for 

the one and the same deity simultaneously. 

1933 ] 

Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 

209 ' 

not unlike that of Vydhhydna, The image is figured as holding: 
the breath in Yogic contemplation, for the chest is inflated 
( ) and the body, erect and straight. See Plate 16, Fig. 1, 


Next, in order of time, must be placed the Sadasiva image 


which, however, is uninscribed. But, nevertheless, 

there are clear indications that the artist has partially freed 
himself from the Buddhistic associations and pre-dispositions 
disclosed in the previous image. Though the device of the 
elephant between lions is present and the first right hand is 
held above the first left hand in Vydhhydna style, the fifth 
right hand is no longer touching the throne, though it still 
shows the Varada-mudrd almost in the Bhumisparm style. 
Some of diva’s attendants with tridents and clubs are notice- 
able, on sides of the image, though the bull is still, probably, not 
shown. It is not certain if the indistinct figure at the left 
down corner of the pedestal represents the Bull. See Plate 15. 

In the remaining Sadasiva image (F.E./8.) No. 



which is inscribed, the complete parapharnelia of Siva have 
appeared. Not only Siva’s attendants are armed with tridents, 
and clubs, but similarly also the Vidyadharas soaring through 
the skies carry arms. Two female images on two sides, as also 
the Bull are noticeable. See Plate 16, Fig. 2. 

Certainly, the idea is that Siva is sitting under a templet 
and that these female deities— the river- goddesses Ganga and 
Yamuna, stand at the sides of the gate as Dvdra-devatds } 
Sada^iva’s character as Bhairava^ is no longer forgotten, for 
he is Urddhvadinga 

The artist seems to have completely freed himself from the 
trammels of Buddhistic associations betrayed by the sculptor 
of the oldest Sadasiva image (950-1050 a.c.). 

Such a process must have taken at least a century’s time 
or even more. This exactly fits in with the time indicated by 

the Epigraph on the Sadasiva image No. viz.. 

the latter half of the 12th century a.c. 

V.E.S, — l^ - ^- Sada^iva — with ten hands and three faces,. 

seated on double lotus throne; in black clay-chlorite stone; 
back-slab measuring l'9''xl0" from Khiratta, P.S. Tapan 
in Bt. Binajpur. There is a votive inscription (on the pedestal) 
in one line. The faces and hands are greatly mutilated; th© 

1 See Appendix V. i 

2 See Appendix IV» 

210 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIXj 

entire front face and the iSrst right and left hands are entirely 
broken off . The weapons in hands are : — 

RI-— broken. ^ ■ ' - 

R2-~probably Sahti (or, I)ari4<^, Club ?). 

R3 — Trisula, TvidenL 

R4 — Khatvdnga, Club with human skull. 

Ej5 — Varada^mudra^ exactly in the Bhumisparsa style. 

LI — entirely broken off. 

L2- — Vtpala, 

L4 — ferpa, Snake. 

L5— Broken. 

The hedbdB wes>T Jatdmuhuta. A garland of disc-like pieces of 
human-bone ( ) hangs down the neck and reaches the 
throne. The left face is grim. The chest of the figure is 
inflated. A tri-folio arch rises above the head of the main image. 
The Prabhdmayibdala has the Klrttimuhha at the top middle. 
There is Kalpalatd decoration. Two celestials (Vidyddharas) 
with offerings of flower-garlands, are hovering through the skies. 
There are no side figures, nor, the Bull. The inscription (see 
supra, p. 184) on the pedestal is — 

yajamanavalika [bh*, n]ya-vu§kri[bh*, njyiyakah. 

The pedestal shows the device of elephant between lions, 
supporting the throne {Simhdsanam) among themselves. At the 
extreme left is the kneeling figure of the donor. At the extreme 
right is a flaming sacrificial vessel. 




Sada^iva— similar to the previous one, from 

Jaminkarai, P.S. Tapan, Dt. Dinajpur. A ten-armed three- 
faced sitting image in black chlorite stone ; back-slab measuring 
L 9"xl0". In fair state of preservation with the exception 
of some hands which are mutilated ; the right face is grim. 

R1 — very probably had Abhaya-mudrd— in Vydlchydna style. 
R2 — pToha,hlj Sahti {or Darbda, Club 'I ) . 

R3 — Trisula, Trident. 

R4 — Ahkusa, Goad. 

R5 — Varada-mudrd, closely resembling Bhumisparsa. 

LI — Ahsa-mdld. The first Left hand is held below 

the first Right hand in Vydlchydna style. 

L2 — Utpala, 

L3 — Damaru. 

L4 — Snake. 

L5 — Vljapura fruit {Gitra medica), 

A tri-folio arch rises above. There is no Kalpalatd. 
A ha^hsa (on each side of the arch)— feeding upon lotus-stalks. 
A Vidyadhara — on each side, the celestial on the right side holds a 


8admiva Worship in Early Bengal 


{Camara) fly-whisk, in Ms left hand and a lotns-biid in his right ; 
while the other on the left of the main image holds a lotus-bud, 
in his right and a lotus with long stalk, in his left hand, 
A garland of disc-like pieces of human bone nrasthi) falls 
round the neck of the main image, and reaches the lotus 
throne. The main image — not U rddhva-linga. 

An attendant figure sits on either side with legs bent up. 
The one at the left has a snake in his right hand and a trident 
in Ms left; this is probably NandL The figure on the right 
holds a trident, and in his left hand is something like (a ball, 
or) the skull-cup, Kapdla, Probably the figure is that of 
(Skanda ? or) K^etrapMa.^ 

The pedestal is divided into two portions. The upper part 
contains the familiar device of an elephant between two lions. 
At the extreme left is the skeleton figure of Bhringin and at 
the extreme right is the pot-bellied Mahakaia, both with trident.^ 
The lower section has the figure of a standing dmrapdla on 
either side with a club {da^pda) at the extreme right and left, 
besides the kneeling figure of the donor at the right, and the 
(bull ?) at the left, and lotus-buds in the middle. 



Sada^iva — in 

black chlorite stone ; 


ments like the previous ones ; recovered from Sh^hpur 
P.S. (Manda) Niamatpur, Dt. Rajshahi. With ten hands and 
three faces, one on either side and the other in front; seated 
upon a double lotus throne. In good state of preservation 
with exception of the nose of the front face and some fingers 
and weapons, which are broken away. 

Rl — The first right hand discloses V ydkhydna-mudrd in 
Ahhaya style. 

R2 — upper part of weapon missing; probably 
(or, Club ?). 

R3 — Trisula, Trident. 

114 — Khatvdnga. 

US-— presents the Varada-mudrd in nearly the Bhumi- 
sparsa style. 

Li — shows a Rosary {Ahsa-mdld) and is held below Rl, 

L2 — Utpala. 

L3 — Damaru, 

L4 — Sarpa. 

L5 — Vijapura with its skin partly peeled off, from front. 

On the right side of the main image, stands Ganga on 
a Makara holding a flower bunch in the right hand and a vessel 
lifted up by the left. On the left is Yamuna on a Kurma, 
Tortoise, with a flower bunch in her left hand and vessel — held 

1 See Appendix IIL 

2 See Ibid, 

212 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

tip by tlie right. These two are evidently the Dvdradevatds ^ 
of the temple under which Sadasiva is sitting. 

The pedestal contains the figure of the elephant between 
two lions, besides a small and indistinct kneeling figure of the 
donor; a small pot-bellied male figure, holding a trident — pro- 
bably Mahakala is on the right, and another figure, also with a 
trident— probably Nandin— on the left, both as guards. The 
figure has Jatd^mukuta on all the faces and a garland of 
(Nrasthis) disc-like human bones, reaching the throne. The 
Bull sits in front of the double lotus throne,, looking forward to 
the world with compassion. Evidently Sadasiva is here figured 
as being attended by his usual Ganas; and his aspect as a 
Bhairava is not forgotten, for the left face is grim and the figure 

In keeping with this character, the two celestials soaring to 
bring offerings to the deity are armed ; the one on proper right 
has a lotus-bud in the left hand and a sword in right hand — the 
other is holding in left hand, a lotus-bud and a sword in right. 
There is no Kalpalatd but the Klrtti-muMia is existent on the 
Prahhdmandala. A tri-folio arch rises above the main image. 
The epigraph on the pedestal in one line runs — 


It is in the East Ind. script of the latter half of the 12th century a. c. 

Sadasiva, — Miniature in black chlorite stone, 

From Sibpur (near Badal Pillar), Bt. Dinajpur. Ten handed. 
Partly broken at the top and the left down corner of the 
pedestal. Whole of Prabhd-map^dala and L2, holding probably 
the nllotpala are missing — with a socket-hole for fixing 
(below the pedestal) instead of a wedge. Figure of a pot- 
bellied dwarf ? at left side top. Device of elephant seated 
between lion on either side. The main figure (measuring seven 
inches) with the two natural hands in Vydkhydna-mudrd is in ex- 
cellent preservation and nicely sculptured. See Plate 14, Fig. 2. 

* A brass image of Sadasiva, VM,8. '(No. 673; 4"x2|'';’ 
from Sherpur, Dt. Bogra). The image is shown as having four 
faces instead of five which is required by the text . He is seated 
on a lotus and has ten hands. Ahull is represented kneeling in 
front, on the pedestal. The distribution of attributes in the 
■ ten hands is as follows ; — right hands, respectively from top to 
bottom, iakti, trisula, khatvdnga, abhaya^ a,nd varada-mudrds ; left 

^ f wwwr wTsftr mwft i 

Agnl-puranam. Anauda^ram Edition (1900), Chapter 50. 
^ Fide Appendix IV. 

1933] Sadasiva Worship in Early Bengal 213 

liands from top to bottom, damaru, serpent, some indistinct 
object, lotus and another indistinct object (vljapuraha ^ 

The statement regarding the faces of Sadasiva, is however, 
inaccurate and might be due to misunderstanding; all faces 
are never shown. 

Another little-known example of Sadasiva, not properly 
identified, is also existent in America.^ 

^A Saiva sculpture in black state, of the Pala School of 
Bihar-Bengal- Orissa (figure 4) and perhaps of twelfth century 
date is of the type popularly known as Trimurti, and because 
of its perfect preservation throws a valuable light upon the 
interpretation of other examples, particularly the well-known 
Trimurti of Elephanta which was recognised by the late T. A. 
Gopinatha Rao as &iva and identified by him as a Maliesa- 
Milrti. In the Pennsylvania figure the Saiva character is 
clearly established by the third eye, cobra, sacred thread, 
jatd-Tnuhutas, trident and drum attributes, and the Kandi, 
Kali and Ganas of the pedestal. Of the hands, the two normal 
hands (i.e. lower right and lower left) are respectively in 
abhaya-hasta, and holding a rudrdJcsa-mdld ; taking the other 
hands in the usual order the second right, on the right knee, is 
in varada pose, denoting charity ; the third holds a spear {iula), 
the fourth a club {da'iida), the fifth the trident (triSula ) ; the 
upper right hand the drum {damaru or dhdkhd ) ; the next, a 
blue lotus (nllotpala ) ; the next, a cobra ; the fourth, apparently 
a fruit. The right and central faces are peaceful, the left ugra. 
The centre of the base has a Nandi ; a dancing Kali, and two 
dancing Ganas. The torao^a^ crowned by a hlrUi-rnnhiia, carries 
two vidyddharas. Of the three forms of ^iva, thus combined, 
the central figure is most likely Sadyojata, two of whose hands 
should be held in varada and abhaya positions, while a third 
should have the ahsa-mdld; the proper left hand figure is 
evidently the Aghora aspect of Siva, of fierce aspect and holding 
a cobra in one of his hands.’ 

The Image closely resembles the V.RB, specimens, and as 
a continuity in sculptural style is traceable, it must therefore 
belong to the same school and also approximately to the same 

^ N. G. Majumdar: A Note on the additions to the Museum during 
1925 - 26 , p. ^—Annual Be;^ort oj the V.M.S. iov 1925-26, Raj shahi, April, 
1926 . , ■ ^ 

B. N. Sarkar : Notes oJ a tour of exploration^ p. 6. “ A miniature bronze 
image of Sadasiva was collected at Sherpur. . . ..V Ibid. 

I ons’icfis 1 ‘ i 

2 Ananda Coomaraswamy : >S. me Indian Sculptures in American 
Museums, Maliesha-Murti, Bengal. About 12th! century, 3' 3 J". Rupmn^ 
No. 18. Indian Soc. Oriental Art, Cvlcutta, p. 66. (The diacriticals are 

2M Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

The two Sada^iva Images in the Vahglya Sahitya ■ , Parlsad,. 
Calcutta (both in black chlorite stone) are totally different 
in workmanship from the North Bengal Images. Bor while* 
the three specimens in the Museum of V,B,S. are characterized 
by feminine grace, these two specimens are marked by 
masculine vigour and majesty. They must be later in age than 
the three specimens in the for the pedestal no 

longer shows the ornamental device of elephant between lions- 
which belongs to Non-Brahmanic Iconography. The exact 
findplaces of these tw'o specimens are not mentioned/ but 
they too disclose such a remarkable degree *of family likeness 
that the Artists must have belonged to the same school (or 
part of India), which school (or province) must also be, at the 
same time, remote from the school or country of the VM,S. speci- 
mens. The V.B.S. specimens of Sada^iva and the Vangiya 
Sahitya Parisad images represent two altogether different schools 
of sculpture ; there have certainly been no borrowings between 
these two schools, for no such are traceable in these specimens,, 
extant. Both these two sets of specimens are beautiful but the 
F./S.P. images are certainly the more powerful. 

Varahamihira speaks in his BrihatsamMtdj of an authentic 
Silpasdstrakdra Nagna- jit ^ none of whose works have survived in 
the originals.^ According to Nagnajit, as mentioned by Varaha- 
mihira, the measurement for the facial length of an image in 
the Dravida System should be fourteen Ang'das ^ (while accord- 
ing to Varahamihira the length and breadth of human face 
should be the same, i.e. twelve Angulas).^ Certainly, the 
cheeks of these two specimens from the F./S.P. are more full 
than the V.B,S. examples. It is not impossible the first group 
were influenced by Dravida Art Traditions. They probably 
belonged to West Bengal and never to North Bengal/ 

Of the two specimens in black chlorite stone, in the F.5^.P., 
the better preserved one is earlier, for the ornamentations of 

1 In the older Catalogue of McsMbits, Vangiya Sahitya Parisat. 

2 See also m/ra, p. 244, not© 2. 

2 Tibetan translation of a work (of the class— 
nained Oitra-laJcsanam. [Edited by Berthold Laufer] i Dohumente der 
indischen Kunst, Brstes Hefti Malerei i Das Oitm-lahshana* Leipzig, 1913. 
The authorship of the work is ascribed to Hagnajit ; it is included in Bstan- 
hgyur. Cordier; Catalogue du Fonds tibitain de la Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Mdo-hgrel CXXIII, No. 6, 

^ H. Kern : Brhat Sarrihita, * Bibliotheca Indies % Chapter 58, 
41oka 4. ■ ' ' xs», 

5 Also vide Gopmath Rao ; Op, ciU Vol. I, Part I, p. 58 ; O. C. Gaixgoly r 
South Indian Bronzes ^ p. 8. 

s This presumption, based on indirect proofs, has however been 
fortunately fully supported by facts, See — The Catalogue of the F.N.P. 



Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 

the main images are :^simpler, there are no trifoiio areh ahove— 
its place being still taken by a (horse-hoof?) curved pattern, 
halo, also the Kalpalatd and other similar ornamental devices 
are not all shown on the back ground; the Image measures 
32 inches in length by 15 inches in breadth and is three-faced 
and seated on double-lotus throne. See Plate 17. 

The disposition of weapons in the hands are as follows :~ 
Rl — Abhayamudrd Te&emhling the VydJchydna, 

R2 — Sakti (Danda?), 

RS — Srda, 

R4 — Anknm. 

R5 — •Varadamudrd, 

Ll — holding bead-string and placed 

below R 1 to present the Vydkhydna-miidrd, 
L2—Utpala, ^ 

L3 — Pamani* 

lj6—,Vtjapura ; (the skin on the upper half portion of the 
fruit is peeled off and the seeds are gathered 
together conically). 

The three visible” heads wear Jatdmukuta. There is an 
ornament, protruding from the Kirlia and resembling a hdoded 
serpent, at the right as well as the left face. The latter (left) 
face is with moustache and beard tucked up in the usual 
Bhairava fashion ; the eyes are round and the teeth prominent.^ 
This is the Aghora face. 

There are two attendants seated upon their hams, in half 
utkutakdfSana on lotus thrones. The one on the 

right is potbellied and with clotted hair locks, and holds the 
scull-cup and the trident in his right and left hands 
respectively. The clotted locks of hair are standing erect 
and the figure is nude. This most probably is Ksetrapala. 
The other attendant on the left, holds the Aksasutra and 
Sula, in the right and the left hands ; he may be identified 
as Nandikesvara. 

There is KlrUimukha at the top on the Prabhdma'^dala ; 
the latter is a narrow fringe passing all around the image and 
consisting of graceful tendril-like curls. Two celestials on 
either side hover above with offerings of flower garlands. 
The pedestal shows the figure of the Bull looking towards his 
master besides a male and a female devotee on the left, and 
lotus buds on the middle of the pedestal. 

The other Sadasiva Image in the V S.P., also in black 
chlorite stone undoubtedly belongs to a later age. The 
ornamentation is more elaborate, the back-ground is no longer 
bare; instead of under the simpler oval halo, the image is 

1 See Appendix IV, Siva-Bhairava, 

216 Jowrnal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [IsT-S., XXIX, 

seated on double lotus throne under b> trifolio arch ; above—on 
either side is s^ hayhsa, feeding upon sweet lotus stalks : above, 
rise in graceful mvh, Kalpalatd creepers on either side. The 
KMtimuhha appears at the top and tw^o celestials hover above, 
bringing flower garlands. See Plate 18. 

The image is sadly mutilated, many of the hands and 
weapons are totally broken off. Of the three faces, sculptured 
(all of which wear jatdmuhuta capped by a lotus bud) the 
right one is grim — with round eyes and beard, and moustache- 
tucked up in fashion. This must be the Aglidra face. 

Through the clotted hair locks of Sadasiva s front face 
appears the face of Gahga. The Image is bedecked 
with ornaments. A thin scarf passes under the right arm and 
over the left-shoulder. The Ndgopavlta is present, as also 
the N rasthimdld~^t\\B garland of human bones, reaching down 
to the lotus throne. 

(The Right First hand) R1 — is totally broken off. 

R2 — weapon partly broken ; Sahti 
(or, Danda), 

R3 — TrisTda. 

R4 — Khapdnga ; very distinct. 

R5 — Varadamndrd in the style of 

LI — totally broken off. 

L2 — Ayiidka broken off ; the lotus 
stalk is visible. 

L3— weapon broken off; one end 
of JDamaru^ visible. 

L4 — Sarpa. 

L5 — totally broken off. 

Two attendants seated on double lotus throne, in easy 
attitude Lalitdsana) with one leg drawn up, ^ are on the 

two sides of the main image. The right figure with the Trisula, 
Ak^arndld and Jatdmuknta, NdgdpavUa is nude and with clotted 
beards — thus representing probably, Ksetrapala. 

The figure on the left holds the Aksasutra and TriMla 
and also wears the Jatdmukuta — thus probably representing 
Nandike^vara. The pedestal contains at the extreme right, the 
figures of the donor — offering a garment, and his wife. At the 
extreme left, the dancing figures of the dwarfish and pot-bellied 
Mahakala and the skeleton Bhrihgin are visible. The figure 
of the Bull looking fondly towards his master is also notice- 
able. There are two lions evidently parts of the Simhdsana, 
but no elephant is represented. 

Sadasiva’s aspects as Bhairava and as Gangddhara are not 
forgotten. For the image has the Khatvahga and is 

1 Of. with the similar pose in A.SJ.R,, 1904-5 (Excavations at 
Sarnath), the male figure (d) illustrated on plate XXXI. 

1933] Sadmmi Worship in Early Be 7 igal ,217 

U rddhvalmga^ and shows the face of Gahga inside the clotted 
upper hair-locks. 

Air the available Sada^Mva images and figures are now dealt 
with. All these specimens bear striking and strange coincidence 
with the conception (Dhydnasloka) of the Deity found in the 
Gafudapurdo^am and in the Uttara Kdmilcdga^na^ the oldest 
Saivagama ' extant. The latter is probably not older, than the 
5th or 6th century a.c.^ Manuscripts of this unpublished work 
(from which quotations have been given by scholars ^ from time 
to time) have been noticed,^ This particular conception about ^ 
the deity might be even earlier than the texts referred to. 

When and how such forms of Sadasiva came to be wor- 
shipped in Bengal is still unknown. These might have been 
introd uced through the missionary, zeal of religious enthusiasts A 
, : They , might also have ,. come .. in- 'the van or wake of. 
military expeditions by adventurers from the South.' Or they 
might represent another possible phase of the slow infiltration 
.of Saivagamik^ doctrines into ' the Tantrik forms of, worship; 
current, in. Bengal.'b' 

1 Vide dopmatlia Rao : Op. Cit. Vol. I, Part 1, p. 55. 

■ Quoted by Hemadri : , Op. Git. Danakhanda. ^ See Aufrecht’s Cata~ 
logus Gatalogoruni. 

s lu Madras Oriental MSS. Library •Catalogue, Yol. XI. Systems 
of Indian Philosophy. 2. Saivism.— Xo. 5431 contains Patalas 

1-116 and 136 ; ‘ deals with the worship of &va and with the' performance 
of the various religious festivals in Saiva temples’. 

No. 5432 — ‘Bh’om Jirridddhara to Asta-bandhana, The latter portion 
of the work described under No, 5431. Also, see Appendix VI. 

-i It may be noted in this commotion, that long before the Muham- 
madan conquest of Bengal took place, Moslem Darwishes, Aiiliyas, and 
Faqirs penetrated into the province for preaching Islam. 

--[Shaikh BurliM-udchn ancl Shah Jalal Miyarrid Yamni of Sylhet, 
vide J. A. S,B. (1873), Part T, pp. 278-81.' .According to the tradition 
recorded in the Muhammadan work, Suhail-i-Yaman, Sylhet or Sri-hatta 
was conquered by Pir Shah Jala! from Gaur Govinda, the last Plindu King. 

The so-called dated coin of Guru Govinda (for such was supposed 
to be real name) of Saka 140( ? )2, corresponding to 1480 a.c. {Vide 
J P.A.S.B., Vol. XVI, 1920, No. :3, Numismatic Supplement, No. 
XXXIII), has been found to be one of Govinda Manikya of Tippera, 
dated in the Saka year 1581. Also the conquest of Sylhet was accom- 
plished in 703 H. = 1303 A.O. Vol. XIX (1923). Num. 

Suppl., No, XXXVII, Notes on the coinage of Tippera, Nos. 48-49). 
Khanjaiian Ali— Ffde 

—Prof. S. C. Mitra, The History of Jessore-Khuhia, Vol. I, Part 2, 
chapter 3.,, ^ ... . _■■■. , 

Hazrat Shah Jalal Tabrlzl of Pandua— Fide Shaildd-Subhodaya, 
(published partly in Kayastha-Patrika Com- 

plete Edition with English Notes by SukumSr Sen: Hrishilcesha Series, 
Calcutta, 1927 ; also vide J.A.S.B. (1873), Part I, p. 260. 

o With this process of mutual influence of contemporary Religious 
(and Philosophical) systems might be compared the remarkable mixture of 
Tantricism with Vaisnavism that took place in its later phases, e.g. as in 
the Eddhd Tantram and the Radhika-vilasa Tantram. 

21B Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ■ [N.S.j XXIX. 1933] 

But, as shown before, Sada^iva Worship as a distinct 
religious creed enjoyed a brief but vigorous life, from a period 
not later than the 9th century a.c. and extending up to the 
14th century 

The Sadasiva Worship spread over a vast expanse of 
territory from Benares to Bhuvanesvara — and from South- 
West India to the furthest North Bengal and it could claim to 
have at least, one royal line among its worshippers. 

The worship of Sadasiva is stiH extant in Bengal, though 
its votaries are now extremely rare. 

^ VidQ dates of the extant Sadasiva Images described. 

Appendix I, 

r1^ S adI-&va-Dhy1nas . 

Wliatevei? might be the exact causes, the Dhyana Sioka of 
SadaMva, found in the Eudraydmala, Patala 48 and quoted in the 
TaiitrikNibandhas,e,g. ^dradd4ilaham, Patala 18 and Tantmsdra, 
has not been handed down in a perfect state of preservation. The 
date of Lakshmana Desika, the compiler of Sdradd-tilakam, is 
put in the 10th century- But even in the time of Gadadhara, 
the earliest commentator referred to (on 8dradd4ilakam) who 
flourished about the middle of the loth century a. c,, different 
readings had already crept in the Dhydna sioka in question. 
The Manuscript of Tantra-pradipa by Gadadhara, in the 
VM.8., is dated 1493 Saka ifl[^=1571 a.c. It may be 
therefore regarded as reliable. 

The different readings in the Dhyana ^loka are noted 
below. ■ 

Tantrapradlpa :—{V,E.8.^ M.8, "No. 54:7. Dated 1493). 

' ' V* 

iTTwnftf^^?;5^^TsrTrfjTcrT3R^5^ ii 

frswsftt II 

’gtT^^T^SRT GUharthadlpikd. Litho* 
graphed at Benares : Patala IS, 

53iT- ... ... TT’gfw- 

... ... I 

... ... iiT^fs?'#eTsra;T5f 

TTTii ^■srTSWfiT5fT?R^"t5W^ II 

( 219 ) 

220 Journal of the. Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

Commentary Gudhdrthadlpikd : — 

[3r ?] li'TTJff! W 1 
I i 

The commentator Kalicarana quotes i 

... 1 

Some Tantrasara MSS. — (one of them dated 1708 Saka) read : 

jg;^ li 

Printed Tantrasara (Basumati 6th Edition), p. 168 : — 

qr’31' ^"STTWo — -11 

Budraydmala : — MSS. {V.R.S. Nos. 235 and 214.) Patala 48. 


Ditto. — Printed (Ed. Basikmohan) Patala 50. 

Kqm ... ... ... I 

... ... ... II 

Ditto — Printed (Ed. Jivananda Vidyasagara). 

^ Hr— I 

?csrT*wf%crT ... ... ii 

The oldest ^aradatilakam MS. (P.B.S. MS. No. 506, Find-place 
Dayarampur, district Rajshahi. Dated ^aba 1491) — 

■n» S* 

. , ' ‘ 'S* '■ 

Printed i^draddfdlaham, 18th Patala.^ 

13inftcrjrEfhrB^f3Ri3Pn^^^! ... 

^ZW •• 

FT^i ... 

... II « 

1 Vide A. Avalon: T[f it Tantrih Texts^ VoL IT, islolca 29. 

2 Eld. with Raghava Bhatta’s Padartha dar^a (Sam ^ 195JI). 

Printed from Rajaraje^varf Press, Benares. Full of printing mistakes. 


1933 J Saddsiva IVorsMp in Early Bengal 

— gftfcT I I 


fi^fiDg=rj?:5J3 I xcn\ ^cqw ^ i 

Tpg’® gigw^rfuuir i 
^T%J^l[g^?i5;?r I 
/^^sftg^ggwg =^*;gfifg I 
?li*pfgw -gW ^3{«=gf^’g|'E[gg; I 

ffwsi^ g^wra^iffggf^gjT I 
f%g?rg =^TWK5r^’35C»T I 
irf^jf T|®'wsiw M't'fgfwgg^s^ 

t(=g*f ’^^^sowgsq^w I 

^^gfst^fg g# %f I g?:g: i gTit'si! ?ricra;t i iftfgt t 
gjH^‘ ] grrg-ET^Tg g gT% i 

gigftg^if^gTgT i 3g:«g?;^g^!5i;Tggil33ggf 

=g% =g gTJtw’fftg’gsTgTwifiWtsg^ftTtH n 

gjsg'g gj’slg'ggmg^^gf ^gfrTgfwfggitgft^ i ^'itzw- 

^firfxfg i grrar^t- 

I ggre: I W^T'ffggnTg'gi^iiT^ giir ^^gf^urgi gw i 

ggt g??g =g g« "g gf^ g!?ra'^ g^^g i gngw 

grgfg# "gg^sf g ’aitg^ i grg %gfg^ r gtftf i 

■^gmn-TgnMgi^ gtfn’g, ?rJifiggigTgt'?’ftfnfg i gRig g 

%g gfnfflrfaicgT g?;=gfg3igf, fggiT-gfgTgigr?;5FffeggTsw?ftTfg i 

Some of these readings indicated aboTe are clearly wrong 
as they violate metre and give no good sense. It is unthink- 
able that the construction of an important Dhyana Sloka could 
have been originally so faulty. 

222 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [M.S «3 XXIX , 

The more so, when we compare and contrast it with other 
similar Bhyanas. Far from being works of mediocre merit, some 
■of those rank with the best specimens of Sanskrit poetry » 
For example, compare the dhyana of Sodasi one of the ten 

Mahavidyas, conceived as a fair and fully bedecked 
damsel in the fulness of youth.^ 

In the following restoration of the Dhyana -sloka and in 
the interpretations proposed, the text has not been altered and 
the metre is not disturbed. 

Pasam, Abhitisca, Varanica, vm — all 

these being indicated by gestures ( ) Madras, i.e. all these 
components being parts of the body there is Dmndaihamd'” 

bhdvah (srTW«^T?T and the compound is in neuter 


Siva carries in his ten hands, ten weapons ^15^ Ayudha-s 
and He also carries the serpent-lord on his body, as 

upavlta '3rxrft‘?r. 

(b) The last two lines may also be construed as follows 
without violating the metre, or the sense to any extent. 

Though can be more logically associated with 
the position of wt is disturbed. The Dvandvaika-vadbhavah 
is also not possible. * 

Of these Texts, the palm-leaf MS. of the Tantrapradtpa is 
the oldest; but it also gives the greatest number of different 
readings.^ The original Mbandha of which it 

1 See VamaTceSmra Tantram, — NityaaodaSilcarnava, (Anand^^ram, 
Poona.) VUrdmal, i^lohas 

2 The final colophon to the Tantrapradipa MS. in the V.E.S. (No. 
M7;, obtained from Puthia, Pt. Rajshahi), runs as follows: — 

1933 ] 

Sadasim Worship in Early Bengal 


is a commentary is separated (from it) by a period of less than 
(4) four centuries.^ 

Whatever might be the exact causes leading to these 
different readings — they might be instances of real mistakes 

‘B. Mitra : 2Vo«ices, VI, 233, No. 2172 reads.— 

„< ^ spTTftU ||[^!|] 

I nisK u?!i * wttRi^Tajmmsr * * -'H'mT 

^Tt: ftVTBUft ^Vpir:(ftl)-’SVB^-WVt’^T!a'a^T 

vsn1% iC^ii] 

flVTUts?[Sm: swiff ’^TW fBTVVtW: I 

[ft]-'»iTV^’3'rf%«^Rsi?RT'*i inwsifWisuvft ’SH; ii[aii] 

w^flf sreffiJisi^rmf u^si^ii: ifaii] 

ff: II II ft : II '^T suit' siwvwf II II ar^Tsei II ? 8(f ? II ff: || 

■ snff wjrat 11 

i^aka 1493 corresponds to 1571 a.c. The MS. of Tantrapradlpa, in 
the F.i?./S., is therefore, about three centuries and a half old. 

1 DhfrasitnhadevasurnamedHridaya*Narayai?a, belonged to the ruling 
family of Mithila. One authentic date exists for Dhirasirnha’s rule. 
He was still livingin L.S. 321, A.c. 1438. Mr. M. Chakra varti 

{J.F.A,S.B,, 1915, pp. 425-26, Note) says that MM. Haraprasad Sastrl 
found a manuscript written in the reign of Dhirasimha in the year 321 
f of Laksmana-Sena Deva. But the MS. is not traceable and the Viruda 

(Kamsa-NarSyana) given there is probably wrong. But L.S. 321 cannot 
; be 1438, '■ . 

Mr. K. P. Jayaswal purchased a MS. of the Karnapawan of the 
Mahabharata, brought from Bt. Darbhanga. It is dated 327 ‘La. Sam.’, 
i.e. Laksmana-Sena Era, Bhadra Sudi, 10, Sunday (the 20th August, 

» 1447 A.O.), in the colophon — when was ruling Maharajadhiraja Sriman 

(the illustrious) Hridaya-Narayai^La. — K. P. Jayaswal : Hridaya-N dray ana 
oj Mithila, Vol. X (1924), pp 47-8. DhTrasimha’s successor 

was Ms younger brother Bhairava Siraha, whose Viruda-s were 
Rupa-NarSyana and Hari-NarSyana. During the rule of Bhairava 
Simha’s son and successor Ramabhadra also with the Viruda (Rupa- 
Narayana), Gadadhara composed his commentary. 

Two dated manuscripts copied at the instances of this Prince Gada- 
dhara, exist— viz. a MS. copy of Bhojadeva’s Vividha-vidya-vicara-catura 
dated Friday, SrSvana vadi. 1, vf%. X 

of La. Sara. 372 ; also a MS. copy of the Ddnahdnda of the Kritya-Kalpa- 
taru, dated Saka 1426 and La. Sam, 374, Karttika Sukla 5, Wednesday; 

both the MSS. — written by the same copyist Subhapati ipiwfif. 
Gadadhara was therefore livingin 1489-93 aw, [vide J,F,A,S,B., Vol. XI 
(1915), pp. 424-30; and vide 

Mr. R. D. Banerjee — History of Bengal, Vol. II, pp. 200-4]. 

224: Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 1933] 

"being perpetuated by the thoughtlessness of subsequent scribes 
the conclusion Is ^ probable that the Worship of Sadasiva, 
described in the Sakta Tantras, was already falling out of 
popular favour, as early as the 14- 15th centuries. 

During Agamavagisa Krishnananda's time (a contemporary 
of Caitanya, born 1485 a.c.) the worship was nearly forgotten,, 
and it has almost totally disappeared now. 

Appendix II. 

Dbsceiptions OF Siva. 

1 . 

'a?5!r fTTiin^5Ts li II 

g 5RT?::%g i 

^Tsifftsr xrg j n 

^rosrffiir ^^wfur ^f^Jif i 

SRlTTWlftm iftff 5r3T<5g“f R^?:a|??T II ^,1, II 
^ 5ffc«rffiir fpa^ f^sn i 


iRffcr c}35r 'W’s^'sn n \i ii 

H^TTf^^STW^sf tf^J? g I 

cf^T WTl'fsR ^K%g II ^,'S II 

^JTTW ^ '9tK^5i*T-ai>cira || \'=: II 

ci^ ^f^jarw^ sR^ssiTfsr frtxg^r i 

5RTgf%^ ^ II II 

emr "OT "W 3g;f^: | 

S|f35JT^’^Tg-55f'a:XfWTS II 5^0 II 
{ 9RW3rg’iire«5rg?x^w: n — ’atf3«T^'g% qreT=fiK^)» 

— afcft^3®^ 3TT4%5r-g^?NT^ f%jjfl- 

fwfjii sfOT =®rg^(^Tft''9iTrf?>5^T^r! n ® 

(Sri- Venkate^vara Press). 

See also Wfi?:— I (Bibliotheca Indies). 

^ WimudharmoUaram is traditionally said to be part of the Qaruda- 
Puranam, Aiberuni made a thorough study of it. Regarding its date, 

see I (^ri-Vehkate^vara Press); Dr. 

M. Wintemitz: GescMchte der indischen Litteratur^ Yol. 1, p. 480. See- 
also Dr. St. Kramrisch : V imudharmmoUuram, Part III ; Engl. Transl. ; 
Painting Chapters only, with Introd, etc., J. Den^. Detfera, Cal. Univ., Tol. 
XI, 1924. 


( 225 ) 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [NJ 



^ (cf<[)'5^w 1«I?T II \ II 

ff ^F tT II 5^ II 

^i? I 

f?w5t5IT^ II ^ II 

w^%?f g %r 9wt57'?T(*r’r: i 

'^tflll et^Tf li 3 I! 

g gJ 5 a?pft^cr«T i 
•Tff^’ cT^ II Ul, II 


cf^ %W^ =?>Ti?:*T I 
WTW®!’ eUg: XT^*T?f || ^ II 

1 %mtwOT ^rs^ffm f f?^sr?j; | 

JT'fTt^gJS »iftr^cT: g?5 II >3 |i 

■sr^# cT’aTT gTg(?^-)5^' =9T<T I 

%?rfrraT?i ’sr^sr^gsr n '= ii 
f^^ff ^'JC^^TTO^ irf«T I 

'^r(^?) n «s. ii 

“^TtrsiTJ^ I 

Wit’S?: cTcT^iTti fsun^ftTfcTIirfs^crS^ II 1^0 II 

%?rT g -iglwTt® ^T^T»r f?;i^cf 5 i i 

wigf ^?:?r>wcqrwf g « ii 

f^fsrf^ wigf Ifs^T ant I 
sfir^tw t ?:T 5 rsir?:wTw?r! ii ^^ 5 ?. ii 

ti fNT^ g 1 

^ %% srf^t wg*tsgsr n ? ^ ii 

Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 


3§^W 5!mi5lt JTem II \ 8 II 
^:5r^fT=l^ f^’lTcr^ii 5?:iftTW i 

^ cim aR?:^% II II 
fsfjfw =^Tsf t^niJT cT-aftWW I 

^■p^TTcTT 3r3T! II |l 

g 55^ ^»w>i I 

^-sff ^if^srfrrcf: ii ir 

sasiT fw'Stm ^Tsrw sr^f^ir i 

W^TaetJT^gxn^: II II 

•=5r3Tfctn^ xrafli: ’ctt g^fterr i 
W =9 iisifcr ^55rf ^ ^ II i/i II 

cj^rafoUT^ crtft:# ?r|5rns37^5® l 

srirajJT?? ?r -srniwwsr ^JifR’^Mi s^® it 


srnT 8^= 

2 (a). 

^Ttf 50:^ ^irg; 3r<f¥f cinx » t ii 

cTT^ ■srT?:^^ WT W affXTJgi: I 
SBTWWWT f^fsrft’ST II \0 11 

^^fSTTcj ^»i?rTsii I . 

JTT® 5Ero w'^af’Twfirt' ^rm 

8^ aj'sxnr: II 

2 ( 6 ). 

tf^jW ^ 'ara “a ^arxT n 5(^<i, 

^ 5 aw w cTT»aT a^ftpr: i 

aft w TTfrgsr n n 
ar^Riaw ^ 3Tir5?feaa\^xT i 
^fawsr^ait S'S ssrana: ii 

228 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

3 (a). 


f^ffcr-iftcT-iiW-W=^g¥i!rf! || 

I ( II ^ ii ) 

^Tjft g II ••• II 

TTTT^?: II ^Tcfs ^RftsTTSf: II ( BfSJ?ra=^ffl 

?t?fT»?TT*i' "^-S^ — *'31, ll) 

3 (b). 

tf^R^iurTpr, taiTnig^! n c(*mHiT; ii 

'3rRgTfa[^% II TT3% — 

^fr^^RPftflTTO’g'^rci aR^! I 
t:9n*i ^«i|-3iT5gT fgfffl[ TTsrtcr 11 II 

'^giw cfqrs^af I 

aEr=g^5i ^jt^sr era: i 

f%f?[ei 3g;5f SRtfra fsr*^^ SR^! II 
„ ^^srw Harit’i'w i 


3T?:'X'^<i aR^! II 

^^*3 ^r^sfXcT II 

.' ■■ Os si*, . .S..,, . , , 

’f fx:wm5®Txftfcx^x:'?^ i 

Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 



PaddrtEddarsa ) — Commentary of Eiagliava 

Bliatta on the above 

ipcr ^nsfiicTT iseifiTfcr i 

5er*Jf^ ?rjT»g%f5E;?ar%^^ftsfr 

JT^fcT I 

(w^srft’T: Tantrapradlpa ) — Commentary of Gadadhara on 

the above : — 

TT?:^jrtr?:T»ftf^^?:(?) ftswuf m- 

•g;5^ aj=^m?rT%gTTT?t3gf5T^}:T;55jrJifTff3g;^^*TT5?^5:<T^5rm 

^tTg'?r^*r^*r[JT]^'t?: f ^fTGT =^g^ 

JTTSfTfSRSff?: 3^?:^# 

fw*r^5f it 

Of these five Avarana-devatas (auxiliary deities) of Sada- 
Mva mentioned in the Tantras, Aghora seems to be ten-handed, 
while Mana, Tatpiirusa, Vamadeva, and Sadyojata are four- 


WTTf%’g3t:cf^T5fT3ncf-fsr^wt^«[aRTj|g: II (AnandaSram, Poona.) 


wr?ir-srgi|t sr’si^sg^jr n ii ii 

(Setubandha — Bhaskararaya’s Commentary on 

the above : — 

3q;wT55^Tg'a5iTf^^sif5iH*r ^aa^rr^sfcfrg; ^n^i^crr i 

— ^raiT ^tur i 

W W5T! tf’ErTWfsrr II I 

M . ' 

1 Of tlie two printed editions ol S'aradatilaham from Benares, that 
with Raghava-Bhatta’s commentar.y~*-totaUy misplaces the difierent 
stanzas of the Aghora-Dhyana while the edition with Madhava- 

Bhatta’s commentary — totally omits a few stanzas. The complete 
Dhyana-^iokas for Aghora were found from a comparison with Gada- 
dhara’s commentary on the portion; that portion of the commentary in 
the MS. again, is full of spelling mistakes. A. Avalon’s New Ed., Tantrik 
Texts heiQ given correctly the Dhyana-^lokhs in question. 

230 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX,. 

ft-srx ST ^^ffT I cTi' 5a:f I xefcr i 

W ^cT — 

0 'A Ov , 

TTTwijitt 5 I 

^HiTT Tf*rww^jS5-‘ II 

I ^r^srsrflR^T^T! 

^>JT^qf^^FrT%5R’^«ioq'Tg ii i.^ ii 


xfT^iTirgft g scTiiiwrw^ n 8\ II 

WTart : I 

f^’afxr^tfcfsrfjrsRT: ^%xir ^ri: ii 8^ ii «j.xTf^rsr: i! 

BMskararaya’s Commentary :--- 

5CTinm^ ^ ttt’sb?© ’ftrai i waaisjR^T- 
f4^9T?r I sEHf ^T’Er’rTOTSR %®r! 1 isiT^rKSRX^cr i 

Os N» 

itSTif^ix^’r ^trx;^jr^T5 1 

^Troi: laWWSffTWSffT! 1 ’erfir TrfscfliT^ xi^^cflc[ I 

c?^ 5OT*r*r> fer’^^iT’suTT^’S^TOT- 

. Vj» , 

cTTtf^^%g I <?’8n =rtw x:^^sTTff56rw— 



itTa^nsrmfsr g^fiq^xsnfsr i Tantrik Sadaliva Dhyanas. 
(a) XTfTt^^fwcr^ \8Xllti^% ^r^fttwxinsi II 
■ssTTtcj ^sff n 

5iT5f=gjfiTfx;'^K niinr^uftflisrxT i 

ff»i,flrf%H-?r55rf# »iTirT«rf^»Sjf^^ II 



SaddSiva Worship in Early Bengal 

srimsc wfttittfiisTTrww i 
^xn^f TTR^ XT-ret fxRTT# tTJCg 11 ^8 
WT^-STR ym mJWW I 

_ M 

^ f gTjfnwC-- II ^9. 


i:Rrmsrfw^f5icT?r n 

xrfccTt ! 

■St^xf^ I f^»icTJT I 1[XTT S^ftrWfxt II ^8 fi 

II ^T^^^xT^ffranf^ I f^»^crJT ^xicx?^ ii n 
R^ifn^r^^xf^, xx?:JTT5rj^?rs^'t'ft^^ff2^«ft=9Ji xf?:frTsri^- 
ffe^lf^ ?f(t=RRT^ W ?T^T»|?-W I SEXi^t^: 
II ^’=: II tl 8o II 

^fcT 11 ^ 

SadMiva = The Eternal, ever-existent Siva ^ = 

The Omnipresent ; xr^^T5=r5!?:<> = ‘ His eyes half-closed, in the excess 
of bliss (the eyes are in the sleepy, slanting half -closed position 
of intoxication and 

^ See A. Avalon : Mahanirvanatantram {The Tantra oj the Qreoit 
Liheration)f 14tli Ullasa, pp. 37-3S, for English translation and notes, 

* W#xirT%5 ^WXTR: f*C^: 1^ 

xf^irxi% WixTuxj; ; g'qiTft^^%^x:g??f*rTg?ner- 

ftt*P5VTT^T*rew^ I . . . . . . «r?T xpcxrfjxt %xrw- 

’flfiruftR I xR l” 

— II ft-! II ftt^mirenj ii — 


232 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 
The disposition of weapons w^onld be proceeding from 

Right to Left 

L5 — skull ) 

L4 — fire 

L3— the noose ( irmij ) 
L2 — Pin!>aha-how 
LI— the axe ( ) 


R1 — trident ( ) 
R2— thunderbolt ( ) 
R3— goad ( ^wm ) 

R4 — ^arrow (wx^) 

R5 — blessings ( ) 

1 Regarding the disposition of Ayudha^s, the following works should 
be referred to 

(a) ParSurdmahalpsutram, Gaekwad’s Oriental Series, No. 22 (Baroda), 
Part I. tS'Q 


HTSft g t WTTSf aftfil ®[Tl=fT 
’9^T>itTW»:’r^raT*n0sr«lf*®^T: ii 
?tifr I 

»?T'®-Tg^^’tK 13 g>aT 11 

(fT ?) 1 

WT^^l'SI n 11 

WKtw ?rErf^<T»i 1 


II Tfw II 

i iTT^iTf^?n®T«ftT! 5rr% 

1 T^riX’TT'WT’flT: 'SVTSRtPt I trr^tT'^lTTfl^g^^ I 

I STT^fTBg^^TKKf ^s|- 

•31^ | ” 

(5) SH S'fl HaribhaUivildsa (Vaisnava Smriti), with the commentary 
of Sanatana Gosvamin (DigdarSim) translated by Sri Madhava*candra 
Tarkacodamani, published by Ditto, Dacca. 

S= 8<? I 1— S)SRT 

SCT^HRIK: wt^ - 

TT* Tfff ^R: I ” 

Regarding the Right and the Left of the Image proper, Sanatana, 
in his commentary on Haribhakti-mlasa, has mentioned that there was 
already controversy on the point — there being two schools who took 
the Right to refer to the Image or the on-looker, respectively. 


Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 


But R4 holding the arrow should correspond to L4 and 
the latter should also carry the how. 

Therefore there is no necessity here to proceed from Right 
to Left for finding the manner of disposition of weapons. 
Therefore LI with Skull corresponds to R1 with Trident ; or, 
LI — Skull : R1 — Trident and L4 — Bow : R4 — Arrow. 

(6) Tantrasara, Chapter II. | — 

W fjrfW cftT^TT 

ct ii \ b 

^-er Bl^I^ B5pIT5I I 

%: sittTT I' II 

■^T •{ 

I qTBT5[Wi' Bf ! BSlelt. ^TB^T Bfw! B ^ || 

W \®rT II 8 II 

cfci: BTBTBlh5nn:gWgR^t2^TB lim II H II 

^ II ^ II 

Bfi: 11 'Q-'^ II 

f SjfB II 
■srr^^ II «. II 



■gsfiB3RTt HilB’ga y^Tgfr BTB II 

V.B-S.MB. No. 214.] 

234 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.&., XXIX, 

(c) *r%ai! ^2^: B 

gErar^i^ifTT ng 5BJ?T’ErTcj; 

WITcft I 

•** ••• ••• *•• 

... f%rf^ h \\i 

’jft5rTg?5J5i5rfsr^5r5reT«TCa^m i 

’^aife^JTfjnfsiW iTTS^^ii ’TWTfJT II 8 |l 

(d) ) II 

... ef??? 

Tpikr f=Ii^ fW»T: I 

fit? ■5:fcr •w ll s^€. 

^ cfgig%j^^f5r$WTf^?TTmJrTc( — 

^ 2niWT5r^^^wgr3t®sg?i?ri'grTsr 

TTT^Iuft^gf?; ^m*Wfi?cTT^^'^^«rT'f 37% I Tfe 

wmprlt cfJJSrer fw^^TT^fa 


^^ETfaCW! I t^TTTR^i II 

31'^ I 

^tf35«rTf^: fSlt^ I! 

TsiwreW %fi f«?f tnn^sgaTT i , 

fqiF^T3T5r2T=f?(l2) || 



Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 


ersn f^igTst^ar I 

50fTf ^RTTsf: II 

=?T^raT H^m=3HT I 

? ) ’=5? ^TfT^W l-tl^rs^sw II 

?Er=#srrs?TTwf?r^'sifT5rT=Ti?:^ci g i 

ii[^T=f II 

^wrg^q^%cr?T i 

^rsrrfili! fr^X’ST’?!! ssrjrfs^H! i 

( ^T5RTfjTq«TJr% f^=5^mtT■9^'TrfTq^% ii ) ^ 

6 {a). 

^ ff^TWWT vsrwi hht i 

5 srPT^X: ii 
qfferoTT i 

Tpfh^^'^t qTJT%’ ^q’arTPTT! II 

5f jfhrf^TTglT ^ETTraH I 

( ^'fr?;qrrfwsiniT^ li ) ® 

7 (a) ^Tftrqj I » ® 

^r^rftiTarR n 

1 Vide Goptnatha Bao : Elemmts oj Hindu leonography, Vol. TI, Part 
n. Appendix B, P-18'7 I I 

ApptJIlUJ.V A?, jJ* xo/ I vg, I TT 1 T T» 

2: Yide Oopmatha Rao ; Elements of Hindu Iconography, vol. 1, Fart 
Ily Appendix B, p. 104. v \ 

s Probably iTTifi^K in the Manmara O). Both quoted in ^’¥?WT»r, 
a South-Indian MS., of which a copy exists in y,B.8. Xibrary, Baishahi. 

236 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

%crsiFfrwm5r-5ff^Tfti?-'^tf ii 
•aiTcfT ... ... 

Water vessel. 


'at%^5i3T%5r 5erf^cT wt 111 ^ 1 % 
WTwr^3^»il’T^^ ^>ftrei II 

ift?r f^cTHTSTsi H^c| ft'CT’r il 

^slsr: =Peacock. 



ixrjn^m ^r^Tftr^-tmwjst^s li 
ftif Tw*t t( wiftr -sr^ifWTf^^rr^srH 1 

f^flT^r^f;T^T%cT ■ETJug^T^^: II ^ 

^ ’ft ^smirciT^m i 

^ i ftlWcfT^ ’^T’f T I ( 11=^ ) 

wsi^w it ’ft ■^rt ^T’f T ’^IcIjt^^T! ( i ) 

sei^ ^^T-’ «er4ff*r’?it5=^t i ( li^ ) 

^^pfir: ^^ercws ^’^T*rrr^ ficnirfT! ii ^ ( i ) 
if ft HpTermt»?f^T mcTWfTf^M ( 118 ) 
ft w! tfniriw! ii 8 ( i ) 

lit JTra’^tf f if h: II 

it ft crfTfgrx^ cift w 


Sadasiva W or ship in Early Bengal 


mm ii <3 ( i) 

'?T ^ ^ 'f ; *r«: 1 ( 113 ) 

$t w 55 ;^^=^ hh! i 

'fT sfJ?! II ^ 

?[f%5 ftlft ^TfcT IH^enf^ ITH! t ( I ) 

ftrif% ?^rf^Tf«r 

f%ff%^srTnTi;rsr V( I (ill* ) 

n ftHT flf ^ I 

5tf ^JTTftf^^TJT 

5^ 37W ?r4cfff 
^ ^ ^r: I 

«>[ ]» 

# sfr^=«ri© ^;T=^tir ft%*fTiT 1 

^ ?ff fr 

®[3f]o ^ f-si 5 ^ WT3T? ^ 

5C ^;rf w %g %5r^?i*T5ltcr 
^:snFr»?r5| j ^fjii^ef(5i=^T5i 5?i%’cj; 1 

^t '€f fai^t # %" ^ 

'^s# lim sjeng^ 

Heft m^x cT^f^: 

S^ifTpi ?TcTt ^5 n 

nJ^AffT^RT^ JTf T "R aft* I 

WTTO^ Jfw II \® 

iiM*r=^ -sn^Tf^aRff I 

^WT -fX fsr^^TcJT 

TT «>[%]«> cia: I 

?ra#i3;aTRt Hcfi rt,€. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

frsrNRift ■sr^aT! fwaiqa! j 

f^^rsTJT’^T^flr =9 II s?,® 

’arfgvw fsT^iTf’Ernsii i 
5g^T^ir*t^[rsfm^^w II 

W f¥%*I5f ■st^T fW '^’S II 

^T=^m ;g53fw^ i 

' 0 \, 

tr?;?ft3R?;jii ii 

^f^fa=f^T%^ ^ STTfni=W5HT II 5^8 

^r#ir5;=^aTa^ ww 1 

a^Jii a^ faaBT^fr4%^ II 
^HTfajipftHT t^' JZ^THTT^c^a sTtrn; i 

t a^T sisa^®^*^ I 

i «Er: =^x»a: II s^-Q 

(* ^rsr^se ^fa xtT3! i ) 

, e[=g?f ^^?r?[^3E:]o 

ftlfT ftif! asaf*?^ 

fiisrl' srafa aslw w- f^! ats’W^^ ii ’^'= 
ai^a ^Ti^fwffr a^ ^mcvm i 
H Wiar ff’g'aai "W ai^qt % fua 

° srsp^Jir ftiaTjfrr a^TTaf’^^jT i 

a®! aTMTatsa a^ar ii 

affar^ ai’^faat arft ^f^at^ 

•53^1: tj^at^T=g a^ifa ifaft wag 11 



Sadaiiva Worship in Early Bengal 239 

3T5«i> ^53.aff! I 

’W'Sttf iTTf®TTT^ II 

C\ N> 

=gwf^¥T WTJIPfTntlfs^gTT ■EflisrfiT I 

IJTT5J 5;TJft «{fraTaifmf*r?t<3rfTT II 

°[ ]° 

JTT^T ^ 1 

’91%! f9IW^ cIT^ I 

®[ ^r: fitCqTi ^ ’flTWHT l%er: # 

§ ’Er^wfJT ^’5-T ^:g: fiiTf »t%ct i ]° 

■Icq^ -Jf^T || ^8 (^<1,) 

°[ Wlf ^^*T5pl! ]° 

fW^T % ^ ^TT’^ =q- ?n!5c1^ 

W^Jir 5fTf^eT Tcfg-JHT! ^t^! 1 

? 3C5T^'^T«gf^W:fl II ^'S 

®[ m gTir’^si ]° 

’ff ^ °[^]°'?! wz^ I 

W V w- !iis II ^’= 

°[ -cln% ]° 

cT^TW ftfW%cr II ^<L 

^■sf%iff ?Tcr! cr?'^:g °[ cTti'^^ ]° I 

^TTW^^t [ ] -Effe^T tT 

fr^wr °[ mf?;aFT ]° nm n So 

^0(T f5fa!I5BT?:®TT 

VJ . 

°[ ]® 

!arfT<rr^ %rTS!iH cm ii 

^ fisifg ^!?^?T^=sr*sn^»TJgwfir I 
’T^f^cT %9tc% ^Tfsf^^lDJn^5^g[ II S’^ 

“[-wt ]° 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

=^ 3 ^ i 

fTTS 5©T*r^ XIW ^’gk> II 8^ 

’fT»5ft«^T 'Wfef^’WT ^Tsft STTlft^ftr^g^T I 
’5^tl%^TerT%^®T?:aiWjf^JT» 88 

=g I 

sEf^^‘ f?f=?isfi%cr II 8 y, 

3 ?i«ips*r: f-sri! I 

1 !^ t^ 5 f:^T 5 t:® 5 Fi II 8 < 

'^^WfST^ff ^Tz fT’gcTi^ f^fg'Srltw II S'© 

^T'ST^tcrr^’sr^i: i 

’TT'sft TSIstl^: II 8’= 

f9i:#8iTsr3ifTT’!r^ ^irrfso:^ Tfa w?t* i 

^Jir ^3; II 8«. 

TT^fw^rTcf I 

3r=3*sif^*Tr%'4W 3;cigfs^^TW 11 >1,0 
=? ■ar^TSff! I 
II «L\ 

wwT’arr jet^t w% 3; i 

?I 13 ^ fg-ig-T^'^T^ sifT! 

^SlfJT^sr TETK^ II 
mm g?rT^ ^tfw »if T^jf}-’^?;-’ 1 
°[ 5 (r«?rsrm^?tfsR ]° 

II y^8 


Saddsiva W orship in Early Bengal 


°[ ]° 

T'fT’fT5:T^°[^Tt^]°'^Tt® ' 

°[ » ” »’ ” ^ 

( = 5 n^w '*•’ II 

f^il'g'g?^} ’^T^® I ) 

in5fiT% 'iftci% 3J<?r’BOT 3 1' 

Tfcr JT'fTi?:!® fit^Tf^^lfT^t _ ^^t- 

II II ^ 




wfejRS® I 

wnr i 

sprtrriS® i * 

1 Gamda Piirancm, (Bangavasi Press, 

Calcutta.) • Various readings -*-*^“7'’’^;*;^^ ,, .... , 

2 Ditto, «t?=i .*7 wl raol-etsf 1 

The different readings of this edition are “ 7 S 0 L 28 Com 

3 ArthurAvalon:TO^®^^’®3(!r5nfrifc2’ea;«s,n). Sloka28. 

mentals Kitoarau Also see p. 193. note 2, supra. 

’*242 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal XXIX, I933j 


Tatpiirii^a — ) . 
Aghora-— ( ^fir: ) 
Vamadeva —- ( ) 
Sadyojata-— ( 

( 6).2 

(White) — (Facing upwards). 
(Yellow) — (East). 

(Black) — (South). 

(White)— (West). 

10,^ 5’SCTOWT Puraiiokta. 

(Up) I^ana — ( ) 
(E.) Tatpurusa— 

(S.) Aghdra — ( ) 
(N-) Varoadeva— - 
(W.) Sadyojata — 

(Up)— (White). 

(Front) — (Yellow). 

(Eight) — (Black). 

(Left) (Two-eyed) — ) — (Red). 
(Back) ?— ) 

1 GopmathaRao: Op. Git Vol. II, p. 40L Part II. I 

Also 8= ^T?r: l Ch. 48. 

2 Goplnatha Bao. 0;;. Cit. Vol. 11, Part II, pp. 1S8-91. 

S SC'^nr: VisnudhaiTOottaram, Part III, 

Ch. 48 and Gopinatha Rao: Op. Git. Vol. II, Part II, p. 188. (Quotation 
from F.R) 

Appendix III. 

Siva's Attendants. 


The BdU Nandi, Siva’s favourite Vdhana, is^of snow-white 
colour. He too gets worship as an attendant of Siva.^ 

The Bull (Vrsa) is regarded as the God Dharma, in the 
Puranas, In the Vedas .Vrsa or Vrsabha is an usual epithet 
for some of the gods. Its meaning ^ is ‘ he who 

showers blessings’. But such metaphorical use of the term 
seems to be later forgotten and we find a text in the Rigveda 
itself, speaking of a divine bull of many feet, heads and so forth : 

’nWffK w tTKT: 


II E.v. 4. 58. 3. 

where, the Bull is explained to be the Yajna-rupl VrsabliaTp 
In this stage Vri^a must have been used both in 
a Mnemonic and Symbolic sense. 

In the Tantrika text quoted already, the Fr^a of Siva is 
a personification of the sacred words of the Vedas. Generally, 
therefore, the Vr§a might be taken to be an Apotheosis of the 
Vedic Religious Sacrifices in which sacred hymns were chanted. 
The white colour and the genus of &va’s Vdhana might have been 
suggested firstly from huge snow-covered rocks in the Himalayas 
looMng like bulls. — Cf . Kalidasa’s comparison ^ of the Citrakuta 

I See e.g. as in the following text, Saradatilakam, Patala 18 

sw II 8? II 

Commentary Tantra-pmdipa, on the above, runs as follows: — 

swT?H*rwT? I f [^]«iwrvr 

2 Note Sayana’s etymological explanation is no traditional meaning. 
In the Egveda, the Bull metaphorioaily conveys the idea of great 
physical strength and the power of fertilising. 

3 Vide Rgbhasyopodghata of Saya^a, where the pas- 
sage is noticed and interpreted in two places. ^ 

4 BaghuvaThaam "KTnf 4:7 . 

( 243 ) 

244 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S,, XXIX, 

Mil with a fiery bull. When the mnemonic sense of the term 
Vrsa was forgotten, the Vedic Tajna was identified with the 
Bull, the form of which must have already suggested, itself, as 
indicated before. 

The word Basava is a corrupt form for Vrsabha and it is 
the name of the founder of the Lingayit sect, by whom Basava 
is considered an incarnation of Nandin. 

Nandikesyara or Nandi is also the name of Siva’s 
He resembles Siva in the Candrasekhara form. He was 

one of the Ndtyaidstralcdras h and was the Initiator of the 
Kdmamstra as also one of the Eighteen Teachers of Vdski- 
sdstra (Architecture) ^ who wke mentioned by Visnu in his fish 

BhrihgI a^b MahIkIla* 

Bhriiigi is represented as a mere skeleton, holding a trident ; 
and Mahakala as a pot-bellied (gfNw, tundila) dwarf, also with a 
trident. Either of them and especially^ the first very probabty 
represents some extremist sect of the Saivas like the Lakulisa 
Pa§upatas or Kalamukhas. Both were born from the seed 
of Siva. 

There are both Pauranik accounts of Bhringin’s leanness ^ 
as also a poetic explanation.^ Bhringi was so called because 
he was as black as the bee. 

Similarly Mahakala was so named for he was as dark- 
coloured as pressed collyrium ( ^fwwrww). Mahakala represents 
time. He is pot-belMed — probably because time embraces 
everything. * 

1 Author of Abhinayadarpanam : Eng. Tr. by A. 

Coomaraswamy and G. K. Duggirala (Cambr., Mass. 1917); Ed. of Sans- 
krit Text with Eng. Trans, by Manomohan Ghosh, Metropolitan Publ. Co., 
Calcutta, 1934. 

2 Matsya-puranam, Chapter 252, Ananda^ram Edition (1907), 

f *rr^ sf'ft'Ji: JTW I 

rqr ii ^ n 

f5'^T?rr i 

Tragrefjpin ii « ii 

3 X^ide GopTnatha Rao : Op. Git, Vol. II, Part II and Krishna Sastri : 
Ojo. Gii. for full description and history of Nandin, 

^ Vide GopTnatha Rao and H. Krishna Sastri : Op. Oit. 

, 5 See under Bhrihgin : Saduktikarnamritam of 

Sridharadasa (Bibliotheca Indica) ; complete Ed. Motilal Baiiarasidas, 
liahore. ,V ■ ■ ■ ■' ‘ : 

1933 ] 

Sadasiva Worship in Early Bengal 


In his former life Bhrihgi was the Asura Andhaka who 
again in his former birth was the impious King Vena. 
slew Andhaka but pleased wdth the latter’s devotion made Mm 
one of the chief personal attendants, in his next birth. 

On the other hand, Mahakala was in his former life, the 
Asura Ban a. The former was, also similarly made in the next 
birth, one of his chief personal attendants, by Siva.^ 

|1 II 

^STirtaff® JTWT: II t3 ® |1 ® 

Mahakala is also the name of the Bhairava of 
Daksina-kalika. (See Appendix IV). 

f%«icT II 

^T5j^?nf«cr^f2 i 


The most distinctive characteristic of Ksetrapala is that 
he is nude. Just as the striking feature of Bhrihgin is his lean- 
ness and that of Mahakala, his pot-helliedness. 

^RW^srsTWir i 

KaUhapuranam (Sri Venkate^vara Press), Chapter 45-49. 

^ A gnipuranam* Anandi.4ram (1900). Chapter 50. 

3 Sri Badhakanta Deva : 8'abdalcalpadruma under 

4 S'aradQtilaham. Chapter 18. Also, see Tantrasara. Chapter II. 

i’'. ■. 

Appendix IV. 

Siva Bhaieava. 

Iconographically, Bhairava is represented with upturned, 
moustache and tucked up beard, and having round eyes and 
clotted locks of hair, and as holding Kapdla and Khattvdnga, 
According to the Sakta Tantras, when Siva is associated 
( WWW: ) with the Devi—then alone he is Bhairava ; but when he 
is self -restrained and (Urddhvalinga ) with the membnm 

virile erect — indicating the greatest virility joined with the 
utmost self-control, then ^iva is not Bhairava. 

‘ The Indian Ttotrik cult of the Great Mother of Creation 
describes her as mother as well as wife of ^va. Her sanctity 
is safeguarded by representing Siva in Urddhvalinga style ^ 
signifying complete mastery over his passions, without the ugly 
indication of actual emasculation Cf. the Hierodouloi.^ 

The Kasmir Saiva system, however, takes Bhairava in a 
symbolical and metaphorical sense : www: 

The breaking in of the vision of the highest being, by means 
of intense contemplation, upon the devotee’s mind is called 
Bhairava, because it is his and is caused by him.^ 

Her: ^f%cfT I 

'qT9i|^ erarr ?r(5fi’5a i^r: i 
wftciT ff’WTfw^T I 

TT^fT TjwwsrTf I 

*RWT5t =9 ?rf)gJcT I 

^=g«T5t *T'?T3RPsf II 

1 Vide Mr. A. K. Maitreya’s notice, Modern Eeview, 1920, September, 
of Prof. Strong Translation of Lucian's JDe Dea 8yria\ the 
Syrian Goddess. Constable & Co., 1913. 

2 Vox the Mierodouloi — see Sub voce. 

8 ^iva-sutra-vimar6im I, 5, K.S.T.S., Vol. I. 

4 Sir B. G. Bhandarkar’s Vaisnavism and S'aivism, p. 130. 

5 From a MS. {which is apparently corrupt) belonging to 

I fwv 1 ( xrsiiiTft ) 1 

, ( 246 ) 

( M.S., XXlX, 1933J Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 247 

35^Tf«rxiT9I=f^¥ I 

»r'fif%irf5r*[i'9i;T(w?)i i 


^r4?nir<5f^ f*isf JT'WTSBm ii \ i. 

=gT»?Tf^?;fwc! ara'ETT i 

^^^’3i;Tf^f^^3(?) I 
ffei ’^StTW M I 
€^w(?) »r% II ^ II 

(i:?)^^**ff 5[f^J!r»TT3t i 

xrfcT^i I 

gErf*rfn^g;f5Er^^j;(?)^fw^!rTg;^?f’^ n ^ ii 
^a:jf sFfi'^ ?Tcn% ^T ’^KTT I 

(?)a^T^ %*r %*T I 

°[ ^ci^rr 5{;3Fr% %*r ^aR^sr ajf?a^ ]° ^ 


atrfWT^^ W3iT*lt I ( II 8 II ?) 

^SR II 8 II ( I ? ) 

7ft»T "^g#^ I 
WfliT*ri Td^^iaraR I 

t?:# ^fgsan^ ii i ii 

afi^ giT ?:irwTW^' I 

fiiaJT^TX=^m5t w%g fr'^jafl'jnsTai « i n 

1 Various readings in [ed. Rasika-mohana] indicated 

within brackets °[ ]°. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX , 

C\ C\ C\ 

cr^TcT -siTni^ fcsr^T i 

^ e\ 

■arrT5[9 ^Tf=g^ ^ li « li 

JT’tT55^ 5TJI#fT?:^T?;3R I 
J5K^^ WT^T°[-^T ]° I 

^Tf^frT^T'srTf?:J!f fTt=ig5[nr=R i 
^r^reJFqaj^T fnm li ii 

*TTci%^# wtcT fnafif^'^^r^icT i 
g# '^g^5f ^ftfr I 

^fxr=qT§ixrf?;-srT5i ii ii 

WT%w ■g’4 -sra^UfT^w^ i 

serf T ««icEif if i 
serfifatf ii I* ii 

sj ^ 

f TJfTffsft f WHTTt g»i "erii'st fstf I 

Wf f i 

^ff=f»»if€eT3(rff fw#f*r HWT*g'r ii ii 
3fST|sojff facf 1 
f 5[T^ ^ ff =f5#^ 

?r5#?r*f^(c|[)ttf f«raf trari^w II li 
B <?r%f Tf JTTr^^^ftw 

:giif JD^ ^^1150 f T'f si I 

irfSTrii-l i 

^T^xM^WK ffTHf JTt^ II II 

cfftcrxfT f=^w5t f^^=fsi I 

'sremti:¥r^tii3arT(oTspf ?) s9Rf€ci[* ?]f5^ i 

s^slit'^IfirT^' II ^8 II 

1933 ] 


Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 

fT'furt’^g^T^sR i 

fJrNi JTTvi' STR^ ¥1% II II 

%^5i tRfiiR f^'srt’gsf i 

^TSf TftrfeR^T^ I 


stbwr i 

%cr i 

TT^ST’SI w^rsrT’rt I 
^fUTsmT^cr-wHi^e »TWT%srTf?:JD i 
f*r(5f i 

^T3RT?^T-^f^?nmit 5?5rT*gw ii ^'S ii 

WT^Wlf €c[5Rf3 I 

^trT^$ W'RTR'# iTsfTO’r 11 II ^ 

S- As in the Brahmanic Pantheon — ^the expression or the attitude of 
the Ugra and the Baudra Devatds in Buddhism, is furious, awe-inspiring 
or haggard. 

Of. ‘ Les dieux irrites ’ — Albert Griin wedel : MytJiologie du Buddisme au 
Tibet et en Mongolie. Leipzig, 1900. 

P. 101. ... in the period of Gandhara, that must be looked upon as 

the first epoque of a rich Mythology of Buddhism of the North, there is 
the place to notice the first beginnings of a division of the tutelary gods 
into the benign and terrible forms and S'anta). (translation). 

P. 102. In the Lamaism, the benign type of the Buddhas and the 

Bodhisattvas is clear by itself But as regards the tutelary gods, w© 

always see them under the form irritated or even terrible {bhairava)^ The 
old type of the angry gods (MahaJorodha is perhaps represented in 
this manner) are bristling hairs, swollen eyes (including the eye on the 
forehead), the protruding tongue, the clinched teeth, in addition to bodies 
thick-set with big limbs and long nails, or often with claws in the feet and 
the hands, (transl.) 

Of. also, Haridas Mitra :—The BuddhapratimdlaJcmnam. The Princess 
of Wales Sarasvatl’bhavana Texts, No. 48. Benares 193.3, and note 


Also, Of. the look of hungry, and of weeping man. Vide SH-Vimu» 
dharmottaramf Part III, Ch. 37. ,Sri-Yenkate§vara Press. 


Appendix V. 

Gang! and Yamdn1« 

The figures of the Eiver^ Goddesses Gahga and Yamuna 
stand on the gate-sides of Saiva Shrines, as Dvdra-devatas . 
E.g, as on the proper Right and Left respectively of 

Sadasiva Image, already described, {V.R.S,) No. On the 

other hand, the figures standing on the two sides of the Nataraja 
Siva Image with twelve hands from Dt. Dacca and of the 
other with ten hands from Natghar, Dt. Tipperah, are certainly 
those oi Gauri and Ganga respectively.^ Really speaking, in 
these Saiva specimens, an image of Yamuna is out of place, 
as she might be more properly associated with Visnu, or 
Balarama ; while Lord Siva might be more aptly coupled with 
his two consorts — Gauri and Gahga. 

The River Goddess Gahga of white complexion is either 
represented on a Makara with a water-pot in her upraised 
left hand and a lotus-bunch in her right ; or she might also be 
conceived as a fair maiden in the fulness of her youth with a 
flower-garland in her hands. 

Gahga was conceived not only as a Dvdradevatd; but she 
received independent worship also The image at I^varipur, 

Vide Mr. Nilimkanta Bhatta^ali’s Article — Images 0 / the Dancing 
S'iva (Modern Review, June 1920) and — its Bengali version in Prams% 
Nataraja Siva (51^11^, 1327, 

The figures have been described by Mr. Bhatta^ali as those of Gauri 
and Gada, 31^, respectively. Evidently, Gahga’s V0iana — 
the Makara could be somehow mistaken for the Godha jftvi— 

the Vdkana of Gauri. {Vide Gopinatha Rao : Op. Git. Vol. I, Part II, 
Pratimalakaanani, p, 120). 

But it is quite difficult to understand why the figure of YamunS was 
mistaken for that of the Ayudha-purum Gada the 

requisite indications {lahmna-s) of oxi Ay udhapurusa bxq Each 

of the images of weapons and emblems, when personified, must also 
carry over its crown or in both or either of the hands, the particular 
weapon or emblem it represents. (Vide Gopinatha Rao : Op. Git. Vol. I, 
Fart 11, Pratmialaksapani, pp. 77-78.) 

An examination of the photograph of the Natghar Image and later, 
a visit to the site, have confirmed theidentification of the Parsva-^devata-s 
as those of Gauri and of Ganga. 

Mr. Bhatta^all’s Gada is therefore a lamentable mistake 

(typographical or otherwise) perpetuated through carelessness, 

2 Fw/e PranatdsanTIata — 

{ 250 ) 

[N.S.j XXIX, 1933] Saddsiva Worship in Early Bengal 251 

Dt. Khulna, is an example of this form of Gahga, as an indepen- 
dent deity. There is a magnificent specimen in the IbhangU' 
(slightly bent) pose, in the Museum of the VMM, of Ganga as 

The River Goddess Yamuna of dark complexion is 
represented on a (Tortoise) Kurma, with a water-pot in one hand 
and a lotus in the other, as on the proper Left of the Sadasiva 

Yamuna seems to have never received independent 
worship. It has not yet been investigated why the (Tortoise) 
Kurma was chosen as Yamuna’s Vdhana, Tortoises certainly 
abound in the river Yamuna, but the Kurma is regarded now 
as inauspicious possibly because some varieties of the animal 
feed upon dead bodies.^ The flesh and carrion-eating animals 
are generally coupled with Death and the other world. They 
are naturally associated with the terrible forms of j§iva and 
the Devi— destroying the universe or killing the demons. 

Thus, the dog is the Vdhana of Vatuka Bhairava who also 
holds, in one hand, the mungoose — while the owl, the 

vulture, the crow, and the jackal are associated with Camunda, 
and Kali. The flesh eating animals above-mentioned, are also 
thought to augur evil and to divine future events, auspicious 
or otherwise. 

Thus we find the Brahmanic Tantrikas using the mystic 
diagram of tortoise — Kurma-cakra (^-’^) as a source of 
divination. The Kurma-cakra is the diagram of a spread 
tortoise — on the diflerent parts of whose body, Sanskrit letters 
are placed in a peculiar order. It is stated in the Pihgald 
Tantram — without a knowledge of Kurma-cakra, religious 

I [WTWTiT^] 

This conception of Ganga is represented in the beautiful stone image 
(at I^varipur ‘ Yalohar’, Dt. Khulna, Bengal), now worshipped as Anna- 

'( Vide 'S ftaj I ) 

^ Full and detailed History of the rise and final development of the 
Ganga worship, together with Iconographic notes of a few extant Images 
of Ganga of diflerent types, are given in the learned paper on Gafiga by 
Babu Aksaya KumSr Maitreya, published in Eupam, No. 6 (1921), from 
the Indian Society of Oriental Art, Calcutta. 

2 But, on the other hand, it must be noted that the tortoise is given 
a semi -divine position in the later Vedie Texts, yhile Varahamihira speaks 
of the auspicious characteristics of tortoises (^iT-^T^nr) . Possibly animals 
with such signs are rare and so these are regarded as auspicious. 

252 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [IST.S.j XXIX, 1933] 

sacrifices and rites bear no fruits and all sorts of- mishaps 

The Chinese also have a Tortoise Chart for drawing omens. 
The Tibetans too have a similar Tortoise Chart for Divination 
called Srid-pa-ho, in Tibetan ^ bham-ratlm) , 

The River-goddess Yamuna is the twin-sister of the God of 
Death, Yama — with whom she is united in unholy marriage. 

As such, it is reasonable that of all aquatic creatures in 
the river Yamuna, the (debased ?) River-deity Yamuna’s Vdhana 
should be the one most associated with death and also be in 
itself inauspicious. 

The River-goddess Yamuna has therefore very appro- 
priately Kurma (Tortoise) for her Vdhana (Vehicle). 

1 See Tantrasara. Basumati, Edition 1321 B.S., p. 46. 

2 See Memoirs, Vol. 5, No. 1 — Srid-Pa-ho : A Tibeto -Chinese 

Torfcoise-chart of Divination. 

Appendix VI. 


A, Description of SadIj^iva (Translation ^)* 

I shall now describe the installation (of the image) of the 
eternally -existent Lord (6iva) beginning with his characteristics ; 
make (an image of) him specially from the materials previously 
mentioned, of which stone is the first ; — seated, (with feet) 
locked in padmdsana (Posture), white, possessing five faces, 
P with (knot of) tawny coloured hair-locks, beautiful by ten bar- 

like (powerful) arms ;-~indicating protection and blessing as 
also pike, trident, skull by the foliage-like (graceful) hands on 
the left side, and holding with the left ones snake and garland 
of aksa (beads) and drum, blue lotus as well as a vljd^ydra ^ 
? lime) ; — extremely benign ; — or, engaged in another 
(kind of) contemplation brought about ^ by worship and study ; 
— and with eyes consisting of the three powers of volition, 
cognition and creation * ; — possessing the lunar digit, (which 
symbolises) knowledge ; — characterised by the lunar digit 
(«r^t) (Le. sixteenth) year^; (everything) beginning with 
the sacrificial string in connection with the image is to be made. 

Thus is Sadasiva (image) to be made well-dressed, coupled 
with Mandnmani.^ 

1 See Appendix II, 6. 

2 Lengthened for the sake of metre ? Contrast the dictum 

mi ^ ST i 

3 from # -f go 

4 This shows that Sadasiva is Trigumtmaka or possessing the three 
attributes of Sativa^ Rajas and Tamas. 

^ 5 Kala-varsopalaksitam. This shows that Sadasiva is very probably 

represented as in the prime of youth. For the period of the greatest 
virility in hmnan life seems, according to one later (Vaidyaka) Ayurvedic 
writer, to foe taken as the sixteenth year, though Manu takes it to be 
the upper limit of childhood. Of. the following line from 
by Go vindadas, enumerating the efficacies of ' — 

<5 Appendix II (6a) — “In this way should the goddess be made. 
It is agreed that her names are two, namely Manonmani and as Gauri. 
But there is no difference between these two (they are identical). When 
the image of Sadasiva is to be made, at that time, fashioned therein, she 
has the appellation, Manonmani, O purest among Brahmanas ; , while she 
gets the name of G;auri, when taken with other images (of Siva), like 
, ; ^ the Nritta Dancing; Siva. 

, X 25a;-:) :■ 


254 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.j XXIX, 1933] 

B. (Detailed Rituals foe Woeship and) Descbiption of 
. Sada^iva j 1 (Translation^)* 

Seated (with feet), locked in Padmdsana posture ; white ; 
in the sixteenth year^; whose faces are five (in number) ; and 
holding with the tips of his own ten hands (the gestures of) 
protection (and) blessing, pike, trident, skull, — the omnipotent 
one, with right hands, — and with left ones snake, garland 
of heads, drum, blue lily and an excellent Vljdpura (lime) ; 
with the three powers of volition, cognition and creation^; 
with three eyes, again, is Sadasiva. 

1 See Appendix II (8). 

2 Only the Dhyana portion is given here (Verses 53, 64 and 55). 

3 Of. Kala-varsopa-lahsitam in App. II (6) and p. 263, note 5, supra. 
* Of. p. 253, note 4, supra. 

'LATE 13, 

Fig. 2. Sada^iva Mudra. Tapandighi Plate.— F.^.P. 

JPASB, XXIX, 1933. 

Plate 14. 

Fig. I. Sadaiiva Mudra. The seal on the Aniilia (Dt. 
Nadia, Bengal) Plate of Laksmana Sena. — V.R S. 

JPASB, XXIX, 1933. 

Plate 16. 

Sada^iva Image, Vangiya Sahitya Parisat, I. {V,8,P.} 

Sada^iva Image, Vangfya Sahitya Parisat, II. {V.S.P.) 

Aeticle No. 19 . 

Cosmic Persons and Human Universes in Indian 

By Geoegb P. CoNaBR, 

There is hardly any philosophical doctrine which is more 
widespread among all peoples and throughout all periods than 
the theory that the universe is like a man and that man is a 
microcosm, or little mriverse, exhibiting in miniature w^hat is 
foimd in the macrocosm around him. In the philosophies of 
India such theories are numerous and sometimes of basic 
importance. So far as I am able to find, there has been no book 
or article concerning them ; such an investigation should be 
undertaken, not merely for its historical interest, but in order 
to bring out points of relationship with other Oriental and 
Western philosophies.^ 

The following statements are offered as a brief summary of 
results of some explorations in this field.^ The conclusions are 
somewhat tentative and may need to be modified as more of 
the immense literature becomes available or as others take up 
such investigations, but I thinli tbe outstanding points can now 
be indicated with some confidence. 

The material is difficult to interpret because of (i) the use 
of similes and metaphors as well as microoosmic theories. The 
universe is compared, for instance, not merely with man, hut 
with the ocean, a tree, a city, a lute, and some of these com- 
parisons offer little in the way of a metaphysical principle. It 
is sometimes a question whether the comparisons between the 
universe and man are meant to be taken more seriously than the 
others. On the whole, however, our material is plain, and, 
although the distinction cannot be made with complete pre- 
cision, we are concerned with more or less detailed correlations. 

3. Por microcosmic theories in. Chinese philosophy, see, e.^., J. J. M. 
De Croot, Universismust 1918, p. 10 : K. C, Wong and L. T. Wu, History 
of Chinese Medicine, 1932, pp, 11/: W. Eberhard, in Baessler Archiv, 
16, 1933, p. 3. For Persian and Greek philosophy, A. Gotze, in Zeitschr, 
fur Ifid. u, Iran., 2, 1923, pp. 60-98, 167-177. For Western philosophy, 
G. P. Conger, Theories of Macrocos^ns and Microcosms in the History 
of Philosophy, 1922. For Islam, the last named, and D. M. Donaldson, 
The ShTite Beligion, 1933, pp. 313/. 

2 Id the preparation of this paper I have been helped by a number 
of scholars in India, to whom my thanks are due. The full list of them 
would be a long one; I must especially mention the valuable aid of 
Principal S. N;. Dasgxipta of the Sanskrit College, Calcutta, and Mr. Johan 
van Manen, Secretary of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

( 255 ) 

256 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N,S., SXIX, 

usually analogies, between essential structures and processes 
in the universe, or conspicuous parts of it, and in man. 

Again, (ii) there is a difficulty as to whether passages are 
to be interpreted allegorically or literally. Does ' agm\ for 
instance, mean ' fire ’ or ' the god of fire ’ ? Soinetiines tliis 
does not greatly matter, because natural processes and objects 
are deified, and both processes and deities are regarded as 
belonging to the macrocosm. In other cases, where such 
questions of interpretation are important, one must depend 
chiefly upon the context, understood however in aecordance 
vdth a third difficulty still more subtle. 

This is (iii) the fondness, in ages innocent of logic, for 
mystical identifications of objects which are thought to correspond 
to one another in any prominent way. The lines of analogy 
here never run quite parallel to one another ; the}^ either con- 
verge in an identity or are ca|)able of thus converging if the}" 
are followed out to some of their more remote impMcations. This 
suggests the fourth and most general difficulty, — (iv) that 
which is due to the immense distance in time and cultme, the 
incommensurabilities and surds of difierent psychologies and 
ontologies which render the meanmgs of many passages hn- 
possible to discern with clearness. 

FmaUy there is a difficulty familiar to every student of 
Indian philosophy, (v) the difficulty of chronology. The tracing 
of developments involves some fixing of dates, or at least of 
chronological sequences. But the Indians have a way of writhig 
without leaving indications of these things, as if their thoughts 
were destined to be timeless. About all that can be done in 
the way of tracing developments is to distinguish certain major 
classes of literature, which seem to indicate certain major 
periods, but which are so interrelated that at least some parts 
of almost any assigned sequence may be wrong. 

The classification and sequence here adopted is that of 
(I) the Vedas ; (II) the Brahmanas ; (III) the principal Upani- 
shads ; (IV) the Vedanta and Samkhya systems; (V) the 
Bhagavad Gita ; (VI) the Caraka Sarhhita ; (VII) the Pinanas, 
Tantras, and other sectarian hterature ; (VIII) tbe writings of 
mediaeval mystics ; (IX) the rehgions derived from Hinduism ; 
(X) the more recent Indian philosophy developed in contact 
with the West. It will be noted that this sequence is only 
partially chronological. 

L The Vedas. ' ' ■ ■ 

If the Black Yajur Veda (as the matrix of a Brahmana, 
but hardly a Brahmana as yet) is assigned to the first of our 
divisions, we have already in the Vedic literature five basic 
types of theories of macrocosm and microcosm. We shall 
indicate them by letters and discuss them briefly. 

1933] Cosmic Persons and Human Universes 257 

A. The universe is regarded as constituted like a person. 
'The Eig Vedic hymns to Heaven as Father and Earth as Mother 
show that something of this sort is very early. It requires even 
less poetic imagination to call the wind the breath of the all- 
encompassing Varuna;^ The tendency to interpret the world 
in huinaii terms appears most clearly in the cosmogonies of the 
later Rig, the Black Yajur, and the Atharva Veda, where the 
luiiverse is said to have originated from the body of a World- 
Person (Purusha,^ Prajapati,^ Brahman®), usually the victim of 
a cosmic sacrifice. Sometimes the derivation is traced from a 
World- Animal, the sacrificial horse.® By common consent the 
prototype of all Indian macrocosmic, if not microcosmic, theories 
is seen in the cyelopean Purusha-Sukta, one of the great monu- 
ments in the literature of the wnrld. 

B. Parts of man’s body are correlated directly with parts 
of the universe in one of the Rig Veda’s funeral hymns, where 
the eye of the dead man is bidden to go to the sun and his 
breath to the wind.’^ These correlations, again, require only 
a httle imagination and are somewhat more obvious than others 
used by later writers.^ Alternative procedures are also suggested 
in the Vedic passage, so the microcosmic theory here is only 

A-B. Oiu first two types are combined when in the 
Atharva Veda it is said that the gods performed a sacrifice and 
ari’anged the body of man in correlation with parts of the 

C. In the Black Yajur Veda there is pronounced ritualistic 
emphasis. There are a number of correlations (shading into, 
and difficult to distinguish from identifications) of (1) features 
of the imescribed sacrifices — altar, litany, etc. — and (2) 
parts of the universe, often regarded as deities. The passages 
are characteristically brief and apparently loosely strung to- 
gether, like those of the earher Brahmanas. They do not go 
much beyond isolated and seemingly somewhat casual, fluid 
obser vations : plays upon words ; traces of numerology ; and 
imitative or sympathetic magic. 

1 BV, i. 112. 1 ; i. 18.5 ; ii. 32. 1 ; iv. 56 ; etc. 

2 Ibid., vii. 87. 2. 

3 X. 90 : .4F, xix. 6. 

4 i?F, X. 121 : BL YV (Keith, HOS), vii. L 1. 4/. The latter is 
infused with ritualistic elements. 

5 J.F, X. 2. 21j?*; X. 7. 32#. 

® Bl. YV, vii. 5. 25. M. Bloomfield, Atharva Veda, 1899, p, 87, 
notes that every animal offered was magnified to cosmic proportions. 

7 BV, X. 16. 3. 

8 E.g., Brih. Up,, iii. 2. 13 : Chand, Up., vL 8. 6. 

Q AV, xL 8. 29#. 

50 Bl. YV, V. 2. 3. of; V. 3. 6 ; v. 4. 12; v, 4. 2. 2; v. 6. 7. If. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S,, XXIX. , 

D. We find also a few correlations between (1) features of 
tlie prescribed sacrifices— altar, ^ utensils ^ etc. — and (2) parts 
or processes of the human body. These may have been extended, 
if not suggested, by the use of parts of the body in measure- 
ments.® The notion that man is a microcosm appears clearly 
when, after a ninefold correlation of the parts of the sling and 
of the human bod}^ the priestly vuiter concludes ' Verily, in 
himself he bears it But comparisons with the universe are 
more frequent ; apparently in the Vedic period the macrocosmic 
interest predominates.^ 

E. There are a few correlations which may be said to 
combine C and B, and which compare (1) features of the 
sacrifice, (2) parts of the universe, and (3) parts or processes 
of the human body. Even in the White Yajiir Veda, various 
layers of bricks are associated, if not identified, with bodily 
fxmctions or organs (breath, mind, eye, ear, thought), with 
seasons, and with various meters.® But the bodily functions 
here may w^ell be super hximan ; the. next verse show^s, again, 
that macrocosmic interests are more prominent. In a passage 
of the prose portion, bricks are associated with the earth, wiiich 
is said to be speech ; the atmosphere, said to be breath ; and the 
sky, said to be the eye.*^ Xot alone the seasons, but also the 
four castes, are associated with parts of the ritxial.® 

II. The Bbahmanas. 

A. In the Brahmanas, the universe is regarded as having 
arisen from the body or activity of a World-Person, usually 
called Prajapati,® but also Agni,^® Indra.d^ or Om.^^ The cos- 
mogonic process begins to be regarded as emanational.^® The 
Person is not alw^ays the victim of a cosmic sacrifice, but some 

^ Ibid., \\ 2. 4. 3; v. 3. 2. 3. 

2 V. 6. 2. 

3 V. 2. 5. 1. 

4 Ibid., V. 6. 96. 

5 Keith, HOSt 18? P- cxxvii, notices a passage (v. 3. 9. 1), which 
says that just as a man is held together by his sinews, so the fire is held 
together by certain bricks. 

6 iv. 3. 2. 

7 Ibid., V. 6. 8/. 

S Ibid., V. 6. 10. 1. 

^ Br., V. 32 : Kausk. Br., v. 1-10 : Pane. Br., vii. 10. 15 ; 
XX. 14. 2 : JUB, i. 46. Iff; iv. 25. 1/: Bat. Br., vii. 1. 2. 7 ; JUB, ii. 1. Iff 
mentions ‘ the gods 

{Ji7B=The Jaiminiya or Talavakara Upanisad Brahmana : Text, 
Translation, and Notes, by H. Oerteb Journal of the American Oriental 
Society, Sixteenth Volume, New Haven, 1894.) 

10 Pane. Br., xxiv. 3. 5. 

11 JUB, i. 28. 2. 

1^ Oop^ Br. See M. Bloomfield, op. cit., p. 109. 

13 Kaush. Br., vi, 10 : JUB, i. 2Z. i; iii. 15. 4 ; iv. 22. 1. 


Cosmic Persons and Human Universes 


features of the ritualj etc., are usually included in the accounts.^ 
Of all the Brahmaiias, the Satapatha in its cosmogony exhibits 
probably the greatest spread ; it retains archaic featines, such 
as Purusha,^ the golden egg,^ and the sacrificial horse’^ but 
shows its late date when it maintains that parts of the Cosmic 
Person are themselves persons,^ and still more when it traces 
the beginnings of things to a Mind which performed sacrifices 
mentally, with ' fires which in truth are knowledge-built'.^ 

B. There are comparatively few correlations between parts 
of the universe and parts of man, independently of the rituaP ; 
of course the ritual is never far from any Brahmanic teaching. 
Some of the passages seem more like Upanishadic than earlier 
Brahmanic thought, as when the Taittiriya Brahmana saVvS that 
various gods, plants, trees, etc., are in various parts of man, 
and emphasizes the indwelling of man’s diman in Brahman.® 
The Jaiminiya XJpanishad Brahmana portrays the immortal 
Cosmic Person as of threefold nature (‘ white, black, person ’), 
corresponding to the threefold eye of man.® 

C. Eggeling thinks that the purport of Brahmanic sacrifice 
was the restoration of the once dismembered Lord of Creatures 
and reconstruction of the universe, and that this stimulated 
comparisons between the parts of the two.^® The Brahmanas 
contain almost countless instances of such correlations, based 
on the numbers of verses, syllables, days, etc., in the ritual, 
and corresponding numbers ascribed to various cosmological 
facts and events. Sometimes recourse is had to even more 
dubious etymologies and plays upon words. The old cosmogony 
is reflected when the Kaushitaki Brahmana correlates seventeen 
verses with ^ the seventeenfold Prajapati ’ ; the fact that 
microcosmic relationships are definitely in mind is shov’n by 
the statement that ' that rite is beneficial which is commensurate 
with Prajapati 

According to Eggeling, the construction of the fire altar 
offered a most conspicuous opportunity for the Satapatha’s 

1 Pane. Br., vi. 1. 6ff: JUB, i. 11. Iff; iv. 9. Iff; iv. 10. 1. 

2 ShL Br., X. 6. 1. 4^. 

5 Ibid., X. 1. 6. 13. 

4 Ibid., X. 6. 4. 1. 

5 Ibid., vi. 1. 1. 3; X. 2. 2. 5. 

6 Ibid., X. 5. 3. 1# (Eggeling). • 

7 JUB, ii. 11. '2ff. S'at. Br., x. 3. 3. 8 continues the BI view that 
x'arious parts of the dead man pass to various parts of the universe. 

8 A. B. Keith, Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upoahhads 

{HOS), 1925, p. 441. 

9 JUB, i. 25. Iff; i. 26. Iff. 

10 SBE, 43, p. xix. 

Ait. Br., ii. 41 : Kaush. Br., vii. 5, viii. 8/ : Pane. Br., iv. L lOyj, 
and passim : Taitt. Br., iii. 2. 10 : JUB, i, 19. 1 ; i. 31. Iff ; 22. 9 : 

B'at. Br., iv. 5. 5. 12, and passim : Gop. Br., i. 4. 1 1/ (Bloomfield, op. cit., 
p. 115). At least once (S'at Br., iii, 2. 1. Iff), the parallelism is not rigid. 
12 Kaush. Br., viii. 2. Cf. Pafic. Br., ii. 10. 5. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX 

correlations between its ritual and tiie universe/ and perusal 
of the Satapatha shows that the opportimitv was by no means 

D. It appears that the Brahmanas were more interesteci 
in correlating the sacrifice with the universe, or with the universe 
and man together, than in correlating the sacrifice with man 
alone. In the Kaiishitaki and Jaiminlya Upaiiisliad Braliniaiias, 
the last-named correlation is almost or quite absent.^ In the 
Pancaviiiisa Brahmana it occurs quite frequently : sometimes 
the sacrifice is correlated with the order of social classes rather 
than with man’s body/ The Aitareya correlates features of 
the sacrifice with some of man’s mental fiinctions.'^ The 
Satapatha declares that the fire altar, which w'as built in the 
form of a bird, exhibits numerous correspondences with parts of 
man’s body/ and there are other w'earisome accounts of corres- 
pondences in terms of meters/ ofierings/ syllables/ etc. 
The Gopatha Brahmana correlates a certain sequence of ritualistic 
acts with the development of the human body.^ 

In spite of these and other instances of correlations betw'eeii 
the ritual and man, other correlations remain more prominent, 
and the data of microcosmic theories agree with other data, 
that in the Brahmanic period interest in human personality 
W'-as still for the most part submerged in the overwiielming 
universe and the almost equally overwiielming ritual. 

E. When man does appear in the Brahmanas, it is usualh' 
in the framew^ork afforded by the universe and the ritual. The 
Kaushitaki and Pancavimsa Brahmanas offer few' if any correla- 
tions of the three, but elsewhere w'e begin to meet, more or 
less completely expressed, the ^ adhidaivat^^^^ adhydtmaJ for- 
mula — ' so with regard to the deities : now' with regard to the 
self ’. In the Brahmanic and Upanishadic periods, this comes 
to be one of the clearest marks of the microcosmic theories. In 
the Brahmanas it is frequently some feature of the ritual which 
is thus doubly correlated.^^ In the Jaiminiya Upanishad and 
the Satapatha, various chants, meters, etc., are elaborately 

1 SBE, 43, p. xix. 

2 See Jra, i. 40. 4 ; iv. 23. 2. 

3 Pane, Br., ii. 8. 2; vi. 6. 1; xv. 4. 8ff; xviii. 10. Sf. Cf. Sat. Br„. 

X. 4. 3. 22. . ' ' 

^ Ait. Br,, X, 25. 

5 S’at. Br., X. 1. 1. 9 ; x. 5. 4. 12, etc. Perhaps rneasureraents in 
finger lengths (x. 2. 1. 2) suggested some of the comparisons. 

6 Ihid., iii. 1. 4. 2Jk 

7 Ihid.Jin. S. 1. 3 ; hi 8. 4. 1. 

8 Ibid.^ X. 4. 1, 16/. 

® Gop. Br,, i. 3. Cff (Bloomfield, op. cdt., p. 113). 
io See Kaush. Br., ix. 3 : Pane. Br., xxh. 4. 3/; xxv. 18. 4. 

2^1 Ait. Br., ii. 40. See Kaush. Br., ix, 3 : JUB, i. 26. I ; i. 3.3, 5; 
i. 34, 1 ; i. 57. 7/; hi 1. 14; hi 4. 2/, 12 : S'at. Br., x. 1. 2. 2/: x. 3. 3. (iff ; 
X. 3. 5. Iff. 


Cosmic Persons and Human Universes 


identified both with parts of the universe and of mand The 
Cxopatha, with its interest in strengthening the position of the 
fourth Veda, seizes upon tetrads supposed to be characteristic 
both of the universe and of inand 

We must not trace the Indian microcosmic theories entirely 
to the sacrifice and its supposed significance : too many other 
elements, common to both Indian and non- Indian thought, 
are involved. But certainly nowhere in the world was sacrifice 
so prominent in the microcosmic theories. There seems to have 
been a reciprocal influence. On the one hand, attempts to order 
and explain the ritual laid hold, in almost haphazard fashion, 
on the materials fuimished by primitive microcosmic theories. 
But, on the other hand, the appalling mass of detailed instruc- 
tions about the various bricks, layers, utensils, chants, meters, 
etc., can hardly have been set up arbitrarily or in a process of 
trial and error. They must indicate that man’s increasing 
concern with the universe and with himself was leading, in 
accordance with microcosmic ideas, to elaborations of the ritual 
in these peculiar ways. 

This is not to say that any one understands the 
Brahmanas ^ ; they are as foreign to our world (at least, to the 
Western world) as are the Magellanic Clouds. But the micro- 
cosmic theories offer one of the important ways of studying them. 

III. The Abanyakas ahd Upanishads. 

The Aitareya Aranyaka and the Sahkhayana Aranyaka 
are matrices of Upanishads and in their microcosmic theories 
exhibit characteristic transitions to the later Upanishadic 

A. The universe is regarded as having originated in the 
activity of a World- Person (Prajapati,'^ Atman A secondary 
World- Person, the Viraj, is introduced.^ Atman gains in 
importance and is increasingly recognized as intelligence.'^ 

A-B. Once Prajapati is said to have caused the deities to 
dwell in man in microcosmic fashion.® 

B. The period is characterized by the lessened importance 
of Brahman ic sacrifices, which tend to be interpreted meta- 
phorically or to be replaced by substitution meditations.^ 

1 JUB. i. 2. 1 ; i. 9. 2 ; L 33-36 ; i. 57. 7 ; iii. 1. njf ; iii. 4. ljf% 
iv. 9. 1 ; iv. 10. 1 : 8'aL Br., vi. 2. 2. Zff ; x, 2. 4. Iff; x. 2. 6J‘; x. 3. 3. 

; 5. 2. 11; X. 5. 4, 21; xL 1. 6. 251; xi 2. 7. Iff. 

2 Cfop, Br., i. 2. 11 ; i. 3, 14 (Bloomfield, op. cit., p. 105). 

3 See H. Oldenburg, Die Weltanschauung der Brahmana Texte, 1919. 
AiL (Keith, 1909), Hi. 2. 6; S'dnkh. Ar. (Keith, 1908), viii. 1. 

■ ■ S AiL.Ar,, ii..,4. 1. 

6 Ibid., ii. 4. 1. 

7 Ait. At., ii. Iff (Keith, p. 226, n. 1) ; v. 3. 2. 

8 S'dhhli. 4r., xi. 1. 

9 Ibid., X. 1. 8. 

,262 Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.j XXIX^ 

Wifcli the weakening of the older ritual, the universe and man 
eome to be compared vdth one another more directly, witlioiit 
regard for the ritual. The adhidmvata-adhydtma formula is 
explicitly iised^ — ^repeatedly in the Sahkhwana, where several 
different opinions are canvassed as to the details of a recognized 
teaching concerning the union of two entities in a third, the 
union occurring both with ^regard to the deities and with 
regard to man.^ In these Aranyakas there are also said to 
be certain correspondences betw^een the senses of man and 
their objects in the Viraj,^ or in the miity of the self*^: such 
epistemological versions of microcosniic theories later become 
widely current, in India and elsew’here. Once the incorporeal 
conscious self is declared to he the same as the sun.^ 

C, D, E, What, has been said concerning the lessened im- 
portance of the older ritual does not mean that the older coiTeia- 
tions between sacrifice and universe entirely disappear.® 
They are, however, less frequent than correlations betw'eeii the 
sacrifice and the human body a fact which testifies to the 
increasing interest in man, although this is somewhat offset 
by the large number of correlations between the ritual, the 
universe, and man w'hich still persist.® There is a trace of 
increasing emphasis upon the psychological.^ 

The remarks just made apply with minor qualifications to 
the great Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. It retains rather more 
of the traditional cosmogony, or cosmogonies, but it also em- 
phasizes the importance of and dtman,'^^ and shows traces 

of psychologizing tendencies, subjectivism, and the identifica- 
tion of the seif and the Absolute. 

The Chandogya Upanishad (A) describes the Universal 
Atman in makanthropic terms, and (A-B) interprets Brahman 
with reference both to the sell and to the divinities^® There 
are (B) a few direct correlations between the universe and 
man, but along with emphasis upon the inner aspect.^^ Although 
the Upanishad declares that what people call sacrifice is really 
the chaste life of a student of sacred knowledge,^® it is close 

^ AiL At., iii 1. 1. 

2 gankh. Ar., iii. 2-6, 20. 

2 Ait. -Ar., ii. 4. 1. 

^ gdiikh. At., v. 5. 

^ Ait. Ar., iii. 2. 4. 

See Ait. Ar., i. 2, 3 ; i. 3. 8 : S'dnkh. Ar., i. 1. 

7 See Ait. Ar., ii. 3. r>ff; iii. 2. 1. 

S Ait. Ar., ii, iii, iv : SdnJch. Ar., viii. 1. 2. 

^ Ar., viii. 3. 

Brih. Up. (Hume, Thirteen Principal Upanishads), i. 3: i. 5. 
3-13, 22 ; ii. 5. 1-15. 

Ibid., iii. 7 ; iii. 9. 10-25. 

12 Ch-and. Up. (Hume), v. 18. 2. 

13 Ibid., iii. 18. 1. 

1933] Cosmic Persons and Human Unimrses 263 

enough, to the ritual of the Sama Veda to preserve (C) correla- 
tions between the sacrifice and the universe.^ On the other 
hand, (I)) correlations hetw^een the sacrifice and man hardly 
occur at all, except as parts of (E) correlations between all 
^ three classes of data, which again are numerous. Among the 
last named is a systematic arrangement of ten sets of parallels 
for the fivefold chant. ^ ' 

In the other principal Upanishads are scores of passages 
which exhibit microcosmic views similar to those just mentioned. 
Occasionally there is a notable isolated passage, stich as that 
in the Taittiriya concerning the process of unification or syn- 
thesis with regard to the material world, the luminaries, the 
process of knowledge, the process of generation, and the indi- 
vidual self.® In the main, the trend of the Upanishads is 
uiimistakeable : the sacrifice as the epitome of the universe 
gives w’ay to the self and the self is conceived in ways which 
anticipate the later Vedantic doctrines. Thus the iMaitri 
Upanishad, though it contains several makanthropic cosmo- 
gonies/ avers that the world is a mass of thought,^ that the 
person in the sun is identical with the person within,® and 
that the man w^ho knows the truth of some of these things 
meditates only in himseK and sacrifices only in himself.'^ The 
Mundaka derives the world from the dismembered limbs of a 
sacrificial victim, but declares this to be the inner soul of all.® 
Doubtless many microcosmic passages in the Upanishads 
are there as mere survivals, the result of cultural inertia, but 
others seem to have been ascribed some positive use. As the 
older forms of sacrifice declined, theories of the correlation 
between man and the universe were retained as vahiable aids 
to the seeker after knowledge of Brahman. The aid was not 
merely theoretical, but practical ; over and over again it is 
declared that salvation or some attractive material benefit 
secondary to it, accrues to the man who knows the microcosmic 
relationship between parts of himself and parts o"^ the universe. 
So the microcosmic theories served as a kind of scaffolding in 
man’s first attempts to scale the absolute. But presently those 
who thought that they discerned more direct ways to the high 
goal tended to dispense with the scafiolding, and others 
who were more interested in the empirical world began to detect 
flaws in the scaffolding’s construction. The result is, in the 
developing Vedtota philosophy, a gradual shifting of emphasis 

3- IbU,, i. 11. 5-9 ; ii. 2. 1/; ii. 22. 1 ; iv. 11-13. 

2 Ibid., ii. 11-20. Cf, ii. 2-7. 

3 Taitt. Up. (Hume), i. 3. 1-3. 

4 Mait. Up. (Hume), ii. 6; iii. 2; v. 2; vi. 3, 6, 15, 32. 
^ Ibid., vi. 16. 

^ Ibid., vi. 1 ; vi. 35. 

7 Ibid., vi. 9. 

8 Mund. Up. (Hume), ii. 1. 4. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S.j, XXIX, 

elsewiiere and, in the developing Samkhya pMiosopIiy, a trans- 
formation of the older theories until they are hardly recogiiizabie/ 

This is not the place for a discussion of the relationships 
between Indian and Greek philosophies, but it is possible that 
investigations of nhcrocosmic theories may sometime add a line 
on this intriguing subject. Any of the great philosophical con- 
cepts may spring up indigenously in any one of the great cul- 
tures, and tlxere is certainly no clear evidence that the Greeks 
borro'wed axiy of their doctrines from the Indians. In the 
absence of clear evidence, however, two or three minor observa- 
tions appear to be in place. First, the earliest knowm micro - 
cosmic theories of India w^ere older by centuries than those of 
Greece. Second, in such matters it is easier to infer borrowing 
from similarities in small and curious details than in great genera- 
lizations and major j)rincipies. Third, the earliest known 
expression interpretable as a mierocosmic theory in €4reek 
thought, the fragment of Anaximenes which says that just as 
our soul wdaich is air holds the body together, so ah* encompasses 
the whole world, is easier to understand against an Indian back- 
ground of prm)>a, vdyii, and dtmanJ than in its Greek context 
or lack of context. This, together with some features of 
Pythagoreanism and the myth of the charioteer in the Pliaedrus ^ 
(rather, I think, than with the four elements of Empedocles, or 
the monism of Parmenides) wnuld suggest that we might at 
least search for evidences of Prepiatonic borrowings from the 
literature of late Upanishadic times. 

For the purposes of this survey, the soiuces subsequent to 
the great Upanishads may be treated more briefly. 

IV. The Vedanta' ahd.SImkhya Systems. 

In the Vedanta system the view that man is a microcosm 
finds a kind of tacit acceptance, such as it does, thousands 
of years later, in Western idealism. Whenever the Supreme 
Reality is regarded as Mind, it is taken for granted that the 
mind of man is like it, but on a limited scale. The Vedanta 
Sutras criticize some of the cruder forms of the old micro- 
cosmic theories, declaring that the notion that parts of the 
human body go at death to corresponding parts of the universe 
is only metaphorical.^ But the Sutras use without hesitation 
the old formula about the deities and the self in a discussion of 
the material and the immaterial parts of Brahman.^ Sankara, 
too, uses the formula to explain the all-pervadiiigness and 
the minuteness of the and some of his commentators, 

j cy., Kaush. Up., ii. 12, 13. 

2 Of, Kath. Vp., m, Z~^, 

3 Vedanta Sutras {8 BE, 5, pt. 1), iii. 1. 1. 4. 

^ Ibid., iii. 2. 11. 21. 

^ Sa,nka,Ta>'s Ooimnentary on Vedanta Suti'as, ii. 4, 13 (SBE, 38, 

1933] Cosmic Persons and Human Universes 26§ 

if not the master himself, are explicit and even elaborate in 
their microcosmic views.^ The chief interest, however, is 
elsewhere. The advaitist is anxious not so much to correlate 
the soul and the universe as to identify them. Tor Sankara, 
the sort of knowiedge afforded by cosmic analogies helps self- 
knowledge, but when the nature of the self has been thoroughly 
]3erceived, no more desire is left for any other kind of 

Vastly more interest in theories about the cosm.os is shown 
in the Samkhya philosophy. In its empiricism it is more 
chastened and resiDonsible than the old priestly speculations, 
but in its development of Upanishadic materials it retains a 
few characteristics in which microcosmic theories are implicit. 
Interest in the sacrifice has so completely disappeared that we 
may dispense with several of the divisions used above and 
consider only the first two. 

A. In the Samkhya the old cosmogonies give way to that 
of Purusha and Prakriti, with elaborate and subtle theories 
concerning a complicated series of emanations from the latter. 

B. In the course of this series of emanations, the senses 
and the objects of sense are said to originate in a correlated pro- 
cess,^ which affords a kind of organic realism, with such basic 
and essential relationships between man’s mind and the objective 
world that the former is a microcosm of the latter. 

Purthermore, the presence in all things of the three gunas^ 
sattva, rajas, and tamas, may at least be interpreted to afford a 
microcosmic ontology, although the difficulty here, as in other 
highly abstract ontologies, is to show how man in his possession 
of these qualities is to be singled out as a microcosm distinguished 
from other microcosms present everywhere. We have said 
that in the Samkhya microcosmic theories are hardly recognizable. 
The low estate into which the old explicit theories now fall is 
reflected in the fact that the terms adhydtmika Sbnd adhidaivaka 
are used in Vijnana Bhikshu’s commentary to indicate two of 
the three sources of those human pains which it is the avowed 
object of Samkhya to allay. ^ 

V. The Bhauavad Gita, 

Microcosmic conceptions are involved in the philosophical 
basis of the Gita, in its emphasis on the three qualities familiar 
in the Samkhya system, and in the theophany where the quasi- 

1 See A. M. Sastri’s translation of Sankara, DaJcshindmurti Stotra, 
etc., Calcutta, 1885 and Madras, 1899, pp. 121/, 143. 

2 Atmahodha, tr. A. Basu, 1885, pp* 7, 3(>, 45. 

■2 S. N*. Dasgupta, Yoga Philosophy in Relation to other Systems^ 
1930, p. 182. 

4 Vijnana Bhikshu, Commentary on Kapila^s Sutras, i. I {SBH^ 
11, pt. 1). 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX, 

liumaD. form of the Supreme Being is declared to contain the 
universe^ Such conceptions also may be inferred from the 
belief that Vishnu as the World-all becomes incarnate in human 
avatars ; if this is the case, then even ordinary men must be 
in some respects like the universe. But on the whole, the 
Gita is concerned with questions more immediately practical, 
and microcosmic theories, because of the very vastness of the 
considerations they require, tend to be left implicit in the larger 
framework within which the more practical issues have to be 
settled. The traditional terms are used with modified mean- 
ings : ' adhydtma' is now a name for the Supreme Spirit, who 
as adhidaiva is the supreme deity 

VI. Caraka. 

Another source of microcosmic theories, in India as in 
Greece and China, is afforded by the ancient medical works. 
Such theories are basic for Caraka, who says that the evoiiition 
and nature of man resembles the evolution of the universe. 
The courses of production, growth, decay, and destruction of 
the universe and of man are the same. The human body must 
be understood in terms of nature, and medicines are to l)e 
.selected and used in accordance with microcosmic correlations."^ 

VII. The PitrInas, Tais'tras, etc. 

From the point of view of microcosmic theories, a vast 
number of wTitings can here be grouped together which in other 
respects would have to be considered separately. They spread 
through a long period of time — perhaps fifteen 'hundred years — 
hut they overlap so much, both in supposed dates and in 
contents, that there is little opportunity to trace sequences of 
development. For our purposes, a number of minor Upanishads 
and much that comes to us under the nanm of Yoga can be 
included along with the Puranas, Tantras, Agamas, and other 
sectarian writings. They ail agree in working out in more or 
less popular form doctrines which are treated more critically iji 
the classical systems. Samkhya conceptions predominate, but 
not without admixture of Vedanta elements.^ 

A. The Puranic and some of the other cosmogonies retain 

^ BG.f xi. 7. 

2 gee j, Davies, translation, 1907, p. 3. 

3 S. N. Basgupta, General Introduction to Tantra Philosophy, in 
A. Mukerjee Silver Jubilee Volumes^ 3, 1922, p. 267 ; History of Inrlinn 
Philosophy, 2, pp. 302^. 

4 For some of the Shaivites, the universe develops by a process 
similar to that of our own experience (J. C. Chatterji, Kashmir Shaivism, 
1914, p. 53 : Gf. Sir J. Woodroffe, ShaUi and Shdhta, 1918, pp. 68/). 


GOfSmic Persons and Human Universes 


archaic elements, like the cosmic egg ^ and the articulation of 
the Cosmic Person,*^ but, especially in the sectarian writings, 
the Saihkhya Purusha and Prakriti tend to yield the fundamental 
place to the more highly personified Shiva and Shakti, or 
Vishnu and Lakshmi,® the divine pair w^hose relationships 
account for the w^orld. Throughout this literature there are 
numerous sound- and letter-mysticisms, purporting to reveal 
occult solutions to the riddle of the cosmos."^ 

B, The chief key to the cosmos (sometimes called 
brahmdifhda) is man (sometimes called or pii^da), 

composed of the five elements,® having senses corresponding 
to the objects of sense,® and reproducing the structure of the 
macrocosm in a series of nervous centers, ganglia, or plexuses^ 
Especially in the Tantric literature, the seeker is instructed to 
awaken the Shakti, or energy, which is conceived in the form 
of Kundalini, the serpent or spiral power, asleep in a center 
of the |)elvic generative region. The power, thus awakened, is 

1 Garuda Purdna (SBH, 9)^ xv. Sf : Marka^ideya (Pargiter, 1904), 
ci, 2lff I Vishnu (Dutt, 1894), i. 2. 7 : Subala Up. (K. K. Aiyar, Thirtij 
Minor Upanishads, 1914), ii : P. O. Schrader, Introduction to the Pahca- 
rdtra and the Ahirbudhnya Samhitd, 1916, pp. 28, 'IQff i YogamMshta 
(V. L. Mitra, 1891, etc.), lxxiv, 3jy. 

2 Bhdgavata Purdria (Raxi, 1928), i. 3. 3: Mdrham.deya^ xlii. 2: 
Vishnu, i. 2. 5/: Subala Up., i-ii: F. 0. Schrader, op. cit.> p. 86: 
Y ogavdsishta, Ixxiii. 57/; Ixxiv. 6/. 

3 Vishxi>u Purdna, i. 2 ; ii. 7 : Agni (Dutt, 1903), cxxiii : Sir J. Wood- 
roffe, op. cii., passim : F. 0. Schrader, op. cit., pp. 29 ff, 37, 68 : K. S. 
Chatterji, op. cit., pp. 43, 47, 65, 87, 92, 147 : R. C. Temple, The }V or d 
of Lalla the Prophetess . . . 1924, pp. 67, 159. 

4 Marhavdeya Purdna, xlii, : Agni, cxxiii: Yogatattva Up.^ 
{Th/irty Minor Upanishads, p. 201) : Nddabindti Up. {ibid., pp. 254j^) : 
Sir J. Woodroffe, op. cit., p. 173 ; The Garland of Letters, 1922, pp. ix, 
205ff, 223, 255 : R- C. Temple, op. cit., p. 161. A remarkable example 
of ietter- mysticism is recorded by Bhagavan Das, The Science of the 
Sacred Word, 3 vols., 1910-3. 

^ Garuda Purdxia, xv. 25-30; MahdnirodT^a Tantra (Dutt, 1900), 
xxxi : various minor Upanishads in Thirty Minor Upanishads, pp. 45/; 
113; 116; 197/; 237/. Ramdas, in his DaSahodha, concludes that this 
i the best way of understanding the microeosmic relationships of man 
and the universe (Prof. R. D. Ranade, conversation). 

^ Mdrkandeya Purdna, %1 y i Matsya {SBE, 17(1)], hi. Sir 
J. Woodroffe,' 'Garland of Letters, p. 205 ; YogavdMshta, xviii. 5, 22 ; 
Ixxiii, 49 : J. C. Chatterji, op. cit., pp. 121jg^. 

7 Vishnu Ptirdna, ii. 7 : Agni, cxxiii : Garudxi, xv. 54-75 : A. Avalon 

(pseud. Sir J. Woodroffe) The Tantra of the Great Liberation, 1913, 
pp. xxxvi, xlv : Sir J. Woodroffe, Shakti and Shdkta, pp. 170/, where the 

doctrine of the microcosm {Kshudrahrahmdnda) is said to be fundamental 
for Tantric doctrines : R. C, Temple, op. cit., pp. 152J". See also 
Aurobindo Ghose, Yogic Sadhan, 1923, and Brahm Sankar Misra, Dis- 
courses on Eadhasoami Faith, 1929. For various opinions concerning 
anatomical localization of the centers, see V. G. Rele, The Mysterious 
Kundalini, 1931, pp. 47, 80 : R. 0. Tempk, op. cit., pp. 152, 161 : A. Ghose, 
op. cit., pp. 4, 41 : Sir J. Woodroffe, Shakti and Shdkta, p. 172. Another 
microeosmic view is apparently that concerning the external and internal 
lihgas of the Lihga Purdria. 


Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 

by further processes of Yogic concentration and exercises caused 
to mount upward through the various centers, until in the 
highest center it becomes united with the Supreme, and the 
man in this way wins control over the universe and identity 
with itd This brief statement hardly reflects the wide, pre- 
valence and elaborate development of these views, 

VIII. The Medueval Mystics. 

A vast amount of material on Indian microcosmic theories 
is scattered through the works of the medigevai saints and 
mystics. Kabir, Nanak, Eavidas, Dadu, and their followers 
accepted the view- that man’s body is a microcosm, and in this 
period there were scores of other writers for whom such an 
idea was basic. ^ 

IX. Eeligions Debived erom Hinduism. 

Among the religions which have sprung from the parent 
stock of Hinduism, the microcosmic idea is least used by the 
Buddhists. Their interest, if not actually too nihilistic to retain 
either the wnrld or the seif, is primarily psychological and 
ethical rather than cosmological. Still, it can be said that 
according to Buddhist thought the universe is a psychocosm, and 
that man as a microcosm has in him everything that there is 
in the universe, precisely in order that he may overcome it.*^ 

The Jains have compared the imiverse to an enormous 
man or woman, but they have remained aloof from Shaktism 
and have not let their beliefs about man as a microcosm become 
prominent.^ The doctrine is still less conspicuous in Sikhism.® 

X. Contemporary Thought. 

A cross-section of contemporary Indian thought would 
reveal as still potent many of the later views above mentioned, 
especially those implied or expressed in the Gita, the Piiranas, 
and the sectarian writings. The microcosmic view^s are potent, 
but they tend also to be latent, while the emphasis, in Indian 

1 Gamda Purdita, xv. 76, 84jg^ : various minor Upaiiishads in Thirty 
Minor Upanishads, pp. 176; 197 ff ; 208; 238jg^; 244; 260^: Sir J. 
WoodvoUe, Shakti and SMkta^pp, ISOff : H. C. Temple, op. ch., jsp. 67, 

2 K. M. Sen, Appendix I to R. Tagore, The Beligion of Man^ 1931, 
pp. 210j9^, and in conversation. 

3 See F. Hoffman (Govinda Brahmacarya), A bhidhammata Sahgaha, 
1933, pp. 30, 38. 

^ H. Glasenapp, Der Jainismus, 1925, p. 223. 

5 R. 0. Temple, op. cit.ip. 73. 

® There is a casual allusion in the Granth, Bhanaseri, Pipa, 1. I 
am indebted for this reference to Professor Jodh Singh. 


Cosmic Persons and Human Universes 


metaphysics as in the West, goes in the direction of siipernatural- 
ismS' and of idealisms. 

There is occasional recognition of the widespread occurrence 
and importance of microcosmic theories for both Indian and 
non-Indian thought.^ The theosophists have adopted at 
least some phases of the idea that man is a microcosm, as if it 
were their Rabindranath Tagore and Bhagavan Das have 

recently emphasized social interpretations which regard the 
individual man somewhat as a microcosm of society. Here and 
there in philosophical wiitings the terms ' microcosm ’ and 
‘ macrocosm ’ are encountered.® As in the West, they are 
often used loosely, with little regard for their historical meanings, 


Indian religions and philosophies reveal the oldest sources 
of detailed and systematic microcosmic theories yet investigated. 
The development appears to have been quite indigenous and, 
especially as regards the Brahmanic sacrificial ritual, unique. 
If there is any question of root-connections elsewhere, it belongs 
to a period antedating the Vedic hymns in their present form. 
It is possible that Greek theories of man as a microcosm were 
influenced from Indian sources. In India, as in the West, 
the theories have a long and varied history ; they flomish in 
ancient times, but more recent developments make them less 
prominent. On the whole, the Indian microcosmic theories 
are probably closer to present day Indian thouglit than the 
Western theories are to Western thought. 

This suggests a word concerning the importance of such 
conceptions. Historically, in India as in the West, they carry 
along with them so much that is bizarre and impossible that the 
first impulse, for any present-day thinking, is to ignore their 
strange statements and laborious constructions. Yet they 
exhibit an astonishing persistence ; in all the world they are 
perennial and |)rotean. In India, when a myth is shaken, they 
appear in a ritual ; when a ritual is abandoned, they become a 
part of an idealistic metaphysics ; when an idealistic metaphysics 
submerges them, they become imphcit or latent there and 
at the same time help in the development of rival theories of 
nature and of knowledge. In India as elsewhere, they con- 
stitute one of the great basic ways of attempting to under- 

1 See Bhagavan Das, The Essential Unity of All Religions, 1932, 
p. 105 : P. D. Sastri, Essentials of Eastern Philosophy, 1928, p. 3. 

See A. Besant, Introduction to Yoga, 1913, p. 4 : H. P. Blavatsky, 
Isis Umeiled, 1910, 1, pp. 28, 62, 212 : C. dinar ajadasa, First Principles 
of Theosophy, 1921, p. 129. 

3 See Swami Vivekananda, Jndna Fo^a, 1923, Chapters 8 and 9 : 
S. Badhakrishnan, The Reign of Religion in Contemporary Philosophy, 
1920, pp. 446/. 

270 Journal of the Asiatic SocAety. of Bengal [N.S., XXIX^ 1933] 

Btaiid man’s place in the universe. Of all the great avenues, 
this one is perhaps most often regarded as so completely filled 
with rubbish as to be not worth attempting to use. And yet, 
as the outcomes of other philosophies become apparent, the 
bewilderment grows— while all the time man still lives in the 
same old universe, which he must investigate, if not on the 
fire altar, then on the laboratory table, and if not by meditation, 
then by mathematics. Perhaps the great difficulty is that the 
newer investigations tend to lose a cosmic quality wffiich after 
all is preserved in some of the surviving fragments of the old. 
The Brahmanic ritual and the Upanishadic speculations may be 
hopeless, and the Tantric rites and Yogic practices may be crude 
and revolting, but at any rate their aim is to make something 
cosmic out of man. When the sciences, instead of the super- 
stitions, are comprehensively enlisted in this high endeavour, 
then the microcosmic theories may come into their owmd 
They may furnish to our views of the world an empirical body 
and substance which the more ephemeral idealisms lack, and 
a measure of unity and consistency which other philosophies 
have so long failed to find that they pretend to disdain to seek it. 

University of Minnesota, \ 


i I have developed some microcosmic theories more constructively 
in n World of Eintomizations, 1931. 


. . '■ . 

of the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 
for 1932. 


Jj^ d~T'X 

/';‘P ') 


__. W . 

[Jmirnal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Sociay of Bengal] 

Proceedings, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1932 . 


Proceedings, Annual Meeting, 1933 



Annual Address, 1932-33 


Patron's Address 


Officers and Members of Council, 1933 


Exhibition, Annual Meeting 


Annual Report, 1932 . . 

. lii 

Membership Statistics, 1903--1 932 


List of Publications, 1 932 . . 

. . 


Abstract Statement of Receipts and Disbursements, 1932 


Abstract Proceedings Council, 1932 


List of Patrons, Officers, Council Members, etc., 1932 

. . 


Patrons . . , . 


Officers and Members of Council, 1932 

. . 


Officers and Members of Council, 1933 


Ordinary Members ; alphabetical list . . 


Ordinary Members ; chronological list 


Life Members ; chronological list 

. . 


Special Honorary Centenary Member 


Associate Members 


Institutional Members 


Ordinary Fellows 


Honorary Fellows . . 


Changes in Membership . . . . 


Loss of Members, 1932 . , , . 


Elliott Gold Medal, recipients 


Barclay Memorial Medal, recipients .. 


Sir William tlones Memorial Medal, recipients 

. . 


Annandale Memorial Medal, recipients 


Joy Gobind Law Memorial Medal, recipients . • 


Paul Johannes Bruhl Memorial Medal, recipient 


Proceedings, Ordinary Monthly Meetings, 1932 . . 


Obituary .Notices .. .. .. 


Proceedings, MedicaKSection Meetings, 1932 . . 


4 , 



The Annual Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal was. 
held on Monday, the 6th February, 1933, at 5-30 p.m. 

Present : 

His Excellency the Rig-ht Hon’blb Sir John Anderson, 

P.C., G.C.B., G.O.I.E., Governor of Bengal, Patron. 

The Hon’ble Mr, Justice C. C. Ghose, Kt., Baerister- 
at-Law, President, in the Chair. 

Members : 

AH, Mr. A. F. M. Abdul 
Asadullah, Mr. K. M, 

Barwell, Lt.-Ool. N. 

Basu, The Hon’bl© Mr. B. K. 
Basil, Mr. N. M.' 

Basil, Mr. N, N. 

Bhattacharjee, Dr. XJ. C. 
Bliattacharyya, Mr. Bisweswar 
Bhose, Mr. J. C. 

Bis.was, Mr. K. 

Bose, Mr. H. M. 

Bose, Mr. M. M. 

Brahmaehari, Dr. U. N. 
Brahmachary, Rai Bahadur S. C. 
Chakravarty, Mr. K. 

Chatterjee, Mr. P. P.. 

Chatter ji, Dr. S. K. 

Chopra, Dr. B. .N. 

Cleghorn, Miss M. L. C. 

Darbari, Mr. M. D. 

Datta, Mr. H. N. 

De, Mr. A. 0. 

De, Lt.-CoL 
'Deb, Kumar H. K. 

Dikshit, Mr. K. N. 

Driver, Mr. D. C. 

Fermor, Dr. L, L. 

Fawcus, Mr. L. R. 

Ghose, The Hon’ble Mr. Justice 


Ghose,.' ''Mr. T: P. , 

''Ghosh, . 'Dr; P.'''N,,'/ ■ 

Ghosh, Mr. S. C. 

Ghoshal, Dr. V. N. ■ ' • 

Giiha, Dr, B. S, 
Kaq,'Mr^':.\M.'Mahfuz-ul ^ 

Hobbs, Mr. H. 

Hora, Dr. S. L. 

Hosain, Dr. M. Hidayat 
Hubert, Mr. Otto. 

Hughes, Mr. A. 

Iyer, Mr. M. Subrahmanya 
Jain, Mr. C. L. 

Kanjilal, Mr. M. NT. 

Law, Dr. S. C. 

Lemmon, Mr. R. D. 

Mahindra, Mr. K. 0. 

Mallik, The Hon’ble Mr. Justice 
S. C. 

Manen, Mr. Johan van 
Matthias, Mr. O. G. 

Mitra, Mr. J. C. 

Mitter, The Hon’ble Mr. Justice 
D. N. . 

Mookerjee, Sir R. N. 

ISTandy, Maharajah Srischandra 
Olpadvala, Mr. E. S. 

Perier, His Grace The Most 
Rev. F. 

Prashad, Dr. Baini 
Pruthi, Dr. H. S. 

Rahman, Mr. S. K. 

Ray, Dr. H. C. 

Sadeq, Shifa-ul-Mulk H. 

Seth, Mr. M. J. 

Sewell, Lt,.Col. R. B. S. 

Singhi, Mr. Bahadur- Singh 
Stagg, Lt.-Col. M. 

Suhrawardy, Sir Zahid 
Tyson, Mr. J. D. 

Wadia, Mr. D. N. 

Wats, Major R. C. 

and many others. 
( V ) 

Proceedings A,8.B. for 1932. 
Visitors : 

AH, The Hon’ble Mr, Justice 
T. Ameer 
Baclridass, ,Mr. 

Bai'well, Mrs. Marion 
Basak, Dr. M. N. 

Bauwens, Rev. M., S.J. 

Beamish, Mr. S. 

Bhattaeharya, Mr. Bhabatosh 
Bhattacharyya, Mr. K. C. 

Biswas, Mr. P. 0. 

Bhose, Mr. S. 

Blank, Mr. A. L. 

Blank, Mrs. 

Bogdanov, Mr. L, 

Bogdanov, Mrs. 

Boveh, Mr. A. J. van 
Brachio, Mr. E. M. 

Brachio, Mr. J. J. A. 

Brachio, Mrs. 

Brahmachari, Dr. P. 

Carson, Mr. A. P. 

Chakravarti, Mr. T. 

Chakravarti, Mr. G. D. 

Chatterjee, Mr. M. 

Chatter jeo, Mr. Manomohiin 
Colson, Mr. L. H. 

Colson, Mrs. 

Danjon, Mr. M. D. A. 

Dorjee, Mr. Tashi 
Dutt, Mr. A. 

Faweus, Mrs. 

Field, Miss. 

Ghose, Mr. D. 

Ghose, The Hon’bie Mr. Justice 

S K 

Ghosh, Mr. D. C. 

Giel, Mr. H. 

Gow, Lt.-Col. P. F. 

GriMn, Mr. B. 

Hamilton-Brooks, Mrs. N. 

Boare, Mrs. M. 

Hoque, Mr. Md, Sadul 
Hosain, Prince Akram 
Jack, The Hon’bie Mr. Justice 

Longden, Mr. S. 

Mackenzie, Miss H..J. 

MacLeod, Miss J. 

Martin, Mr. B. W. 

Marzollo, Sgr. Antonio 
Matthias, Mrs. O. G. 

McConnell, Mr. T. M. 

McConnell, Mrs., I. M. 

Mehta, Rai Bahadur IST. L. 

Menon, Capt. S, K. 

Mitra, Dr. P. 

Mookerjee, Dr. H. K. 

Mukherjee, Mr. Moni 
Mulder, ]Mr. G. J. 

Mulder, Mrs. 

Kazim-ud-Din, The HoiTble Mr. K. 
Nazir, Mr. S. S. 

Ogle, Miss M. L. 

Paul, Mr. K. S. 

Paul, Sir H. S. 

Penrose, Mr. R. H. 

Penrose, Mrs. 

Rahman Bismil, Mr. S. 

Ray, Dr. H. N. 

Reid, Mr. R. N. 

Reid, Mrs. A. H. 

Saraswati, Mr. S. K. 

Scarpa, Dr. Gino 
Sehelvis, Rev. A., S.J. 

Sen, Mr. B. R. 

Sen, Mr. N. C. 

Sen, Miss 
Sen, Mrs. 

Seth, Mr. A. M. 

Shaw, Mr. XJ. D. 

Sinha, Mr. R. K. 

Subharw'al, Mr. B. L. 

Subharwal, Mr. D. K. 
Swaminathan, Mr. N. 

Tagore, Mr. A. N. 

Tondup, Mr. K. T. 

Turbett, Capt. L. W. 

Visser, Mr. Ph. C. 

Vissiere, M. A. 

West, Mr. W. D. 

Wilkinson, Mr. H. R. 

Wilmer, Mr. D. H. 

Wilmer, Mrs, 

R. E. 

Johnstone, Mrs. A. L. 

Khan, Mr. M. A. 

Knight, Rev. P. 

Knight, Mrs. 

and many others. 

The President ordered the distribution of the voting papers 
for the election of Officers and Members of Coiincil for 1933, 
as well as the voting papers for the election of Ordinary Fellows 
proposed by Council, and appointed Lt.-Col. M. Stagg and 
Mr. H. Hobbs to be scrutineers. 

The Annual Report was then presented. (See page lii.) 

Proceedings Annual Meeting. 


At 5-55 P.M., the President vacated the chair, and invited 
Lt.-Coi. R. B. Seymour Sewell to occupy it during his absence 
from, the room. 

The President, the Treasurer, and the General Secretary, 
then left the meeting room to receive His Excellency the Right 
Hon’ble Sir John Anderson, Governor of Bengal, Patron of the 
Society, at the entrance of the building. 

On the arrival of the Patron at 6 p.m., the President 
introduced the Council to him, and after a brief word of welcome 
invited him to occupy the chair. 

After his installation in the chair, The Patron called on 
the retiring President to read his Annual Address. 

The retiring President then addressed the meeting. (See 
page ix.) 

The retiring President then called upon the scrutineers 
to report, and announced the results of the Council Election. 
(See page xxxviii.) 

The President for 1933 after having thanked the Society 
for his re-election invited the Patron, His Excellency the 
Governor of Bengal, to address the meeting. 

The Patron then addressed the meeting. (See page xxxiv.) 

i\f ter the termination of the Patron's Address, the President 
for 1933 proposed a vote of thanks to the Patron. 

The vote of thanlcs having been adopted by acclamation, 
the President made the following aimouncements 

‘ I have now the great pleasure to amiounce that after 
having heard the report of the scrutineers, I declare the followmg 
Ordinary Members : — 

IVlr. Percy Brown, 

IMr. 0. C. Gangoly, 

Rai Bahadur S. R. Kashyap, 

Mr. Ghulam Yazdani, 

duly elected as Ordinary Fellows of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

I have next to announce that papers from four candidates 
have been received in competition for the Elliott Prize for 
Scientific Research for the year 1932, and the Trustees have 
judged the papers of one candidate deserving of the prize. 

The Elliott Prize for the year has accordingly been 
awarded to Professor P. N. Bas-Gupta, at present of the 
Science College, Patna, for meritorious contributions to the 
subject of Mathematics. 

The prize for 1933 will be for Chemistry, regarding which a 
detailed announcement w^iH be published in the Calcutta Gazette 
and the Bihar and Orissa Gazette, 

My next announcement regards the Sir William Jones 
Medal. This medal is awarded biennially for conspicuously 
important Asiatic Researches with reference alternately to (1) 
Science, including Medicine and (2) Philosophy, Literature 


Proceedings A.8,B, for 1932, 

and History. This year the medai is for Literature and is 
awarded to Professor Dr. C. Snouck Hurgroiije, formerly 
Professor of Arabic in the Leyden University. 

Dr. Hurgronje is an Honorary Fellow of the Asiatic Society 
of Bengal and an authority on all branches of Islamic learning.' 

The President requested His Excellency to hand over 
the medal to Mr. Ph. C, Visser, Consul-General for the 

The Patron then called upon Mr. Ph. 0. Visser to receive 
the medal on behalf of Dr. Hurgronje in the latter's absence and 
requested him to forward the medal to the recipientj together 
with his and the Society's best congratulations. 

The President then made the following amiouncement 
regarding the Joy Gobind Law Medal : — 

^ My next announcement regards the Joy Gobind Law 
Medal. The medal is awarded every three years for con- 
spicuously important contributions to the knowledge of Zoology 
in Asia. This year the medal is awarded to Dr. Ernst J. O. 
Hartert, until lately Director of the Rothschild Zoological 
Museum, Tring, Herts, England.' 

The President requested His Excellency to hand over the 
medal to Lt.-Col. R. B. S. Sewell, Director, Zoological Survey 
of India. 

The Patron then called upon Col. Sewell to receive the 
medal on behalf of Dr. Hartert in the latter's absence and 
requested him to forward the medai to the recipient, together 
with his and the Society's best congratulations. 

After these announcements the President declared the 
Annual Meeting to be dissolved with the following words : — 

‘ Ladies and Gentlemen, 

In declaring the Annual Meeting dissolved I invite 
the non-members present to examine a collection of exhibits 
at the other end of the hall, and the Members present to re- 
assemble round this table for an Ordinary Monthly Meeting for 
the election of Members and transaction of business.' 

After this final announcement the President for 1933 con- 
ducted His Excellency the Patron to inspect the exhibits,. 
(See page xxix.) 

At 7 P.M., the Patron left the meeting, conducted by the 
President, after which an Ordinary Monthly Meeting was" held 
for the transaction of business by members, whilst the visitors 
inspected the exhibits. 


Youb Excellency, . Labies, and Gentlemen, 

Before proceeding to the subject of my Presidential 
Address I wish, as is usual in these meetings, to refer to a few 
matters concerning the Society with regard to the year which lies 
behind us. 

I have, first of all, to refer with very great regret to the 
■death during the year of our Honorary Fellow, Professor 
Caland of Utrecht, the foremost authoiity in the West on 
Hindu Smriti. We further suffered a great loss through the 
■death of Mr. B. Be, an editor in our Bibliotheca Indica series 
and for some years a Member of the Council of the Society. 
We also lost through death Mr. Vepin Chandra Eai, our senior 
Member who joined this Society as late back as 1880. The 
sad circumstances of the death of Mr. Ru Douglas, a recent 
Member, are particularly regretted. Mr. Douglas had already 
greatly distinguished himself in the I.C.S. ; it was a tragic irony 
of fate that he should have been done to death for no other 
•discoverable reason except that he was an alien in birth. 

Amongst the publications of the year two are outstanding, 
namely, that of the final fascicle of Sir George Grierson’s great 
Kashmiri Dictionary and the sixth part of Colonel SewelFs 
Monograph on Geographic and Oceanographic Research in 
Indian Waters, which is now rapidly approaching its completion. 

During the year the Society was enriched by two works of 
art added to its gallery of busts, both executed by the Italian 
sculptor, Signor A. Marzollo, and representing Sir George 
Grierson, our veteran Member and Honorary Fellow, and 
Dr. Brahmachari, one of our late Presidents. 

We were honoured by the acceptance by the Right 
Hon’bie Sir John Anderson of the office of Patron to the 
iSociety and we are grateful to him for his presence amongst 
us here to-day. 

We regret that India will shortly lose Lieutenant-Colonel 
R. B. Seymour Sewell who is retiring from his post as Director 
•of the Zoological Survey of India and that, consequently, we 
shall not have the benefit of the presence amongst us and of 
the sagacious advice of our late President in future. It is a 
matter of profound satisfaction to know that he has been ap- 
pointed to lead the Sir John Murray Oceanographic Expedition 
to the Arabian Sea so that his scientific career is far from being 

The membership of the Society decreased during the year 
•and the financial crisis in the world reacted very severely on 
the finances of the Society. 

{ ix ) 

X Proceedings for 1932. 

Ill our Annual Report stress has been laid on the various 
financial problems before the Society to which I would request 
our Members and wellwishers to give due consideration. 

With these general remarks I now proceed to the subject 
of my address. 

The Evolixtiok of Jurisphtjdbnce and of Justice 


In addressing you as President for the year of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, I have had to consider long and very seriously 
the subject I should choose for my Presidential Address. 
Several difficulties beset me. In the first place, I am not a 
man of science as most of my jiredecessors had been, nor am 
I a person who would have been considered fit by my jirede- 
cessors to occupy the Presidential Chair of the Asiatic Society. 
I have had only a very slight inoculation with what is called 
* the academic virus ’ and the only claim I can put forward 
is a small working acquaintance with the system or rather 
the systems of law which is administered in this Presidency. 
But this I may fairly lay claim that all my life I have been a 
humble student of history and specially of Indian History. This 
has been a subject of fascinating interest to me and I finally 
decided that the topic of my address to you this afternoon should 
be a historical one. And in this connection, I trust, Your Excel- 
lency will allow me to voice the abiding regret of the men of my 
generation that history as it used to be taught in the days wffien 
we were in school and college is no longer taught in these days. 
'History in those far-ofi days was never relegated to what is 
called an optional subject and everyone had to show a certain 
amount of proficiency in the histories of Greece and Rome and 
of Great Britain and India. To-day the situation has under- 
gone such a change that it fills us wdth alarm and you come 
across men poured forth into the world unacquainted with the 
history and political geography of India, leave aside those of 
the British Isles. I said just now that I decided to choose 
a historical topic and I have chosen as the subject of my 
address The Evolution of Jurisprudence and of Justice accord- 
ing to British ideas in India This subject, I am aw^are, 
cannot be fully dealt with within the compass of an afternoon 
address ; but it is a subject which came easily to me and I have 
been encouraged by friends to entertain the hope that it might 
not prove uninteresting at a time when the Indian Constitution 
is in the melting pot and when the new dispensation is about 
to be ushered in. 

The earliest power emanating from the Crown for the 
administration of justice in India dates as far back as the reign 
of James I, who, by Charter granted in the year 1622 , authorised 

Annual Address, 


the Bast India Company to 'chastise and correct all English 
persons residing in the East Indies and committing any mis- 
demeanonr, either with martial law or otherwise \ 

The first authority, however, for the introduction of British 
law into India was granted by Charles II, who, by Boyal Charter 
dated the 3rd of April, 1661, gave to the Governor and Council 
of the several places belonging to the Company in the East 
Indies power to exercise therein civil and criminal jurisdiction 
' according to the laws of the kingdom ’ ; and in the subsequent 
grants to the Company of the islands of Bombay and St. Helena, 
in the years 1669 and 1674, the Company were empowered to 
make laws and constitutions for the good government of the 
islands and their inhabitants ; and to impose punishments and 
penalties, extending to the taking away life or member when 
the quality of the ofience should require it, so that the punish- 
ment and penalties were consonant to reason, and not repugnant 
to, but as near as might be agreeable to the laws of England. 
The Governor and Company, or Governor and Committees of 
the Company, were also empowered to appoint Governors and 
other agents for the said islands, to be invested with a power 
of ruling, correcting, and punishing His Majesty’s subjects in 
the said islands, according to justice, by Courts, Sessions and 
other forms of judicature, like those established in England, 
by such Judges and officers as should be delegated for that 

An amended Charter was granted by Charles II to the 
Company in 1683, which empowered the Governor and Coxmcil 
to establish Courts of Judicature at such places as they might 
appoint, to consist of one person learned in the civil laws, and 
two merchants, and to decide according to equity and good 
conscience, and according to the laws and customs of 

These provisions were continued in the Charter granted by 
James II, in 1686 ; and a similar power was given to the new 
East India Company by the Charter of 10 WilHam III, granted 
in September, 1698. 

In the year 1726, the Court of Directors represented by 
petition to 'King George the First — ' That there w^as great want 
at Madras, Fort William, and Bombay, of a proper and compe- 
tent power and authority for the more speedy and efiectual 
administering of justice in civil causes, and for the trying and 
punishing of capital and other criminal ofiences and mis- 
demeanours’. Accordingly, the then existing Courts were 
superseded, and the East India Company were empowered by 
Royal Charter, granted in 1726 in the 13th year of the reign 
of King George I, to establish at each of the three settlements 
a Court, consisting of a Mayor and nine Aldermen, to be a 
Court of Record, and to try, hear, and determine all civil suits, 
actions, and pleas between party and party. From these 

xii ProGeedings A.S.B. for 1932. 

Courts an appeal lay to the Governors and Councils, and thence 
to the King in Council, in causes involving sums above the 
amount of 1,000 pagodas. This same Charter also constituted 
Courts of Oyer and Terminer at each settlement, consisting 
of the Governors and Councils, for the trial of ail offences, 
-except high treason, committed within the towns of Madras, 
Bombay, and Calcutta, or within any of the Factories subor- 
dinate thereto, or within ten miles of the same ; and the 
Governors and Councils were constituted Justices of the Peace, 
and were authorised to hold Quarter Sessions. Under this 
Charter all the common and statute law at that time extant in 
England was introduced into the Presidency towns. 

The Mayor ^s Court, which had been established at Madras, 
was abolished on the capture of that place by the French under 
Labourdonnais in the year 1746 ; but the town having been 
restored to the English in 1749 by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelie, 
the Directors of the East India Company represented to the 
King in Council that ‘ it would be a great encouragement to 
persons to come and settle at that place, if a proper and com- 
petent judicial authority were established there ’ ; and further, 
that it had been found by experience that there were some 
defects in the Charter of 1726. 

Under these circumstances, King George II granted a 
new Charter in the year 1753, re-establishing the Mayors’ 
Courts at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, with some not very 
material alterations. By this Charter these Courts were limited 
in their civil jurisdiction to suits between persons not inhabitants 
of the said several towns ; and suits between inhabitants were 
directed not to be entertained by the Mayors’ Courts unless 
by consent of the parties. At the same time, and by the same 
Charter Courts of Requests were established at Madras, Bombay, 
and Fort William, for the determination of suits involving 
sm^ll pecuniary amounts. 

The Seventh Report of the Committee of Secrecy, appointed 
to enquire into the state of the East India Company, after a 
■detailed description of the Courts of Judicature in Bengal, 
observed upon the constitution and defects of the Mayor’s 
Court, and remarked, ‘ that although it was bound to judge, 
at least where Europeans are concerned, according to the laws 
of England, yet the Judges were not required to be, and in fact 
had never been, persons educated in the knowledge of those 
laws by which they must decide ; and that the Judges were 
justly sensible of their own deficiencies ; and that they had 
therefore frequently applied to the Court of Directors to lay 
particular points respecting their jurisdiction before counsel, 
and to transmit the opinion of such counsel to be the guide 
of their conduct ’. 

Upon this Report the 13th Geo. 111. c. 63 was passed. 
The Bill had met with considerable opposition on the part of 

Annual Address, 


the Company; it was carried by an overwhelming majority 
in the House of Commons on the 10th of June, 1773, and on the 
20th of June it passed the Lords without opposition, and 
received the Royal Assent on the following day. The 13th 
section of the Statute empow^ered His Majesty to erect and 
establish a Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in 
Bengal, to consist of a Chief Justice and three other Judges, 
being barristers of England or Ireland of not less than five 
years’ standing to be named and appointed from time to time 
by His Majesty, his heirs and successors. The same section 
declared that the said Supreme Court should have full power 
and authority to exercise and perform all Civil, Criminal, 
Admiralty and Ecclesiastical jmisdiction ; and to form and 
establish such rules of practice, and such rules for the process 
of the said Court, and to do all such other things as should be 
found necessary for the administration of justice and the due 
execution of all or any of the powers which, by the said Charter , 
should or might be granted or committed to the said Court ; 
and also should be at all times a Court of Record, and should 
be a Court of Oyer and Terminer, and Gaol Delivery, in and 
for the said town of Calcutta and Factory of Fort Wilham in 
Bengal aforesaid, and the limits thereof, and the Factories 
subordinate thereto. The Governor-General and Council, and 
the Judges of the Supreme Court were, by the 38th section of 
the same Act, authorised to act as Justices of the Peace, and to 
hold Quarter Sessions. 

The Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal 
was accordingly established under the above Statute by Royal 
•Charter dated the 26th of March, 1774. Three days thereafter, 
the Chief Justice designate of the Supreme Court, Elijah Impey, 
represented to the Prime Minister Lord North that steps should 
be taken so that the inhabitants of the Presidency of Fort 
William might be suitably impressed with the dignity and 
po'wer of the Supreme Court when it came into existence and 
that as an outward symbol of the dignity of the Supreme Court 
the head thereof should arrive in India after he had been 
Knighted by the King. This incident has been recently brought 
■out in the correspondence of Geo. Ill and the following letters 
will doubtless prove interesting reading. 

No. 1432. — Lord North to the King. 

(29th March, 1774.) 

Lord North has the honour of informing his Majesty, 
that Mr. Impey, who will be presented to his Majesty to-day 
in order to take leave, has express’d a desire of being Knighted. 
Lord North is afraid that he may not be at court, time enough 
this morning to take his Majesty’s pleasure before the Levee, 

xiv Proceedings A, S,B, for 

and has therefore presumed to trouble his Majesty with this 

North has the honour of sending his Majesty the 
translation of the East India Act into Persian which has been 
made for the use of the Indians. 

Downing Street Thursday morn^ 

No. 1433. — The King to Lord North. 

Printed. Donne 1 . 179. 

Lord North— The Knighting Mr. Impey on his going to* 
India as he is desirous of that honour cannot meet with the 
least objection from Me ; I trust the cliief difficulties relating 
to India are now in fair train to be removed. 

Shortly after the establishment of the SujDreme Court 
disputes and di:fferences arose between the Supreme Court and 
the Governor-General and his Council, and Parliament had to 
interfere. The Judges of the Supreme Court observed in 1830 
‘ that the Legislature had passed the Act of the 13th Geo. 111. 
c. 63 without fully investigating what it was that they were 
legislating about ; and that if the Act did not sa}^ more than 
was meant, it seemed at least to have said more than was W’ell 
understood \ 

The Legislature accordingly intervened ; and by the pre- 
amble to the 21st Geo. 111. c. 70, and sections 2, 8, 9, and 10 of 
that Act explained and defined the jurisdiction of the Supreme 
Court, declaring that the said Court had no jurisdiction over the 
Governor- General and Council for any act or order made or 
done by them in their public capacity ; that if any inhabitants 
of India should be impleaded in the Supreme Court for any 
act done by order of the Governor and Council in writing, the* 
said order might be given in evidence under the general issue, 
and should amount to a sufficient justification ; that the Supreme 
Court should have no jurisdiction in any matter concerning the 
revenue, or concerning any act or acts ordered or done in the 
collection thereof, according to the usage and practice of the- 
country, or the Regulations of the Governor-General and 
Council; that no person should be subject to the jurisdiction 
of the Court by reason of being a landowner, landholder, or 
farmer of land or of land-rent ; that no person should be so 
subject to the jurisdiction of the said Court, by reason of his 
being employed by the Company or by the Governor-General 
and Council, or on account of his being employed by a native 
of Great Britain, in any matter of dealing or contract between 
party or parties, except in actions for wrongs or trespasses, 
and also except in civil suits by agreement of parties, in writing 
to submit the same to the decision of the said Court. Section 
17 of this important Act also reserved their peculiar laws to 

Annual Address, 


Hindus and Muhammadans in certain civil matters, and the 
24th section provided that no action for wrong or injury should 
lie in the Supreme Court against any person whatsoever exercis- 
ing a judicial office in the Comitry Courts, for any judgment, 
decree or order of the said Court, nor against any person for 
any act done by or in virtue of the order of the said Court. 

The Supreme Court was vested with five distinct jurisdic- 
tions, Civil, Criminal, Equity, Ecclesiastical and Admiralty, 
and the law which obtained in the Supreme Court might be 
classed under seven distinct heads : (1) The common law of 

England as it prevailed in 1726, (2) the Statute law of England 
as it prevailed in 1726 {N.B , — These two were subject to not 
having been altered by Statute especially extending to India 
or by Acts of the Legislative Council of India), (3) Statute law 
especially extending to India enacted since 1726, (4) the Civil 
law as it obtained in the Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Courts 
in England, (5) Regulations made by the Governor- General 
in Council, (6) the personal law of the Hindus, (7) the personal 
law of the Muhammadans. 

The question of the development of the Supreme Courts 
is intimately connected with the development of the legislature 
in India but it will take me far away to describe in detail the 
latter. I will therefore content myself by touching on the 
inter-connection between the two at certain definite periods. 
In 1813 or thereabouts each of the three Presidencies in India 
enjoyed equal legislative powers ; though the Governor-General 
possessed a legal right of veto over the legislation of the 
subordinate governments, it had, in fact, been little exercised. 
Thus had come into existence three series of regulations, as 
these enactments were called, frequently ill-drawn, for they 
had been drafted by inexperienced persons with little skilled 
advice; frequently conflicting, in some cases as a result of 
varying conditions, but in others merely by accident ; and in 
ail cases enforceable only in the Company’s courts because they 
had never been submitted to and registered by the King’s 
courts. Besides these were the certain bodies of Muslim and 
Hindu law, uncertain because of a variety of texts and inter- 
pretations, and still more uncertain because of the varying 
application which they received in the courts themselves. 
Lastly came English statute and common law and equity, 
applied by the King’s coiirts. These conflicting series of laws 
were enforceable by two different and generally hostile judica- 
tures, with ill-defined jurisdictions. In general the King’s 
courts exercised jurisdiction within the limits of the presidency 
towns of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras while the Company’s 
courts exercised j urisdiction over the dependent territories . 
But apart from this territorial jurisdiction, the King’s courts 
possessed a personal jurisdiction over British-born subjects, 
in some cases involving jurisdiction over Indian-born subjects. 

xvi Proceedings AM, B, for 

TMs particular aspect of the matter was clearly destmed to be 
of growing importance. The doors of India, as the Directors 
said, were to be ‘ unsealed for the first time to British subjects 
of European birth ’. Englishmen, who had till then resided 
in India on sufferance, were to acquire a right to reside and 
even to acquire land there. Since the Gompaiiy’s trade was 
to cease, a large number of merchants and traders were ex- 
pected to settle in India to take advantage of the change. It 
was evidently inexpedient that the two classes of subjects, 
Indian and English, should continue to live under separate 
laws administered by separate courts or that the latter when 
accused of wronging the former or accusing the former of 
wrong, should be able to insist on the issue being tried by a 
strange, unsuitable and probably very distant court. 

For these various and cogent reasons it w^as resolved to 
modify the legislative authority in India, to extend its legisla- 
tive competence, and to prepare for a general reform of the 
judicial system. The subordinate governments, it was felt, 
should lose their legislative authority altogether — a measure 
which appears the more natural when it is remembered that it 
was also intended at first to abolish their councils. The 
existence of three legislatures had added much to the com- 
plexity of the legal system, the simplification of which would 
be aided by concentrating all legislative authority in a single 
body. This change was also supported by the proposed 
extension of power, which Parliament would concede least 
unreadily to the Governor-General and his Council. It was 
therefore decided about 1833 to transfer all powder of making 
laws to them ; and it was thought that the need of special 
laws to suit local peculiarities would be sufficiently met by 
empowering the presidency governments to submit to the 
Governor- General and Council draft laws to be enacted or not 
as might seem best. 

The powers granted to the Governor-General and Council 
were much wider than any till then entrusted to an Indian 
legislature. They could make laws to repeal, amend, or alter 
any laws or regulations whatever now in force or hereafter to 

be in force in the said territories and to make laws and 

regulations for all persons, whether British or native, foreigners 
or others, and for all courts of justice, whether established by 
His Majesty’s charters or otherwise, and the jurisdiction thereof, 
except that they could not modify the new act, the mutiny act, 
any future act of parliament relating to India, or the sovereignty 
of the crown. But apart from this limitation all their acts 
should possess ^ the same force and effect ’ as any act of parlia- 
ment, and ‘ shall be taken notice of by all courts of justice 
whatsoever within the said territories 

These were full powers for the Indian legislature. Their 
particular importance lay, however, in one main point. Till 

Annual Address, 


1833 no Indian legislation liad the least effect in the Supreme 
Courts. It is true that provision had been made by which an 
Indian regulation would become binding on those courts once 
it had been registered by them. But such registration had 
lain wholly within the pleasure of the courts themselves ; and 
the Indian governments had steadily refused to recognise the 
veto in effect entrusted to the courts by refusing to submit 
their acts for registration. Their legislation had thus been 
binding on Indian residents outside the presidency towns and 
on the Company’s courts estabhshed in the Mofussil, but not 
binding on either Indian or European residents at government 
headquarters or the king’s courts established there. Now it 
became equally binding on all classes of inhabitants, what- 
ever their place of residence, and on all courts of law, what- 
ever the authority by which they were constituted. In order 
to complete its powers the new legislature was authorised to 
modify or define the jurisdiction even of courts established 
by royal charter, though the latter might not be abolished 
without the previous sanction of the home authorities. 

Let us now turn to the Mofussil. Lord CHve, secured the 
Empire of India for his country by obtaining the grant of the 
Dew^anny for the East India Company from the then Moghul 
Emperor. Previously to this, the Nawab Najm al Daulah, 
on his accession to the Masnad after the death of his father, 
Nur Jaafar Aliy Khan, had. entrusted the Subahdari to the 
management of a Naib, or deputy, to be appointed by the 
advice and recommendation of the English : but the Firman 
which conferred in perpetuity the Dew'anny authority over 
the Provinces of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa on the East India 
Company, constituted them the masters and virtual sovereigns 
of those Provinces ; the office of Dewan implying not merely the 
collection of the revenue, but the administration of civil justice. 

This Firman w^as granted on the 12th of August, 1765, 
and w^as accompanied by an Imperial confirmation of all the 
territories previously held by the East India Company under 
grants from Kasim Aliy Elhan and Jaafar Aliy Khan, within 
the nominal limits of the Moghul Empire. The Nizamut, 
or administration of criminal justice, was, at the same time, 
conferred upon the Nawab Najm al Baulah. The Dewanny 
was further recognised by an agreement dated the 30th of Sep- 
tember in the same year, by the Nawab who formally accepted 
his dependent situation by consenting to receive a fixed stipend 
of fifty-three lakhs of rupees for the support of the Nizamut, 
and for the maintenance , of his household and his personal 

From this period the Nizamut as well as the Dewanny 
was exercised by the British Government in India through 
the influence possessed by the English over the Naib Nazim ; 

Proceedings A,S,B.for 1932» 


tlie. Nizamiit comprising the right of arming and commanding 
troops, and the management of the whole of the Police of the 
country, as well as the administration of oriminal justice. 

For some time subsequent to this assumption of power it 
was not, however, thought prudent, either by the authorities 
in England or in India, to entrust the administration of justice 
or the collection of the revenue to the European servants of the 
Company ; their ignorance of the civil institutions and internal 
arrangements of the country rendering them, with a few excep- 
tions, totally unquahfied for either task. Accordingly, the 
administration of the provinces included in the Dewamiy was 
for the present left in the hands of the native officers, an im- 
perfect control being exercised over them by an EngHsh Resident 
at tbe Court of the JSTawab. 

In 1769, when Verelst was Governor of Bengal, Supervisors 
were appointed for the superintendence of the native officers ; 
and they were furnished with detailed instructions to inquire 
into the history, existing state, produce, and capacity of the 
provinces, the amount of the revenues, the regulations of com- 
merce and the administration of justice. 

In the year 1772, the Court of Directors announced to the 
Government of Bengal their intention ^ to stand forth as Dewan, 
and, by the agency of the Company’s servants, to take upon 
themselves the entire care and management of the revenues 

Warren Hastings was now Governor, having been ap- 
pointed to that important office in the preceding year. In 
order to carry into effect their determination, the Court of 
Directors appointed a Committee consisting of the Governor and 
four Members of Council ; and Warren Hastings and bis co- 
adjutors drew up a Report, comprising plans for the more effec- 
tive collection of the revenue and the administration of justice. 

This Report gave a detailed account of the Muhammadan 
Law Courts ; and after animadverting strongly on their in- 
efficiency, proceeded to set forth a plan for the more regular 
administration of civil and criminal justice, stated to have been 
framed so as to be adopted ‘ to the manners and understandings 
of the people and exigencies of the country adhering, as closely 
as possible, to their ancient usages and institutions 

This plan was adopted by the Government on the 21st 
of August, 1772; and although the constitution of the Courts 
was shortly afterwards completely altered, many of the rules 
which it contained were still preserved in the Bengal Code of 

In each CoUectorate were established Mofussil Dewanny 
Adawluts or Provincial Civil Courts for the administration of 
Civil justice, which were presided over by the Collectors on the 
part of the Company. A Criminal Court, styled the Foujdary 
Adawlut, was also established in each district. In these 
Criminal Courts the Kazi or Mufti of each district was directed 

Annual Address. 


to sit to expound the law, and determine how far delinquents 
were guilty of any breach thereof ; but it w^as also provided 
that the Collector should attend to the proceedings, and see 
that the decision was passed in a fair and impartial manner, 
according to the proofs exhibited. 

Two Superior Courts were established at the chief seat of 
Government to be called the Dewanny Sudder Adawlut and the 
Mzamut Sudder Adawlut : the former to be presided over by 
the President and Members of Council, assisted by Indian 
officers, and to be a Court of Appeal in all cases and the latter 
to be presided over by a chief officer, to be called the Daroghah 
Adawlut, appointed on the part of the Nazim, assisted by 
Muhammadan law officers. 

The Committee of the House of Commons, in the celebrated 
Fifth Report, speaking of the Revenue and Judicial Regulations 
made by Warren Hastings, observe, that they manifest ^ a 
dihgence of research, and a desire to improve the conditions 
of the inhabitants by abolishing many grievous imposts and 
prohibiting many injurious practices which had prevailed 
under the Native Government ; and thus the first important 
step was made towards those principles of equitable govern- 
ment which it is i^resumed the Directors always had it in view 
to establish, and which, in subsequent institutions, have been 
more successfully accompHshed 

In the year 1774, the European Collectors were re-called 
and Amils appointed instead. The administration of civil 
justice was transferred from the Collectors to the Amils, from 
whose decisions an appeal lay in every case to the Provincial 
Councils, and thence, under certain restrictions, to the Governor 
and Council as the Sudder Adawlut. The Amili report, as it was 
called, has recently been made accessible by IVIr. R. B. Rams- 
botham of the I.E.8. and he has laid ail students of history 
under a deep obligation by his careful edition of the same. 

After Warren Hastings had presided in the chief Criminal 
Court established at Calcutta for about eleven months, he felt 
himseK obhged to resign the situation ; and accordingly, in 
October, 1775, the Nizamut Adawlut was removed from Calcutta 
and established at Moorshedabad, under the superintendence 
of Muhammad Riza Khan. 

These arrangements for the administration of justice re- 
mained in force, with scarcely any change, until the year 1780. 
About this time, the many avocations of the Governor-General 
and Council compelled them to give up sitting in the Sudder 
Dewanny Adawlut, and a separate Judge was accordingly 
appointed to preside in that Court. The person selected for 
this high office was Sir Elijah Impey. He w^as accused of 
having accepted the office as a bribe ; but whilst his legal attain- 
ments and position sufficiently accounted for his selection, the 
self-denial, so rare in India in those days, with which he 

XX Proceedings A, SM. for 1932, 

' declined appropriating to himself any part of the salary 
annexed to the office of Judge of the Sudder Dewanny Adawliit 
until the pleasure of the Lord Chancellor should be known 
of itself sufficiently refuted the accusation. 

Sir Elijah, in fulfilment of the duties which devolved upon 
him by virtue of his new office, and without any remuneration, 
prepared a series of Regulations for the guidance of the Civil 
Courts, which he submitted to Government in November 1780. 
They were afterwards incorporated, with additions and amend- 
ments, in a revised Code, passed in 1781, which was translated 
into the Persian and Bengali languages. Under these Regula- 
tions, all civil causes were made cognizable by the Dewanny 
Adawluts. The functions of the Judges of these Courts were 
entirely severed from the revenue department, four districts 
being, however, excepted, where for local reasons, the functions 
of Civil Judge and Collector were exercised by the same persons, 
but expressly in distinct capacities, and, as Civil Judge, wholly 
independent of the Board of Revenue, and subject only to the 
authority of the Governor- General in Council and of the Judge 
of the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut. An appeal lay from the 
decisions of the Provincial Dewanny Adawluts, in cases where 
the amount in dispute exceeded* 1,000 rupees, to the Sudder 
Dewanny Adawlut. 

In the year 1781, the Foujdars instituted in 1775 were 
abolished, and the Police Jurisdiction was transferred to the 
Judges of the Dew^'amiy Adawluts, or in some cases, to the 
Zamindar by special permission of the Governor-General in 
Council. The Judges, however, were not empowered to punish, 
but merely to apprehend offenders, whom they were at once 
to forward to the Daroghah of the nearest Eoujdary Court ; 
and the Judge of the Dewanny Adawlut, the Daroghah of the 
Nizamut Adawlut, and the Zamindar w^ere to exercise a con- 
current Jurisdiction for the apprehension of robbers and dis- 
turbers of the public peace. A separate department was 
established at the Presidency, under the immediate control 
of the Governor-General, to receive reports and returns of the 
proceedings of the Eoujdary Courts, and lists of persons appre- 
hended and convicted by the authorities in the provinces. To 
arrange these records, and to maintain a check on all persons 
entrusted with the administration of criminal Justice, an officer 
was appointed, to act under the direction of the Governor- 
General with the title of Remembrancer of the Criminal Courts. 
His apostolic successor to-day is the present Legal Remem- 
brancer. In 1782 the Court of Directors sent out orders to the 
Governor-General in Council to resume the superintendence of 
the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut. Parliament interfered and an 
Act w^as passed in 1784, viz. the 24th Geo. 111. c. 25, to regulate 
the affairs of the Bast India Company and of the British posses- 
sions in India. 

Annual Address, 


The Marquess Cornwallis was selected to superintend the 
measures determined upon in pursuance of the said Act and 
in the year 1786, he proceeded to India as Governor-General, 
carrying with Mm detailed instructions from the Court of 
Directors, stating, ' that they had been actuated by the necessity 
of accommodating their views and interests to the subsisting 
manners and usages of the people, rather than by any abstract 
theories drawm from other countries or applicable to a different 
state of things/.' 

In compliance with these instructions, Lord Cornwallis 
directed the re-union of the functions of civil and criminal 
Justice with those of the collection and management of the 
revenue ; and the Dewanny Adawluts were accordingly, in the 
year 1787, placed under the superintendence of the Collectors. 
District Courts were established in Moorshedabad, Dacca, 
and Patna presided over by Judges and Magistrates who w^ere 
not Collectors, that office being umiecessary, as their jurisdiction 
was circumscribed by the limits of these cities. The proper 
Collectors or Revenue Courts were kept distinct from the 
Dewanny Adawluts, although presided over by the same persons. 
From the latter, appeals were followed, within certain limits, 
to the Governor-General and Council, in their capacity of 
Judges of the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut ; and the decisions 
of the Revenue Courts were appealable, first to the Board of 
Revenue, and thence to the Governor-General in Council. The 
Collectors also were ap|)ointed to act as Magistrates in appre- 
hending offenders against the public peace ; but with the excep- 
tion of the chastisement of petty offences, they had no powder 
of trial or punishment, and were directed to deliver up their 
prisoners for that purpose to the Muhammadan criminal officers, 
who were not to be interfered with beyond the influence pos- 
sessed by the British Government in recommending the mitiga- 
tion of punishments of unnecessary cruelty. 

The administration of criminal justice remained in the 
hands of the Naib Nazim until the end of the year 1790, when 
the Governor- General, convinced of the inefficacy of the different 
plans w’hich had been adopted and pursued from the year 1772, 
declared that, with a view to ensure a prompt and impartial 
administration of the criminal law, and in order that all ranks 
of people might enjoy security of person and property, he 
had resolved in Council to resume the superintendence of the 
administration of criminal justice throughout the provinces. 
Accordingly the Nizamut Adawlut was again removed from 
Moorshedabad to Calcutta, and was appointed to consist of the 
Governor-General and members of the Supreme Council, 
assisted by the Kazi al Kuzat and two Muftis. 

The administration of civil justice appears to have remained 
materially the same from 1787 until 1793, when Lord Corn- 
w’^allis introduced his celebrated system of judicature, and 

xxii Proceedings A. S.B. for 19S2y 

formed the Regulations into a regular Code, which is the basis 
of the Regulation Law prevalent throughout India. 

The following remarks in the preamble show the spirit 
in which the legislation of 1793 was framed 

‘To ensure, therefore, to the people of this countrv, as 
far as is practicable, the uninterrupted enjoyment of the in- 
estimable benefit of good laws duly administered, Government 
has determined to divest itself of the power of interfering in 
the administration of the Laws and Regulations in the first 
instance, reserving only as a Court of Appeal or review the 
decision of certain cases in the last resort, and to lodge its 
judicial authority in Courts of Justice, the Judges of which 
shall not only be bound by the most solemn oaths to dispense 
the Laws and Regulations impartially, but be so circumstanced 
as to have no plea for not discharging their high and important 
trusts with diligence and uprightness. They have resolved that 
the authority of the Laws and Regulations so lodged in the 
Courts shall extend, not only to all suits between hTative in- 
dividuals, but that the officers of Government employed in the 
collection of the revenue, the provision of the Company's in- 
vestment, and all other financial or commercial concerns of the 
public shall be amenable to the Courts for acts done in their 
official capacity in opposition to the Regulations ; and that 
Government itself, in superintending these various branches 
of the resources of the State, may be precluded from injuring 
private property, they have determined to submit the claims 
and interests of the pubhc in such matters to be decided by 
the Comts of Justice according to the Regulations in the same 
manner as suits between individuals. To deprive the Judges 
of the Courts of the power of delaying or denying justice, the 
Governor-General in Council has determined to frame the 
constitution of the Courts upon such principles as will enable 
every individual, by the mere observance of certain forms, 
to command at all times the exercise of the judicial pow^er of 
the State thus lodged in the Courts for the redress of any injury 
which he may have sustained in his person or property.' 

The main alteration made by this system was the vesting 
of the collection of revenue and the administration of justice in 
separate officers ; and for this were assigned, amongst others, 
the following reasons ; ‘ It is obvious, that if the Regulations 

for assessing and collecting the public revenue are infringed, 
the revenue officers themselves must be the aggressors, and 
that individuals who have been aggrieved by them in one 
capacity can never hope to obtain redress from them in another. 
Their financial occupations equally disqualify them from ad- 
ministering the laws between the proprietors of land and their 
tenants'. The Mai Adawluts, or Revenue Courts, were ac- 
cordingly abolished, the Revenue Board was divested of its 
powers as a Court of Appeal, and all causes hitherto tried by 

Annual Address, 


tlie revenue officers were transferred to the Dewanny Adawluts, 
which were now established in each provincial division, and 
presided over respectively by a covenanted servant, in whose 
person were united the powers of Judge and Magistrate, and 
who also had the management of the Police within the limits 
of' his division. 

The Nizamut Adawlut or chief Criminal Court, was held 
at Calcutta and consisted of the Governor-General and Members 
of the Council, assisted by the Kazi al Kuzat and two Muftis. 
This Court had cognizance of all matters relating to the ad- 
ministration of Criminal Justice and the Police, and was author- 
ised to exercise the same powers as were vested in it when it 
was superintended by the ISfaib Nazim. The sentences of the 
Nizamut Adawlut were in all cases to be final ; but the Governor- 
General in Council had a power of pardoning or commuting the 
|)unishment awarded. All these Courts administered the 
Muhammadan criminal law as modified by the Pegulations. 

A material alteration took place in the constitution of the 
Sudder Dewanny Adawlut, during the administration of the 
Marquis of Wellesley in the year 1801, when it was made to 
consist of three Judges, to be selected from the covenanted 
servants of the Company. The number of Judges was in- 
creased ill the year 1811, and the Court thenceforth was to 
consist of a Chief Judge and of as many Puisne Judges as the 
Governor- General in Council might deem necessary. 

In the year 1813, by the Statute 53d Geo. 111. c. 155. 
s. 107 British subjects residing, trading or holding immoveable 
property in the provinces, were made amenable to the Company’s 
Courts in civil suits brought against them by Indians, with, 
however, a right of appeal to the Supreme Court at Fort William 
in cases where an appeal otherwise lay to the Sudder Deivanny 

In the year 1813 the Statute 53d Geo. 111. c. 155. s. 105 
made British subjects resident in the provinces punishable by 
the District and Zillah Magistrates for assaults and trespass 
against the Natives of India ; but the convictions of such 
Magistrates were removable by Certiorari to the King’s Courts. 

In 1833 the Provincial Courts were finally abolished ; all 
original suits then pending in such Courts were directed to be 
transferred to the Zillah and City Courts ; and all appeals, re- 
gular, special or summary, so pending, were to be transferred 
to the Sudder Dewanny Adawlut. Additional Zillah and Cit}^ 
Judges were also apioointed in the same year. 

In 1836 it was enacted that the 53d Geo. 111. c. 155. 
s. 107 which gave to British subjects resident in the provinces 
a right of appeal from the Company’s to the Supreme Courts 
should cease to have effect in India ; and it was also enacted 
that no person by reason of birth or descent should be exempt 

xxiv Proceedings A, 8, B, for 19^2. 

from tlie jurisdiction of the Company’s Courts, or be incapable 
of being a Principal Sudder Ameen, Sudder Ameeii or Mooiisiff. 

In the year 1843 it was enacted that special appeals shoiikl 
lie to the Sadder Dewanny Adawlut from all decisions passed 
in regular appeals in all subordinate Civil Courts, when it should 
appear that such decisions were inconsistent with law or usage, 
or the practice of the Courts or involved doubtful questions of 
law, usage or practice. 

In the year 1844 it was enacted that all suits within the 
competency of a Principal Sudder Ameen or Sudder Ameen 
to decide should ordinarily be instituted in their Courts ; but 
that the Zillah or City Judges might withdraw them, and try 
them themselves, or refer them to any other competent Court 
subordinate to them. The Zillah and City Judges w^'ere also 
empowered to admit summary appeals from the orders of 
Principal Sudder Ameens and Sudder Ameens rejecting suits 
cognizable by them. 

In the year 1801 the constitution of the Nizamut x4dawlut 
was altered ; the Governor-General and Council no longer 
presided ; and it was declared to consist of three Judges, assisted 
by the Chief Kazi and two Muftis. The number of Judges was 
afterwards increased, as in the Sudder Dewminy Adawdut. 

In 1807 Magistrates were given an extended jurisdiction, 
and were empowered to inflict imprisonment, not exceeding 
one year, in addition to fine or stripes ; but this powder was not 
to be exercised by Assistant Magistrates. 

In 1808 it was declared that all trials of persons for robbery 
with open violence, and liable to transportation for life, should 
on the conviction of the oflender be referred to the Nizamut 

Speaking generally the state of things described as above 
remained the same till 1861 when the fusion of the Supreme 
and Sadar Courts came about as a result of a statute passed 
in the 24th and 25th years of the reign of Queen Victoria. The 
necessity for reform of the judicial system and of the law ob- 
taining in India had been recognised long before the transfer 
of the Government of India to the Crowm in 1858. Lord 
Palmerston appointed the second Law^ Commission in 1854 for 
the purpose of reorganising the entire judicial system and Sir 
Charles Wood announced in Parliament about the same time that 
it had been settled that there should be one Coui’t to be called 
the High Court in place of the two Courts referred to above. 
The reform of the judicial system had indeed been foreshadowed 
by the Charter Act of 1833. In 1822, Sir Charles Grey, Chief 
Justice of Bengal, had pointed out the utter want of connection 
between the Supreme Court and the Provincial Courts and the 
two sorts of legal process which were employed in them, and Sir 
Erskine Perry, Chief Justice of Bombay, referred later to the 
strange anomaly in the jurisprudential condition of British India 

Annual Address, 


wMoli consists in the three capital cities having system of law 
different from those of the countries of which they are the 
capitals. . 

Attention had moreover been attracted before 1808 on the 
one hand to the cumbrous structure of the Supreme Courts 
with their common law, equity, admiralty, and ecclesiastical 
sides, reproducing the separate Bnghsh jurisdictions, and to 
the anomaly of the retention in them of the forms of pleading 
abandoned in England in 1852 ; on the other to the dangers 
involved in leaving the administration of justice in the dis- 
tricts to judges without professional training unassisted by any 
definite or uniform procedure or substantive law. The amalga- 
mation of the Supreme and Sadar Courts and their jurisdictions 
was clearly essential. But it was only in 1862 that, after delay 
for the passing of a Code of Civil Procedure for the new courts 
and those subordinate to them, the existing Supreme and 
Sadar Adalat Courts were abolished and replaced under the 
Indian High Courts Act, 1861, by the new High Courts at 
Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. Under powers given by the 
act one other High Court could be established at a place to be 
selected and in 1866 a High Court was established at Allahabad 
to exercise the jurisdiction over the North-Western Provinces 
hitherto exercised from Calcutta. No addition was made to 
those High Courts until 1916 when one more was established 
at Patna for the province of Bihar and Orissa constituted on 
the rearrangement of the province of Bengal in 1912. 

The constitution and powers of the High Courts then 
created have remained unaltered in essentials during the period 
under consideration. The judges are appointed by the Crown 
and hold office during His Majesty’s pleasure. Their number 
has been increased from time to time permanently or temporarily 
to cope with increasing business, but no change has been made 
in the provision of the act of 1861 under which one-third of the 
judges in each court are members of the Enghsh, Irish, or Scotch 
Bar, one-third members of the Indian Civil Service and the 
remainder persons who have held judicial office in India for 
five years or have practised as pleaders at a High Court for 
ten. On its appellate side each of those courts exercises the 
jurisdiction inherited from the Sadar Court over the districts 
and on its original side that of the Supreme Court over the 
presidency town where it sits. The exclusive jurisdiction over 
British subjects in the districts in serious criminal cases was 
abolished with the Supreme Courts in 1861, special provisions 
for their protection being included in the Code of Criminal 
Procedure. The provisions of the act of 1781, rendered 
necessary by the Patna and Gossijura cases and the conflict 
between the Supreme Court and the Governor-GeneraFs Council, 
were re-enacted, matters concerning the revenue, its collection 
in accordance with the law or usage of the country and the 


Proceedings A. 8, B, for 1932« 

official acts of the Governor-General, the provincial governors 
and the members of their councils being excluded from the 
High Courts' original jurisdiction. The territorial |urisdiction 
of the High Courts has since their creation remained substantially 
Unchanged except in the case of Calcutta, comprising in the 
case of each the province it belongs to, and, for the purpose of 
exercise of its powers over British subjects, such adjoinin'g 
native states as the Governor-General in Council may direct 
under the Foreign Jmisdiction Act, 1890. By orders in council 
under the act the High Court of Bombay also exercises powers 
over Zanzibar and the Persian coast. 

It was part of the scheme for the reorganization of the 
j udicial system that the creation of the new High Courts should 
be postponed until, in the words of Sir C. Wood, ' a code of 
short and simple procedure had been prepared ' in order that 
'a simple system of pleading and practice uniform, so far as 
possible, throughout the whole jurisdiction, might be adopted 
and one capable also of being applied in the inferior courts of 
India The Code of Civil Procedure enacted in these circum- 
stances was the first instalment of the earliest comprehensive 
attempt at codification in the British Empire. To the under- 
standing of the circumstances in which that attempt was made 
and of the value of the result, some account of the law ad- 
ministered under the Supreme and Sadar Courts is essential. 

According to a general description given in 1829 by the 
judges of the Supreme Court of Calcutta, no one could then 
pronounce an opinion or form a judgment ho’wever sounds 
upon any disputed right regarding wffiich doubt and confusion 
might not be raised by those who might choose to call it in 
question ; for very few of the public or persons in office at home, 
not even the law officers, could be expected to have so clear 
and comprehensive a knowledge of the Indian system as to 
know familiarly the working of each part on the rest. There 
were English acts of parliament specially provided for India 
and others of which it was doubtful whether they applied to 
India wholly or in part or not at all. There was the English 
common law and constitution of which the application was in 
many respects most obscure and perplexed ; Mahomedan law 
and usage; Hindu law, usage, and scripture; charters and 
letters patent of the courts ; and regulations of the government, 
some requiring registration in the Supreme Courts, others not, 
whilst some had effect throughout India and others were peculiar 
to one presidency or one town. There wore commissions of the 
governments and circular orders from the Nizamut Adalat and 
from the Dewani Adalat, treatises of the Crown, treatises of 
the Indian Government, besides inferences drawn at pleasure 
from the droit public and the law of nations of Europe to a 
state of circumstances which will justify almost any constitu- 
tion of it or qualification of its force. 

Annual Address. xxvii 

More definitely, we find that as regards procedure the 
Supreme Courts with their common law, equity, ecclesiastical 
and admiralty sides had adopted on each the appropriate English 
practice, except that the viva voce examination of witnesses 
was taken down completely in writing. In the inferior Courts 
the English procedure was followed except that written plead- 
ings were dispensed with. In the Sadar Courts and in the dis- 
tricts suits were dealt vdth, - in Bengal mainly under a code 
enacted by Lord Cornwallis in 1793, resembling rather the 
equity or even the Scotch system than the common law ; in 
each of the other provinces under its own regulations of some- 
what later date., ' 

General recognition of the uncertain, localised and on the 
criminal side arbitrary character .of the systems thus established 
had led to the reference already quoted in the act of 1833 to 
the expediency of ascertaining and consolidating the law and 
to the further provision for the appointment of an Indian Law 
Commission to enquire and from time to time make reports 
which were to be transmitted by the Governor- General in Council 
with his opinion to the Court of Directors and to be laid before 
Parliament. The commission thus constituted was composed 
of Macaulay, the first member appointed to the council for 
legislative purposes, and a civilian from each of the presidencies. 
It first under the instructions of government busied itself with 
the draft of a Penal Code, completing it before Macaulay’s 
departure from India in 1837. Subsequently, however, it 
confined itself to the periodical issue of reports, containing 
proposals on which legislation has since been founded, and 
became defunct after submitting a draft limitation law in 1842 
and a scheme of pleading and procedure with forms of criminal 
indietments in 1848. It was succeeded by a body of com- 
missioners appointed in England under the Charter Act of 1853 
to examine and report on its recommendations within three 
years . The commission included Sir J ohn Romilly , Master 
of the Rolls ; Sir John Jervis, Chief Justice of Common Pleas ; 
l^Ir. Lowe, afterwards Lord Sherbrooke ; Mr. Cameron, known 
as a disciple of Bentham ; and other members with Indian ex- 
perience ; and its first duty was the preparation of the Code 
of Civil Procedure, jjending which the erection of the new High 
Courts had been postponed. This Code, as it was passed in 
1859, did not apply to the Supreme Courts, but the greater 
part of it was extended to the High Courts by their letters 
patent in 1862. The law of limitation and prescription was 
next taken up ; and in 1859 a bill drafted by the first Indian 
Law Commission and revised by the second became law. 

In 1860, the Penal Code, based on the: draft proposed by 
Macaulay’s commission and revised by Mr. Bethune, the legal 
member of council, and Sir Barnes Peacock, was passed. It was 
followed in 1861 by a Code of Criminal Procedure for the courts 


Proceedings A.S.B.for 1932. 

other than those in the presidency towns, where the English 
procedure was retained until the passing of Acts for the High 
Courts in 1875 and for the Magistrates’ Courts in 1877. 

Various other branches of substantive and objective law 
have since been codified and to-day the Judiciary have in these 
codes the principles of law which they have to administer, 
laid down in clear terms and in such a manner that the Anglo- 
Indian codes have been the objects of admiration not only 
among English jurists but among jurists outside Great Britain. 
The evolution of the codes and Courts thus far described has 
been mainly due to the labours of a devoted man of British 
public servants in India within which expression I include 
Civilian Judges of the old Sadar Dewanny Adawlut like Messrs. 
Trevor and Seton Carr. 

I now turn to the evolution of the judicial mind in India. 
The judiciary is, in effect, part of the public service of the 
Crown. But a judge is not ‘^employed’ in the sense that a 
civil servant is employed. He fills a public office, which is by 
no means the same thing ; and part of his independence consists 
in the fact that no one can give him orders as to the manner 
in which he is to perform his work. Like the more fortunate 
practitioners in most professions he C owns no man master’. 
The only subordination which he knows in his official capacity 
is that which he owes to the existing body of legal doctrine 
enunciated by his brethren, past and present, on the Bench, 
and the legislative enactments of the King in Parliament and 
of the Indian Legislature. 

A judge may give an unlimited number of decisions which 
are wrong in law and based on incorrect findings of fact, with- 
out incurring a penalty ; and the continual reversal of his 
judgments by the higher courts will lead to no consequence 
affecting him personally. 

The security of tenure which the judge enjoys, I trust this 
is the case even in India, is at bottom the most essential fact 
underlying the principle of independence. It results in a 
recognition by the general public that the judge has nothing 
to lose by doing what is right and nothing to gain by doing 
what is wrong ; and is founded on the belief that a man 
cannot be relied upon to act rightly regardless of the personal 

The independence of the judiciary lends prestige to the 
office of judge and inspires confidence in the general public. 

Not only is the judge given an almost complete indepen- 
dence in the tenure and conduct of his office, but certain 
immunities of an important character are extended to him in 
his official capacity. The most notable of these is an immunity 
from legal responsibility in respect of his judicial functions. 

In return, as it were, for his independence and immunity, 
the judge is required to observe certain conditions in the 

Annual Address. 


performance of his official functions. The first of these is that 
he shall not have any interest in the subject-matter of the 
litigation coming before him. 

Underlying this condition that the judge must be free 
from certain obvious and crude forms of interest in the case 
which he is called upon to decide, is the fundamental principle 
that a man cannot be judged in his own cause. Nor can he be 
both accuser and judge. 

One noteworthy characteristic of judicial functions exercised 
in courts of law is the fact that the work of a judge is essentially 
personal to himself. 

Of all the characteristics of judicial functions none is more 
essential than the right to a hearing. The safeguards of civil 
liberty find expression in few principles of greater importance, 
according to EngHsh legal notions, than that embodied in the 
maxim that every man is entitled to his day in court. 

According to English ideas the judge is under an absolute 
duty to fix a time and place for the trial. 

The hearing of the case, when it comes before the court, 
must be conducted in accordance with a know and established 

One noteworthy characteristic of judicial function is the 
rule that, in theory at all events, only the immediate issue at 
hand shall be determined. 

What is called the administration of justice requires not 
merely the establishment of organs of justice, such as courts 
of law or other tribunals, but also, and perhaps more im- 
portantly, that the matters to be adjudicated upon shall be 
decided by a particular process. That process is the judicial 
process. It consists in the application of a body of rules or 
principles by the technique of a special method of thought, 
and in the presence of certain psychological elements. 

In Xenophon Astyages asks Cyrus to give an account of 
his last lesson. Cyrus answers thus : " One of the boys of our 
school had a coat too small for him and gave it to one of his 
companions, a little smaller than himself and forcibly took 
in exchange the latter’s coat, which was too large. The 
preceptor made me judge of the ensuing dispute, and I 
decided that the matter should be left as it was, since both 
parties seemed to be better accommodated than before. Uj)on 
this the preceptor pointed out to me that I had done vTong, 
for I had been satisfied with considering the convenience of the 
thing, whereas I ought first to have considered the justice of 
it.’ This story is said to exemplify the difierence between 
adjudication and administration. 

The urge towards this formulation of principles arises from 
the desire for consistency. 

Consistency is not necessarily the same thing as uniformity 
and may, indeed, be opposed to it. Consistency prescribes 


Proceedings A ,8. B, for 1932. 

as reasoned relation, in the first place between decisions for the 
same class of case at different points of time ; in the second 
place, between different classes of case at the same point of 
time ; and in the third place, between different classes of case 
at different points of time. 

It is this desire for consistency that is at the bottom of 
that respect for precedent which is so marked a feature of 
English law, and which we have imbibed. 

No less important than consistency is an attribute of the 
judicial spirit, and intimately connected with it in some ways, 
is the tendency towards equality. This does not mean that 
everyone has similar rights, or a right to the same things ; but 
all rights of the same kind are equal as between different 

In order that equality before the law shall prevail, in 
the sense mentioned above, the judge is required to distinguish 
carefully between facts which are relevant to the issue and 
those which are immaterial. 

But nothing in all this touches the dominant fact that 
inequalities of rank, fame and fortune do not call for inequality 
of treatment from the judge. Here lies the fundamental 
difference between the mind which is imbued with the jiidiciai 
spirit and the unjudicial mind. 

It is not sufficient that the administration of justice should 
be consistent, and equal in its treatment. It is necessary also 
that it should be certain. We cannot be sure that a prineiple 
or rule is being administered either consistently or equally at 
different times and in different cases, and within different areas, 
unless w^e know what the principle is. Hence it comes about 
that the judicial process requires the formulation and promulga- 
tion of a definite body of legal doctrine which can be ascertained 
by all who are subject to its rule. 

The growth of certainty in the law^ is closely associated with 
not only the drawing up of a body of principles, but also with 
the convention which requires judges in the higher courts to 
give reasons for their decisions. 

We observed above that a judge in court must give reasons 
for his decision. The jury, on the other hand, are not permitted 
to state the reasons on which they base their verdict, and even 
if they wish to do so the judge will decline to listen. 

Paradoxical though it may seem, both these rules aim at 
a common purpose ; namely, the development of a coherent and 
impersonal body of law. The judge puts the trained mind of a 
lawyer on to the case, and is able to reason to the conclusion 
in terms of legal technique. The juryman is not equip)ped to 
express either his thoughts or his feelings in a manner consistent 
with the body of the law'. 

The methods of thought peculiar to the law^ tend to impose 
upon the judge the necessity of dealing with a case within the 


Annual Address, xxxi 

confines of a series of well-defined categories. But it does not 
follow from this that the judge is not left with a large discre- 
tion as to the manner in wdiich the case shall be decided within 
the boundaries thus marked out. 

Ill some parts of the law, it is true, the judge is more closely 
bound to follow a particular course, once certain facts have been 
established, than in others. Where rigid rules of law^ prevail, 
a legal situation may admit of but a single solution — a mere 
application of the appropriate rule. 

What is of greater interest from the present point of view’ 
is the exercise of the judicial function in those far more import- 
ant fields where a large discretion is left to the judge to use as 
he thinks fit. 

* Discretion it wus said in an old case, ' is a science or 
understanding to discern between falsity or truth, betw’^een right 
and wTong, between shadow’ and substance, betw^een equity 
and colourable glosses and pretences, not to do according to the 
will and private affections \ It must be exercised, said Lord 
Hansbury some centuries later, in accordance with ‘ the rules 
of reason and justice not according to private opinion ; according 
to law% and not humour. It is to be, not arbitrary, vague and 
fanciful, but legal and regular,’ 

The idea of a discretion which is to be exercised, not in a 
capricious and impetuous way, but in a disciplined and respon- 
sible manner, is a conception which has had a wide application 
in England and India. It really represents a compromise 
betw’een the idea that people who possess power should be 
trusted with a free hand, and not tied down by narrow’ formulse, 
and the competing notion that some contingent control must 
be retained over them in case they act in an unreasonable W’ay . 
Discretion in public affairs is seldom absolute ; it is usually 
qualified. It must be used ‘ judiciously ’ and hence we often 
hear the expression ‘ a judicial discretion 

The judge ‘ is to exercise a discretion informed by tradition, 
methodised b^y analogy, disciplined by system, and subordinated 
to the primordial necessity of order in the social life 

The judge, as w’e have seen, must exercise his functions in 
a way which fulfils the need for consistency, for equality, and 
for certainty. His administration must be objective and 
impartial, and he must state explicitly the reasons for his deci- 
sions. He must suppress his personal emotions and instinctive 
prejudices and encourage his sense of fairness. He must do 
right to all manner of men ' without fear or favour, affection 
or ill-wdll He must come to the case with an open mind. 
Alertness, flexibility, curiosity must be the friends of his 
mind ; caprice, rigidity and prejudice its enemies. He must 
be able to suspend judgment until he has systematically surveyed 
the circumstances of the case. 

But the possession of those qualities does not mean that 

Proceedings A.8.B. for 1932. 

xx2tii ' 

the Judge is to be a mere logical machine, an intellectual abstrac- 
tion. Deep below consciousness are other forces, the likes 
and dislikes, the predilections and the prejudices. The complex 
of instincts and emotions and habits and convictions, which 
make a man, whether he be litigant or judge.’ 

The holders of judicial office are, in fact, in the end, like 
all public functionaries, charged with the responsibility of 
.choosing and of choosing well. 'The cold neutrality of an 
impartial judge’, of which Burke speaks is neither an accom- 
plished fact nor a desirable ideal, and no useful purpose is served 
by discussion which implies that at a certain point in a man’s 
career he suddenly loses all the normal attributes of human 
nature. A more enlightened appreciation of the service to 
the public which is rendered by a judge and of the difficulties 
with which he is confronted, would start by contrasting the 
effort of mind which is demanded of him in order to overcome 
his natural prejudices, with the lazy refusal to make a similar 
effort which is manifested by the greater part of mankind in 
the ordinary affairs of the market-place and the forum and the 
domestic hearth and the political meeting. 

Even from the point of view of the judge himself, the 
' cold neutrality ’ legend is definitely unhelpful. It has been 
widely observed that the judge who realises before listening to 
a case that all men are biassed is more likely to make a con- 
scientious effort at impartiality than one who believes that 
•elevation to the bench makes him at once an organ of infallible 
logical truth. 

What is meant by the impartiality of judges, so far as social 
matters are concerned, is that they shall not permit their 
opinions on certain controversial subjects of the day to influence 
their judgment. The judicial mind is not to be deflected by 
the passions of the moment on social, economic, political, or 
religious questions. ^NTor is it enough for the judge merely to 
endeavour to discover and follow the deeper and more perma- 
nent loyalties of the community. He must also seek to 
promote the progressive evolution of society. The 'good’ 
decision is not the one which necessarily satisfies public opinion 
to-day, but that which will also be felt to be right five or fifteen 
years hence. Just as the good judge of art or literature is the 
man who can discern those qualities in a picture or a book which 
will stand the test of time, so the good judge in a court of law 
or other tribunal is the one who can use his discretion in a 
way which will assist the evolving tendencies of the community. 
Stress is always laid on the duty of a judge to be a trustee of 
the past ; but in reality it is far more important that he should 
be a prophet of the future, in so far as that is compatible with 
the faithful administration of the existing body of law. 

We are now at the parting of ways ; a new Constitution is 
-about to be put on the Statute Book and no one knows how the 

Annual Address, 


High Courts may be affected. But so long as the independence- 
of the Judiciary and of the Bar are traditions which remain in 
the bone of the British race, if I may so phrase it, I trust 
nothing will be done by anybody to undermine the prestige, the 
independence, and the dignity of our superior judicial tribunals. 


^Speech by His Excellency Sir John Anderson, Governor 
OF Bengal, at the Annual .Meeting of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, on the 6th 
Febrhary, 1933. 

Mr. President, Ladies, and Gentlemen, 

It is first of all my pleasant duty to congratulate 
both Sir Charii Chunder Ghose and the Society on his re-election 
as President for the forthcoming year. Looking back through 
the list of past Presidents of this Society from its foundation 
until now, I find that in the early years the links between the 
Presidential Chair and. the Bench were many. This, as a glance 
at the list will show, cannot but have been to the great benefit 
of the Society. Dare I suggest that the study of ‘ Man and 
Natme ’ m.ay .have been not entirely without beneficial influence 
on the Bench ? From the concluding passages of his address 
I should infer that Sir Charu would certainly agree. And if 
since the present century opened there have been, besides Sir 
Charu, only two Presidents from the High Court, Mr. Justice 
Pargiter and Sir Ashutosh Mocker jee made up in quality what 
they lacked in numbers and provide a company which any one 
might well be proud to join. 

May I also thank the Society for the honour they have 
done me in asking me to be a Patron ? So exalted a comiection 
with a learned Society of the standing and repute of the ilsiatic 
Society of Bengal is an honour which I rate very highhL And 
if the exigencies of the service for which primarily I have come 
to India prevent my participating to the extent that I should 
wish in your deliberations and activities, may I, in the words 
of your first Patron, whose bicentenary we have just been 
observing, say that ‘ I at the same time earnestly solicit your 
acceptance of my services in any way in which they can be, 
and I hope that they may be, rendered useful to your 
Researches ’ ? 

This is, of course, the first formal gathering of the Society 
at wdiich it has been my privilege to assist, but I have been 
given to understand that the Society’s Annual Meeting, viewnd 
as a social event, has been for nearly a century and a half 
accepted as one of the closing episodes of the busy winter season 
in a city which for the greater part of that period was the 
capital of British India and which, I believe, may still assert 
a claim to be regarded as the intellectual capital and the first 
centre in research. 

The topics dealt with in this Annual Meeting by successive 
( xxxiv ) 

Patron's Address. 


Prfesiclents during that long period have embraced almost 
every department of human enquiry. Sometimes mainly 
utilitarian and dealing with the domestic affairs of the Society, 
at others theoretical and concerned with some branch of abstract 
science or, more frequently, — ^for we are practical in this Society 
—with Science in some of its practical applications, these 
Presidential Addresses seem to me to merit publication in an 
ad hoc compilation which, with an adequate index, would, I 
suggest, form a work of abiding interest and even of historical 
value since many of the addresses must have registered, at the 
time they were delivered, the high water-mark of the know- 
ledge then available in the subject under discussion, and many 
of them must also contain speculations w^hich in the light of 
subsequent investigations w’^ould be of the greatest interest to 
us to-day either for their correctness or the reverse. This 
evening again we have listened to an exposition of juridical 
history and legal theory from one who has devoted his life to 
the subject in theory and practice and w^ho has given us a pax3er 
replete with the fruits of his research and experience. Surely 
the Society which year by year produces scholarly pronounce- 
ments of this calibre still retains the freshness and vigour of 
youth notwithstanding the passage of the years 1 

I have been somewhat struck, if I may say so, by the 
arrangements for this function, and as I have no other original 
contribution to offer perhaps I may venture to say a few words, 
based upon a fairly extensive experience, on the art of arranging 
public meetings. The perfection of an annual meeting of 
a Society such as our’s consists in its balanced proportion. An 
unbalanced and disproportionately arranged annual meeting is, 
if I may say so, a weariness of the flesh to all concerned. The 
amiual meeting of a public institution should be an ideal blend 
of business reduced to essentials, of routine not unduly pro- 
longed, of the dignity of ceremonial and of the grace of those 
ornamental embellishments which may by their loicturesque 
character relieve whatever of dry detail must of necessity be 
brought forward. 

Studying in the light of this ideal the reports of recent 
annual meetings of this ancient Society, I am glad to find evidence 
that a high standard of arrangement has been attained by those 
responsible for the planning of the programme. You begin 
with your elections and a resume, commendably abbreviated, 
of the amiual report as the first act of your piece. Then comes 
the piece de resistance, the Presidential address. Here, I 
observe, a wise iprocedure has been adopted in that the printed 
version is not truncated, while on the other hand the shortened 
version delivered to the meeting aims at the j)ractical brevity 
enjoined by the circumstances and thereby goes far to avoiding 
the weariness which must result, even in the best of papers, from 
the attempt to convey to the audience a mass of detail through 


Proceedings A.8,B. for 1932. 

that member the ear which, as Heraclitus holds, is a bad witffess. 
I cannot too strongly commend the practice of providing a 
printed copy to all hearers in a room •which, I perceive, is not 
destined to fame for its acoustics, so that lame brother ear may 
be helped by halting brother eye. The second Act of your play 
ends with the response to the address, which custom lays upon 
the Patron, if he be present ; and here I daresay you will, without 
scruple, give this much credit to my predecessors, that experience 
in the role of Chairman taught them at all events the precious 
art of brevity. 

Next we come to the third part of your meeting as by 
tradition established,— awards and announcements, made in 
circumstances of dignity, as is meet. 

By this time some relaxation from the concentrated review 
of the year is due and you proceed to the fourth and final part 
of your programme, — the informal inspection of a number of 
exhibits, varied in character like the interests of the Society, 
bixt representing in many instances the latest aspects of zoological, 
botanical, geological, philological, and antiquarian research. 

Such is yoin* programme and it seems to me admirably 
adapted to combine executive business with learned disquisition, 
and the recognition of research with the appreciation of its 
fruits, — in fine to be a procedure worthy of a Society of your 
standing and repute. 

You will be thinking, ladies and gentlemen, that if I am 
to live up to the record of brevity which I have just commended 
in my predecessors it is time that I should turn to the matters 
arising out of the General Secretary’s Report. On this subject, 
however, I really do intend to be brief. I fully appreciate, as 
we all must, the difficulty of the times through which we are 
passing and the discouragement that depression in the world 
outside must bring to those wffio are anxious to see the activities 
of the Society expanding and to take their part in the process 
of expansion. We may take heart from the fact that even in 
these times tHe good w'ork of the Society has been in large 
measure maintained. If the production of the Journal has not 
been as regular as one could desire of so essential a feature of 
your activities, this is a matter which is being rectified by your 
Council, and in other respects your output is most creditable. 
The magmm opus is, of course, the Kashmiri Dictionary w'hieh 
was shown to me when I came here the other day. Its comple- 
tion after 30 years of strenuous labour adds fresh laurels to the 
chaplet of your veteran member, Sir George Grierson. Apart 
from this, publications in the Bibliotheca Indica have made 
available to the reading public still more of the treasures of 
Eastern literature which it was one of the earliest objects of the 
Society to unveil. 

If I say that in mere point of numbers the Society has 
suffered less than usual at the hands of the great Reaper, I 

Patron^ s Address, xxxvii 

mul o not be thougM to minimise the loss to the Society of such 
members as Mr. Vepin Chandra Rai, — our senior member, 
who Joined the Society over half a century ago, — and 
Mr. Macnair who, though a late-comer to our ranks, was by 
himself an institution in Calcutta and was held in the highest 
esteem and affection by great numbers of his fellow-citizens. 
Nor can I forget the tragedy which deprived the Society and 
the Province of the life of Robert Douglas. 

In conveying the congratulations of the Society to those 
who had figured in the Honours Lists of the year I had intended 
to make no individual reference, but the Society would not, 
I believe, easily forgive me if I pass over without comment 
an honour bestowed since the year under review ended on one 
who has deserved well of the Society, — I mean our late President, 
Colonel Sewell. When, within a few months from now% Colonel 
Sew^ell leaves India after a quarter of a century of work here 
and on the neighbouring seas, to take up the leadership of the 
Sir John Minray Oceanographic Expedition the good wishes 
of this Society wiU go with him, and we hope that his monu- 
mental work on the Oceanography of the Indian Seas will in 
due course be supplemented by another volume of equal 
importance to Science and honour to the Society. 

The Society already possesses a remarkable collection of 
busts and paintings. The latter are not all specially related 
to the Society's history but the former are exclusively the efiHgies 
of great men who have taken a leading part in the Society's 
w^ork from its early days. During the year a fine bust of the 
doyen of Indian Philology, Sir George Grierson, has been added 
to our collection. The venerable scholar may feel that even 
35 years after his departure from India, he is not forgotten in 
the scene of his earlier labours and that in his 85th year he is 
still gratefully remembered. The other bust is an extremely 
good likeness of a distinguished past President of the Society, 
but as Dr. Brahmachari is present amongst us, I wiU, out of 
regard for his w^ell -known modesty, say no more than that 
his bust is a valuable addition to a remarkable series. 

Ladies and gentlemen, there is only one circumstance to 
wLich I wish to refer. I see from the Annual Report that your 
General Secretary has to-day completed a second lustrum in his 
tenui’e of this post. I am informed that this length of service 
has only been surpassed twice in the history of the Society 
and that ■we have to go back exactly one hundred years to find 
a Secretary with a longer term of office. Successive Presidents 
and Patrons have acknowledged the part which our genial and 
gifted Secretary has played in all that concerns the working 
of the Society. I hope wn may long enjoy the benefit of his 
ripe erudition and exjierience of affairs. 



Elected and announced in the Annual Meeting , 6th February, 1933., 


The Hon’ble Mr. Justice C. C. Ghose, Kt., Barrister-at-Law. 


Lt.-Col. R. B. Seymour SeweU, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.. Se.D. 

(Cantab.), F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.A.S.B. 

L. L. Fermor, Esq., O.B.E., D.Sc., A.R.S.M., F.G.S., 

M.Inst.M.M., F.A.S.B. 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O., Hon. F.A.S.B. 

Sir David Ezra, Kt., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Secretaries and Treasurer, 

General Secretary: — Johan van Manen, Esq., G.I.E., F.A.S.B. 
Treasurer : — K. C. Mahindra, Esq., B.A. (Cantab.). 

Philological Secretary :—S. K. Chatterji, Esq., M.A., D.Lit. 

Joint Philological Secretary Shamsul ’Ulama Mawlawi 
M. Hidayat Hosain, Khan Bahadur, Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

r Biology: — Baini Prashad, Esq., D.Sc., 
Natural History J F.Z.S., F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B. 

Secretaries. j Physical Science : — J. N. Mukherjee, 

I Esq., D.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S. (Lond.). 
Anthropological Secretary : — The Rev. P. 0. Bodding, M.A., 
F.A.S.B. ■ 

Medical Secretary: — Rai Upendra Nath Brahmachari, 

Bahadur, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

Library Secretary: — B. S. Guha, Esq., M.A., Ph.D. 

Other Members of Council. 

M. Mahfuz-ul Haq, Esq., M.A, 

L. R. Fawcus, Esq., B.A. (Cantab.), I.C.S. 

Percv Brown, Esq., A.R.C.A. 

S. l" Hora, Esq., D.^c. (Edin.), F.Z.S., F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B, 
Lt.-Col. R, N. Chopra, M.B., I.M.S., F.A.S.B. 

( xxxviii ) 




List of 'Exhibits shown after the Annual Meeting , 
OF THE Asiatic Society of Bengal, on the 6th 
February, 1933. 

1. A. F. M. Abdul Ali. 

A collection of Historical Records* 

(1) Letter from Mr. J. Fortnom, Civil Architect, submitting a 

Plan of the town of Calcutta and indicating sites for the 
Hospital and Burying Ground. Estimate of the Houses, 
Sheds, and Goiowns proposed to be erected at Meyapoor. 
(H.D. Pub. A., 9 Feb., 1767, No. 11.) 

(2) Copy of Proposals of Agreement of Nubkessen and Gocul 

Gosaul to farm the Calcutta Town and Lands. (H.D. Pub. 
A., 20 Aug., 1767, No. 1.) 

(3) Letter from the Minister to the King of Rangam (Rangoon) 

intimating that the King has granted Lord Clive some 
ground in his city to make a Factory and Bankshall to 
repair and rebuild ships. (H.D. Pub. A., 1 Feb., 1768, 
No. 2 (a) 16.) 

^4) Letter from Mr. W. Bensley, Church Warden, requesting the 
grant of a new bond for Rs. 50,000 bearing interest at 
8 p.c. for the support of the Charity Fund of St. John’s 
Chapel to avoid the loss threatened by reduction of interest 
on two of the old bonds. (H.D. Pub. A., 11 Apr., 1774, 
No. 1 (a).) 

,(5) Letter from Mr. Charles Weston, Clerk of the Vestry of 
St. John’s Chapel to Mr. John Stewart, Secretary, refusing 
to lease the Court-house unconditionally to the Company, 
but desiring that the Company should always be their 
tenants, and enclosing a copy of the proceedings of the 
Vestry of the St. John’s. (H.D. Pub. A., 9 Feb., 1775, 
No. 1.) 

{6) Letter from Mr. Alexander Elliot, reporting that Messieurs 
Chevalier and 8anson have been arrested, and enclosing 
their parole. Draft of a reply to Mr. Alexander Elliot. 
(H.D. Pub. A., 10 Aug., 1778, Nos. 1-2.) 

(7) Letter from Mr. Robert Farquhar, reporting the death of 

Mr. Elliot, enclosing copies of his letters to Eaja Moodagee 
Bonsola and Col. Leslie, and intimating that before he 
starts for Nagpore, he will leave Mr. EUiot’s valuables with 
CoL Leslie. (H.D. Pub. A„ 19 Oct., 1778, No. 12.) 

(8) Minute of Mr. Philip Francis objecting to the permission 

granted to Messieurs Chevalier and Monneron to go to 
Europe by way of Suez. Governor-General’s minute refus- 
ing to withdraw the permission granted to Messieurs 
Chevalier and Monneron. (H.D. Pub. B., 7 Dec., 1778, 
Nos. 1-2.) 

(9) Translation of a letter from M. Chevalier, requesting com- 

pensation for articles stolen from his warehouses during 
the siege of Chandernagore. (H.D. Pub. B-, 7 Dec., 1778, 
No. 3.) 

(10) Governor- General’s minute making certain propositions for the 
better management of the Company’s monetary affairs. 
(H.D. Pub. A., 29 Feb., 1780, No. 6.) 

( xxxix ) 


Proceedings A,8,B. for 1932. 

(11) Governor* General’s minute relative to tlie Dutch claims. 

(H.D. Pub. A., 10 Apr., 1780, No. 23.) 

(12) Proposition of the Governor-General prohibiting the 

exportation of gold and silver. (H.D. Pub. A., 23 Nov., 
1780, No. 61.) 

(13) Letter from the Commissioners of the Regulating Bill 

proposing to make an alteration in the said bill by 
declaring that the taxes should be paid monthly by the 
occupiers of houses. (H.D. Pub. A., 29 Nov., 1780, No. 18.) 

(14) Letter from Mr. J. P. Aurioi, Agent for Supplies to the 

other presidencies, forwarding musters of rice purchased 
for the use of the Garrison at Fort St. George, requesting 
advances of money for paying the cost and freight to 
Madras, and intimating that he has made an agreement 
with Captain Thornhill for the purchase of 10,000 maunds 
of the best Backergunge rice. Account of rice purchased, 
agreeable to the musters referred to above- List of vessels 
taken up on freight for Madras. (H.D. Pub. C., 28 Dee., 
1780, No. 7.) 

(15) Draft of the oath to be taken by the members of the Board 

of Trade. (H.D. Pub. B., 18 May, 1786, No. 4.) 

(16) Petition from Ramgopal Basu and Giridhar Babu, on behalf 

of the native inhabitants of Calcutta, representing the 
hardships of the poor people on account of the rigorous 
enfoi'cement of the collection of house tax in Calcutta, and 
soliciting redress. (H.D. Pub. B., 24 Aug., 1792, No. 17.) 

(17) Price current of grain on the 12th September. Letter from 

Mr. R. McFarlane, Clerk of the market, to Mr. E. Hay, 
Secretary, enclosing a price current. Price current of 
grain on the 14th September. (H.D. Pub. C., 14 Sep., 1792, 
Nos. 4, 5, 6.) 

(18) Letter from the Commissioners of Police, forwarding several 

statements and accounts relating to the Police office, 
stating that it is not possible to effect any reduction of 
expenses in the Police establishment without reducing the 
salaries of officers, reporting that a considerable portion of 
the arrears of taxes is due from the poorest class ot 
inhabitants, and recommending that persons who live in 
houses at a rent of five rupees and less should be exempted 
from taxes. (H.D. Pub. A., 1 Feb., 1793, No. 18.) 

(19) Introduction of postage stamps in supersession of the system 

of money payments as postage. These papers show what 
attempts were made at the time to print the stamps in 
India. (H.D. Pub. A., 18 March, 1853, No. 1.) 

(20) Postal Reforms. (H.D. Pub., 1 July, 1853, Nos. 1-3.) 

(21) Proclamation issued by the Nana Sahib to incite the Indian 

troops during the Mutiny of 1857, together with its 
translation. Received from Mr. Wynyard, the then Judge 
at Gorakhpore. (H.D. Pub. A., 7 Aug., 1857, No. 137.) 

(22) Completion and fitting up of the ‘ Time Ball ’ for use in 

Calcutta. (H.D. Elec. Tele. Cons., 5 March, 1858, 
Nos, 8-9, A.) 

2., Hangiya Sahitya Parishad. 

Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

(1) SaJctipur Grant of Laks Sena Deva. A copperplate of 
Lakshana Sena Deva newly discovered at Saktipur in 
Murshidabad. Mention of hitherto unknown Kanhagram 

Exhibits Annual Meeting. 


Bhukti is made in this plate (Vide Sahitya Parishad 
Patriha, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4 and Vol. XXXIX, No. 1). 

(2) Chamunda. A Brahmanical image of Dantura, one of the 

eight varieties of Chamunda. It is also identified as 
Kankalini, one of the 64 Yoginis of Chamunda. From 
Attahas, Burdwan. 

(3) Manuscript cover— Engraved. 

{4) Manuscript cover—'EiugTB.vedi. 

(5) Manuscript cover — Painted. 

(6) Old painting. Depicting a scene of Krishna-leela. 

(7) Muhtd-carita. Date of Composition Saka 1546, date of MS. 

1103 B.S. (1196 A.D.). It is a metrical translation in 
Bengali by Narayandasa of a Sanskrit work of the same 
name by Raghunathdas Goswami. It deals with the love 
^ affairs of Radha and Krishna in connection with a pearl 


(8) Caura-Chahravarti. Period of composition 17th century, 

date of MS. 1172 B.S. (1765 A.D.). The author Kashiswar, 
describes through stories the principles of stealing and 

(9) Autograph of Maharajadhiraja Prithvipaii Bamkrishna Bay 

Bahadur. (Natore family.) 

(10) Samachar Darpan. The oldest newspaper in Bengali, 1818 

A.D, Editor T. 0. Marshman, Published from Serampore. 

(11) Playing cards from Vishnupur— 20 pieces. [Cf. H. P. Shastri, 

Note on Bishnupiir Circular Cards — J.A S.B., 1895, Vol. 64, 
pt. I, p. 284.] 

3« L. Bogdanov. 

(1) A Persian ^ Cup of Forty Keys \ 

{Jdm-i Chihil KiVld.) 

(Probably XVII-XVm century.) 

Diameter 6 ins. (on top), 2 ins. (bottom). Elaborately carved and 
ornamented in relief -work. 

One half of the brim is occupied by the short (3 verses) CX Chapter 
of the Qur’an Suratu-n-N asr ' — ‘The Chapter of the Assist- 
ance’) inscribed in a somewhat angular naskhi-script. On 
the second half of the brim begins without any transition (except 
the usual introductory formula) the longer (29 verses) XLVIII 
Chapter of the Qur’an — ‘The Chapter of the 

Victory’), which runs right to the bottom of the cup, is continued 
on the outside and ends in the small hollow on the outside of the 

The inside of the cup is ornamented by a bold strap-work design in 
relief, a wheel -shaped design in relief covers the convex part of the 
bottom, around which is inscribed in bold relief warsZa’Zi^r-characters 
the well-known prayer to ’Ali (dui’d-i nadiAU). On the outside 
of the cup, just under the brim, run all around (enclosed each in its 
thin frame, and divided from the rest by a double line) invocations 
to the twelve imams. Under the same are carved in relief the 
twelve Signs of the Zodiac. 

Magic power was attributed to these cups in Persia, and they were 
more especially made to order in cases of barrenness of women, 
which was supposed to be removed by means of ablutions from 
•such cups. The Suras of the Qur’an inscribed on them are selected 
not so much for their contents, as by virtue of their titles, fath 
meaning not only ‘Victory’, but also ‘the action of opening’, 
and the combination of the two titles ^Nasr"^ and ^ Fath^ being 


Proceedings A,8.B, for 1932. 

an allusion to v. 13, s. LXI of the Qur’an: nasrun mina-llahi wa 
fathun gan6 * Assistance from God, — and victory is near’, which is 
often found inscribed on old swords (with the meaning ‘ Victory ’) and 
on entrance-doors of Persian houses (in the meaning of ^opening’). 

Holes are sometimes made in the brim of the cup and a score or so 
of small flat pieces of brass, roughly reminding one of keys, are 
attached to it on a string. Or else, a funnel-shaped small cup with a 
dozen holes in the brim is fixed on the top of the convex bottom, one 
such key -shaped piece of brass dangling from each hole. 

(2) A7i Afghan drinking-cup. 

(Probably early XIX century.) 

Diameter 7 ins. (top), ins. (bottom). Originally whitened with 
tin, as are, in general, all brass-vessels in Afghanistan. The tin 
has been removed by the present owner. The bottom on the inside 
is covered by an elaborate fiower-design {hiita) in relief, the rest of 
the inside surface remaining plain, except for four roughly engraved 
almond-shaped (badamcha) ornaments, repeated also on the outside, 
where they divide the four hemistichs of the roughly carved following 
quatrain : 

‘ 0 owner of the bowl ! may sorrow be forgotten by thee ! 

May the desire of thy heart be always attained by thee ! ’ 

* Whenever thou shouldst desire the Water of Life, 

0 thou who drinkest from this bowd, may it be s%ve©t to thee I ’ 

Each hemistich is, besides, enclosed in a roughly cut frame. 
Underneath the verses, 8 star-shaped (sitdra) ornaments alternate 
with 4 flower-buds (buta). 

A relief strap-work flower design half an inch wide runs under the 
brim of the bowl. The brim is covered with an S -shaped strap -work 

The plain bottom is decorated with two double-line concentric 

4. Miss M. L. Cleghobh. 

Increased Production of Superior Silk in Bengal, 

Chart shewing a revised programme of work recommended for 
increasing the outturn of superior reeling silk in Bengal, as within the 
Silk Industry there is a great source of wealth when the natural 
advantages i)ossessed by Bengal for superior crops of silk during the 
cold season are used to their fullest extent. 

5. K. N. Dikshit. 

Some antiquities recently excavated at Paharpur. 

The antiquities exhibited her© are excavated from a shrine outside 
the great monastery at Paharpur, The terra cotta fragments with 
rows of Buddhas attaining enlightenment and preaching decorated 
the basement of votive stupas arranged round the central shrine. 
The latter was most probably dedicated to the worship of Tara whose 
effigy is stamped on scores of seals found in the excavations. The 
votive shrines in the courtyard show elaborate designs in their 
planning reminiscent of the cruciform plan of the Paharpur Temple. 
The contents of relic chamber of one of these votive shrines were 
examined and vast numbers of unbumt clay stupas — complete with 
basement, drum and finial — encasing minute round sealings impressed 
with the Buddhist creed were found. In the later stages of Buddhism 
under the Palas of Bengal as represented at Nalanda and Paharpur, 

Exhibits Annual Meeting, 


the corporeal relics o£ Buddha and his apostles being scarce, were 
substituted in the sacred stupas and shrines by the well-known 
creed formulae — Ye Dharma”, etc., which was impressed on clay 
and treated as if it were the holy relic of the Buddha. 

L. L. Febmob. 

Gem Stones from Mogoh and other localities. 

I. Mogok and neighbotjbhood. 

(1) Ruby .. {a) Natural crystal. 

(6) Star ruby. 

{2) Sapphire .. (a) Crystal in the matrix from Kyatpyin. 

(6) Natural crystal. 

(c) Cut pale blue gem. 

(d) Several star sapphires. 

(e) Zoned section. 

(3) Spinel . . (a) Crystal in the matrix. 

(b) Natural crystals with zircons from road- 

side, Viewpoint. 

(c) Natural crystals-— Kanese. 

(d) Single crystal. 

(e) Cut gems. 

(4) Zircons (a) Natural crystals. 

(6) Cut gems. 

{^) Topaz .. (a) Natural crystals, Sakangyi. 

(6) Cut gems. 

(6) Amethyst .. Cut gem. 

(7) Chrysoheryl Natural crystal. 

(8) Moonstone . . (a) Natural crystal. 

(6) Cut gem. 

(9) Scapolite , . Cut gem. 

(10) Peridot . . Uncut fragments. 

(11) Tommaline Natural crystals. 

(12) Lapis Lazuli. 

II. Othbb Localities. 

(13) Garnet .. Gems from Sarwar and Bajmahal, Raj putana. 

(14) Blue spinel , . ? Synthetic. Purchased in Cairo. 

7. 0. C. Gangoly, 

An Illustrated page from a palm-leaf MS. of the Prajhaparamita. 

Nepali, Probable date 978 A.D. 

The MS. (of 139 leaves) is in a somewhat mutilated condition, 
though the text is in a fine state of preservation. The colophon has 
been traced. On the cover there is a writing in very old hand, 
giving the date of the MS. as Samvat 899 A.D. The character of the 
script is analogous to that of the Bodleian Library MS. of Prajha- 
paramita dated in the 15th year of Ramapala. 

8. Geological Survey oe India. 

(1) Casts of the fossil remains of the Peking Man. 

(Sinanthropus Pekinensis, Black,) 

The brain-case of this fossil man, one of the oldest of the race 
of Palaeolithic men, was discovered in 1929 by Dr. W. C. Pei at Chou 

Proceedings A.8,B.for 1932. 


Koii Tien, near Peking, China. The fragments represent portions of 
the sknll of an adolescent youth of about 15 to 18 and of an adult 
woman. Other human skulls, jaws, and single molar teeth have 
since been found from this locality. This Peking Man, together with 
the Piltdown Man WOANTHROPUS found in Sussex, England, in 
1912, and the Java man PithecanihrQ'pus found in Trinil, Java, in 
1891, are believed to be the three most primitive members of the 
human family at present known. 

(2) Fragments of a Meteorite. 

The fall occurred at Khanpur, in the Ghazipur District, United 
Provinces, on the 8th of July, 1932. 

(3) Unusually transparent Barytes. 

From Balpalapalle, near Betamcherla, ICurnool District, Madras. 

(4) Thin section of Deccan trap lava flow. 

From a boring at Dbanduka, Kathiwar, 2,000 feet deep, showing 
crystals of Peridot in polarised light. 

9. Sunder Lal Hora. 

•(1) Mud-fishing in Lower Bengal. 

On the 2nd of January in connection with my studies on the fauna 
of brackish waters in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, a visit was paid 
to Uttar Bhag, a small village on the Piali Nadi about 23 miles 
to the south of Calcutta. Of the various methods of fishing observed 
in that locality, there were two that seemed to me of special interest. 

{i) It is known that throughout India and Burma, when tanks and 
paddy fields are drying up, fish are taken in the mud by the hand. 
At Uttar Bhag a boy was observed collecting fish and Crustacea 
(prawns and crabs) in the low-lying part of a paddy field in small 
pools of water or what seemed from the distance to be semi -liquid 
mud. On my taking an interest in his catch, other boys also joined 
him and in about half an hour’s time they brought to me a represen- 
tative collection of animals from this puddle. It is highly 
surprising that the collection contained as many as 15 species of fish, 
4 species of prawns and 1 species of crab. Most of these species are 
known to be very hardy, and some of these fishes have been observed 
to aestivate a few feet below the surface during dry months. There 
are two important ecological factors which such an animal associa- 
tion has to contend with, namely, the rapidly decreasing quantity of 
water and the consequent lack of facilities for aquatic respiration, 
and secondly, the increase of salinity of water due to evaporation. 

{ii) It is also known that during rains or at high tide branches of 
trees are sometimes stuck in suitable, shallow, marshy places to 
attract fish which resort to this improvised shelter for safety. When 
the water begins to fall, a fairly high hund is made round this area 
and the water is then bailed out. When the water is almost 
exhausted, the fish leave the shelter and are readily caught in the 
mud. Certain species burrow in the mud and are caught by several 
other interesting devices. If indiscriminate bailing out of water is 
clone, there is a likelihood of some fishes being accidentally thrown out. 
To prevent this a very interesting device was observed at Uttar 
Bhag. A small comer of the area enclosed was separated off by a 
hund composed of grass and mud. Such a barrier allows the water 
to percolate, but does not permit any fish to pass through. Further 
a piece of old cloth is stretched, like a sail, over this secondary hund 

Exhibits Annual Meeting. 


SO as to prevent any fish from jumping over this obstr action. The 
bailing of water is done from the smaller enclosed area. 

The two fishing methods illustrated by photographs, and 


(2) Peculiar Gat-fishes of the Andes in South America. 

The Siluroids or Cat-fishes are generally characterised by the 
absence of any kind of scales on their bodies, but in South America 
there is a large family (Lorieariidae) of these fishes, most of the 
members of which are provided with scutes. They live in rapid 
waters and are adapted in several ways for adhering to rocks, and for 
ofiering less resistance to swift currents. Special attention may be 
directed to the form of these fishes and to their peculiar suctorial 


10. Satya Churn Law. 

Some Studies in Bird Architecture. 

The species — all local and resident-— whose figures or nests are 
herein delineated are among a host of rather delicate and diminutive 
birds which have been thoroughly reconciled to cage -life. 

(1) The Indian White Efe (Zosterops p. palpehrosa Temm.) and its 


(2) Do. A study in Caliology. 

(3) Nest of TickelFs Flower-pecker {Dicceum e. erythrorhynchum 


(4) Do. A pencil sketch. 

(o) The Scarlet-backed Flower-pecker {Dicmum c. cruentatum 

(6) Nest of the small Minivet {Pericrocotus cinnamomeus iredalei 
S. Baker). 

11. Panchan AN Mitba and P. C. Biswas. 

(1) Santali cloth. 

Collected from a village at the base of Digria hill about 4 miles 
from Jashidhi in Santal Parganas. The Santals spin and weave 
this standard type of cloth with their own spinning wheel and treadle 
loom which is of great antiquity in India. It is found in every 
household, as in Assam, or in the old lake dwellings of Switzerland. 
The size of the cloth is 5 ft. by 2J ft., and the colour of it is remark- 
able as a possible survival in imitation of the bark cloth (Kashya 
bostra). Generally they use it as body cloth, but they wear it 
also when they go to huts or to other villages. 

.( 2 ) Stringed Instrument {musical bow). 

Collected from a village called Chandrapura at Katikund about 
18 miles away from Dumka in Santal Parganas. The string is 
made of Sinew. The resonator is made of wood and is covered 
by goat skin. According to Mr. Balfour the musical bow is the 
originator of ail stringed musical instruments. According to Miss 

Roberts India is the probable centre of origin and dispersal of 
musical bow. This specimen shows the early transition from simple 
bow with mouth as resonator as in Hawaii to the fixed simple 
resonator type. In Munda ‘Buang’ we have the single string 
but a movable resonator and is thus a little more primitive than this 
type. The bow stick is made of hair from horse tail. 

(3) Flute, 

This flute is made of bamboo. It was collected from a village 
known as Ashan Pahari at Katikund, 15 miles away from Dumka in 
Santal Parganas. The Santals blow it with the mouth by holding 
it horizontally. The nose flute is also of this type. 

(4) Fishing Trwp. 

It is a bamboo trap, collected from Ashan Pahari in vSantai 
Parganas. The Santals drive bamboos thickly crosswise in a down 
stream and keep a small opening for outlet, in front of which 
they place this trap. It is prepared in such a way that fish can 
enter in but cannot come out of it. It is similar to the Assamese 
type, and can be traced as far as Pacific. 

(b) Stone Implements, 

Collected from Kunda about three miles from Deoghar proper 
in Santal Parganas on the bank of a stream. They are small pieces 
of microlithic flakes possibly used as arrow heads from Mesolithic 
time till much latter. They are of the same type as pigmy flakes 
of Europe found in abundance also in South India, Ranchi, 
Chakradharpur, Mirzapur District, etc., and thus form part of such 
a widespread culture in India (Vide Mittra, Pre-historic Itidia, 
Second edition. Chapter Vll), 

12. Hem Singh Phtjthi. 

Maternal Care shown hy the Cockroach. 

Among insects instances of maternal care are very rarely met with 
outside the order Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, Ants, etc.). It is, 
therefore, of great interest to see an example from among the 

The cockroach, Phlehonotus pallens, lives in water. Unlike most 
cockroaches, it does not lay eggs but gives birth to fully developed 
young which differ from the mother only in size and the absence 
of wings. The young are very delicate and readily devoured by 
their enemies. Soon after their birth they crawl on the body of 
their mother and take shelter under its wings. The wings are large 
and arched and together with the upper side of the abdomen, which 
is depressed, form a chamber inside which the nymphs can be carried 
about comfortably. The wings are opaque and the young lying 
under them are so nicely packed (photo) that the human eye cannot 
detect on superficial examination that the individual is carrying 
about so many young. The female cockroach does not look at all 
bulky nor is it awkward in its movements whilst it is carrying them. 

In view of the fact that cockroaches have numerous enemies, the 
habit of carrying the newly born young in the fashion described 
above seems a very efficient safeguard for the protection of the 
progeny. Moreover this habit is very useful for spreading the species. 

Exhibits Annual Meeting, 

13* B. K. Sabaswati. ■ ^ ' 

The following Exhibits were collected in course of a recent tour in 
the districts of Malda and Dinajpur. 

(1) Inscribed image of Avalokitesvara from Poondri, Dinagpur 

The image was discovered from a tank at Poondri, a village some- 
9 miles south-west of Bunshihari, a police station in the south of 
the district of Dinajpur. The statue, which is in a fair state of 
preservation, represents the god Avalokitesvara, the Bodhisattva 
of the present Kalpa, known in Buddhist literature as the Bhadra- 
kalpa. The base is quite plain but for the inscribed Mahay^na creed. 
The backslab is quite plain, but for two pUrtta motifs on the throne 
back and two miniature stupas on two sides of the halo. The 
paucity of ornaments on the backslab, the rounded stela, the 
scratched folds of the cloth and the easy and graceful pose combined 
with a not too slender volume ascribe the sculp ture to the 9th 
century A.D., a date also substantiated by the characters of the 

{2) Inscribed pedestal from Nahety Dinajpur district. 

This fragment represents the pedestal of an image of Vishnu as is 
evident from Garuda, his carrier, being engraved on it. The inscrip- 
tion on it most probably reads : 

Ddnapati adet | 

(3) Image of Vishni,u from Ghanasyampur, Dinajpur district. 

The statue represents Vishnu of the sub-variety Trivikrama, with 
Padma, Gadd Chakra^ and S'afikha in his four hands beginning from 
the right lower. He has the usual attendants Lakshmt and Sarasvatt 
and the two dyudkapurusas. The image is carved completely in 
the round from the ankles to the armpits. The backslab shows 
gaja-simha, supporting the throne-back with the makara lintel over 
which appear, on two sides, a kinnara and a kinnari. Above, 
on either side a flying gandharva with garland oversects the pointed 
stela topped by a MrUimukha. The pointed stela, the cutting away 
of the backslab parallel to the outline of the main deity, the raised and 
wavy folds of the drapery, the wealth of ornaments on the backslab, 
etc., ascribe the sculpture to the 12th century A.D. to which the 
letters of the inscription also seem to correspond. The inscription 
seems to read : 

Pasathava \ 

most probably standing for Vdsudeva^ a name of Vishnu. 

14*';M Seth. 

{l) Mogal Coins 

Gold Mohurs of Akbar, square and round. 

Do. of Jahangeer, square and round. 

Do. of Shah Jahan do. and do. 

Do. of Aurangzebe, round. 

‘ Zodiacal ’ Mohurs of Jahangeer. 

‘Portrait’ do, of do. 

' Zodiacal ’ Rupees of do. 

Square and round Rupees of Akbar. 

Do. do. do. of Jahangeer, 

Proceedings A.S.B.for 1932 . 

Round Rupees of Shah Jahan, Aurangzebe, Farrukhsiyar^ 
Mohammad Shah, Ahmad Shah, and Shah Alam. 

Lucknow Mohurs and Rupees. 

Murshidabad Mohurs and Rupees. 

(2) Kushan gold coins of Kanishka, Huvishka, and Vasudeva. 

(3) gold coins. 

(4) ‘ East India Company ’ coins : — 

Single and double-Mohurs of William IV, 1835. 

‘English East India Company’ Mohurs and Mohurs, 

struck in the Madras Mint in 1820. 

‘Lion and Palm Tree’ Mohur of Queen Victoria, struck 
in the Calcutta Mint in 1841. 

(5) Burma Rupees, with ‘peacock’ obverse. 

Do. one, two, four, and eight anna pieces and one pice. 

(6) Silver coins of Nadirshah of Persia. 

(7) Do. do. of the Saffavi Kings of Persia. 

(8) Do. do. of the Kajar Kings of Persia. 

(9) Do. do. of Afghanistan. 

(10) Do. do. of Turkey, Egypt, and Chinese Turkestan, 

(11) silver coins. 

(12) Parthian silver and copper coins. 

(13) Sassanian Do. and do. do. 

(14) Elymais (Susiana) copper coins. 

(15) Armenian silYev and copper coins of the Rubanian dynasty 
of Cilicia. 

(16) Silver ‘ Tetradrachms ’ of Seleucus and Eukradites. 

(17) Do. do. and drachuns of Alexander The 


(IS) Gold ‘ Stater ’ of Alexander The Great. 

(19) Siamese ‘ Ticals ’ (bullet coins) Silver. 

(20) Tahora (German East Africa) ‘ 15 Rupien,’ of 1916. 

(21) Silver Rupees of the Pathan Kings of Delhi. 

(22) Hyderabad (Nizamis) old and new Rupees. 

(23) Nepal gold Mohur and Rupees. 

(24) Kruger {Transvaal) Sovereign and J sovereign. 

(25) Do. Penny. 

(26) Maria Theresa Dollar of 1780. 

(27) Copper coin of Tiberius, A.D. 14-37. 

15. Bahadur Sihch Sihghi. 

' ( 1 ) An autograph letter written by Lord Clive from Berkley Square^ 
London, dated 31 ^^ May, 1764 . 

( 2 ) A commemorative silver medal of Lord Clive. 

Obv . : — Portrait of Lord Clive with the following inscriptions 

Rev.: — A monument with the inscriptions : — 

“ 1757 Feb. 5 Nabobs Camp destroyed 
June 23 Victorious at Plassey 
1765 established, peace, in. Bengal 
and. made. Omra. of. the. Empire. 

Around : — Honour, the. reward of merit. 

Below :—ANNO~-l 766. 

( 3 ) An autograph letter written by Arthur Wellesley (Duke of 

Wellington) from Seringapatam, dated Jtily 1st, 1801 . 

Exhibits Annual Meeting. 


( 4 ) A silver mounted presentation sword presented by Lord 

W ellesley to Major Allan with the facsimile of the obverse 
of the Seringapatam medal engraved on one side of the 
scabbard and the following inscription on the other side of 
the scabba7'd : 

Presented by the Most Noble The Marquis Wellesley Governor 
General of India to Major Allan Deputy Quarter Master General of 
the Army before Seringapatam. 

( 5 ) A commemorative silver medal of Lord Cornwallis. 

Obv . : — Portrait of Lord Cornwallis with inscription in Latin. 

EetK : — Lord Cornwallis receiving the two sons of Tippoo Sultan as 
hostages ; with Latin inscriptions and date MDCCXCIII 
= 1793. 

( 6 ) Seringapatam Medal. 

Obv. I — British Lion trampling the Mysore tiger on the field and a 
flag with Arabic inscriptions date — -4 May MDCCXCIX 
= 1799, 

Eev . : — Bombardment of Seringapatam Fort and Persian inscription 
and date. 

( 7 ) An aquatint engraving of Felicity Hall. 

Late the Residence of the Hon’ble David Anstruther near 
Moorshedabad, Bengal. By DanielL Published March 1, 1804. 

16 . The General Secbetaby. 

( 1 ) The Society's publications of 

(а) Bibliotheca Indica. 

(б) Memoirs. 

(c) Journal. 

{d) Proceedings, Indian Science Congress. 

( 2 ) Some acquisitions of interest to the Library during 1932 . 

{a) Presentations. 

(5) Purchases. 

( 3 ) Some recent publications by Members of the Society. 

St. Kramrisch: Pala and Sena Sculptures. Calcutta, 1929. 

B. C, Law : Geography of Early Buddhism. London, 1932. 

B. M, Barua : Gaya and Buddha- Gaya. Calcutta, 1931. 

B. Prashad : Pelecypoda of the Siboga Expedition. Leyden, 1932. 
B. T. Bhattacharya : An Introduction to Buddhist Esoterism. 
Mysore, 1932. 

M, Mahfuz-ui Haq : Persian Diwan of Kamran. Calcutta, 1929. 

N, Roerich : Realm of Light. New York, 1931. 

K. C. De: Report on the Fisheries of Eastern Bengal and Assam. 
Shillong, 1910. 

( 4 ) A Dictionary of the Kashmiri Language. Compiled by Sir 

George A . Grierson . 

( 5 ) The Society's Council Files from 1926 to 1931 . 


Proceedings A, S,B. for 19B2. 

( 6 ) The Bibliography of Persian and Arabic Manuscripts, 

It has been said that a book without an index is like a house 
without windows and Samuel J ohnson has remarked that a dilettante 
is the man who does not know what has already been published on 
his own subject. These two sayings indicate clearly the importance 
of the science of bibliography which for any branch of study furnishes 
the indexes to publications and materials. The layman is general- 
ly not aware of the immense amount of work existent on bibliogra- 
phical research. In the field of philology, whatever the language, 
bibliographical literature is indispensable, and that to an all the 
greater degree as the literature concerned is only imperfectly known. 
For libraries concerned with the collection of Oriental manuscripts 
one of the first demands is a proper classification and a proper 
description of the material collected. This cannot be done with any 
measure of perfection unless the material already available elsewhere is 
compared and utilized. The Society possesses one of the world’s 
important collections of Arabic and Persian Manuscripts, together 
counting nearly 5,000 volumes. Of these the Persian manuscripts 
have been catalogued in detail whilst the cataloguing of the Arabic 
manuscripts has been begun. Incidental to this work is the collec- 
tion of the published bibliographies in the world’s public and private 
collections. The Society possesses one of the largest collections 
of material of this kind to be found in India and probably also else- 
where, counting about 170 separate items. These represent not only 
the great standard catalogues of amplitude, but a number of small 
items only to be found with difficulty. This collection is exhibited 
and a brief conspectus of the material is subjoined. 


Berlin — Royal Library ; Munich—State Library ; Paris —National 
Library ; Hamburg — Municipal Library ; Cambridge— University 
Library ; Cambridge — College Library ; Madrid — Escurial Library : 
Edinburgh — ^Bibliotheca Lmdesiana ; St. Petersburg — Imperial Pub- 
lic Library; London— India Office; Edinburgh— University Library ; 
Vienna— Court Library ; Leyden— Academy ; Cambridge — Prof. 
Browne’s Library; Cambridge— Trinity College Library; Madrid — 
Junta Library ; London — British Museum ; St, Petersburg— Institute 
of Oriental Languages; Oxford — Bodleian Library; Uppsala — 
University Library; Glasgow— Hunterian Library; Padua— Biblio- 
theca Naniana; Lisbon —Academy of Sciences; Strassburg — Univer- 
sity Library ; Dresden — Royal Library ; Rome — Caetani Library ; 
Gotha— Library ; Madrid — Tetuan Collection ; Copenhagen — Royal 
Library ; London — Royal Asiatic Society ; Leipzig — German Oriental 
Society ; Turin — Royal Academy of Sciences ; Gotha— Ducal Library : 
Tubingen — University Library. 

India, ■ 

Patna — Bankipore Library; Calcutta — -Buhar Library; Hydera- 
bad, Deccan — Asifiyya Library ; Rampur— State Library ; Calcutta — 
Asiatic Society of Bengal; Mysore— Tippoo Sultan Library ; Madras 
Government Library ; Calcutta— Madrasa Library ; Calcutta — 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, Hyderabad Collection ; Calcutta — College of 
Fort William; Patna — Khuda Baksh Library; Bombay — Mulla 
Feroz Library ; Lucknow — King of Oudh Library. 

Islamic East. 

Cairo — Khedivial Library ; Beyrouth — St. Joseph Library ; Mosul — 
College Libraries; Rabat — Protectorate Library; Cairo — Khedivial 

Exhibits Annual Meeting- 


Library ; Constantinople— Private 2 ; Constantinople — Aya-Sofia 
Library : Constantinople — Madrasa-i-Sarviti ; Tehran — Library of the 
MajhHs ; Fez — ^Mosque Library; Tlemcen — Medersa; Mount Sinai— 
St. Catharine’s Convent ; Tunisia— Various ; Constantinople-Private 
: Library of H.M. the Sultan. 


Princeton— University Library. 

Private Collections, 

Landberg (Berlin) ; Clement Huart (Paris) ; Charles Schefer (Paris) ; 
Merlin Haug (Germany) ; Hiersemann (Leipzig); Brill (Leiden); 
Kremer (Germany) ; Marsden (London) ; Bernard Quaritch (London) ; 
Paul Sbath (Cairo) ; Baron Silvestre de Sacy (Paris) ; Sprenger 


Constantinople, Cairo ; Arabic Papyri ; Some rare Persian MSS. 

Printed boohs. 

Chauvin — Arabic works published in Europe from 1810 to 1885; 
British Museum (London) ; Bibliography of Egypt and the Sudan ; 
Omar Khayyam Bibliography ; Sarkis’ Bibliography of printed books 
in Arabic since the beginning of printing to 1919. • 


The Councii of the Asiatic Society of Bengal has the honour 
to submit the following report on the state of the Society’s 
affairs during the year ending the 31st December, 1932. 

1. Ordinary Members. 

(1) Totals . — The calculated total of Ordinar^y Members 
on the roll of the Society at the close of 1932 was 452 as against 
519 at the close of 1931, a net decrease of 67 during the year. 
This is the fourth annual decrease in membership in succession, 
although the decrease is 10 less than that of the year before. 
At the end of the year the total was almost equal to that a,t 
the end of 1925, and is still 115 higher than at the end of 1923 
which was the Society’s latest low-ebb time in point of 

(2) Gains and losses . — These were as follows during the 




New elections . . . . 21 

Total . . 21 

Application withdrawn 


Elections lapsed 


Elections carried forward 

* • ' ' 5 


, . 5 



Rule 38 


Rule 40 

■ '8 


. . 88 

Initial total 519 ; net loss 67 ; final total 452. 

(3) General . — The continued loss of membership during 
1932 has been foreseen in the previous years’ report and no 
hope is entertained that for the next two or three years con- 
ditions will materially improve. As long as the present financial 
crisis persists in the world the Asiatic Society of Bengal must 
share the fate of most similar Societies, which is to receive 
a maximum of resignations and a minimum of accessions. 
The number of new admissions was 21, only very slightly more 
than in the year before. It may be that the shght increase 
in admissions and decrease in losses indicates that the worst 
trouble is over, though full and satisfactory recovery cannot 
be expected very soon. We have not yet any justified ground 
for great optimism regarding the strength of our ranks for 
the next few years. The position is not satisfactory. 

It should be noted that the total decrease in membership 
is almost identical with the decrease in the number of non- 
resident Members, who naturally do not have the benefit of 

( Hi ) 

Anmial Report for 1932. 


the use of the Booms of the Society and the daily facilities 
of its Library. The resident total remained almost the same, 
which is a matter of some satisfaction. 

{4:) Rule ZS . — ^This Buie, dealing with members whose 
subscriptions are in arrears, was again strictly applied and 
the names of no less than 21 Members were consequently re- 
moved from the roll for this cause. This number is exceptionally 
and regrettably large — higher than at any time during the 
last ten years. A simxDle postcard from such Members as have 
lost interest in the Society or who find it, for whatever reason, 
inconvenient to continue their membership, is sufficient to 
regularise their resignation. To be removed from the member- 
ship register for non-payment of dues is not dignified and debars 
the defaulting Member from any future re-entry in the Society 
unless he pays all arrears and such further subscriptions as he 
would have been chargeable with under the Buies if his member- 
ship had continued. In several cases such defaulters have 
later found cause for regret for not having properly resigned 
and for having allowed their membership to lapse. There is 
in this matter still considerable slackness. 

(5) Membership List . — -The customary and very necessary 
detailed cross-check of the membership lists with the member- 
ship card index was made at the end of the year. 

(6) Non-resident Members . — Their total at the end of 
the year was 126, leaving more than ever room for substantial 

(7) Life-members . — The total of our Life-members has. 
increased by 2 and now stands at 54. None were lost by death 
and two Ordinary Members compounded during the year. We- 
again press upon the older Members of about 20 years' standing,, 
or over, the desirability of compounding for a life-membership.. 
After such a long participation in our work the compounding 
fee is relatively small, and a most valued asset to the Society 
is the continued presence in its ranks of those old friends andl 
colleagues who have so long shared its labours and have helped 
to bear its burdens. Especially those who after an honourable 
career in India retire to Europe should maintain their con- 
nection with the Society at a relatively small cost to themselves 
but to the great satisfaction of those who continue the work 
.dri' India. ' 

(8) Deaths . — This year the loss to the Society by death 
has been less heavy than the year before. Amongst the distin- 
guished and specially valued Members lost to us, whose 
memory will be cherished, and for whose departure the Society 
is the poorer, the following may be mentioned : — 

Vepln Chandra Rai (Ordinary Member, 1880, Senior Member- 
of the Society). 

Geo. B. MacNair (Ordinary Member, 1930). 

R. Oongias (Ordinary Member, 1930). Assassinated. 

iiv Proceedings A. 8. B, for 

2 * Associate Members. 

(1) During 1932 no new Associate Members were elected 
but three already on the roll were re-elected for a further period 
of five years whilst in one case the period of membership was 
not so renewed. 

(2) The present number stands at 7 ; statutory maxi - 
imim 15. 

3. Special Honorary Centenary Members. 

(1) Our only surviving Special Honorary Centenary Member 
still remains with us. 

4. Institutional Members* 

(1) During Ihe year no Institutions were newly admitted 
to this class of membership. Their total number is 5. 

5. Ordinary Fellows. 

(1) At the Amiual Meeting held on the 1st February, 
1932, the following Member was elected an Ordinary Fellow : — 

M. J. Bacot. 

(2) Two Fellows were lost under the provisions of Buie 38, 

Sir Abdulla A. Suhrawardy (1918). 

Dr. G. iSf. Mukhopadhyaya (1923). 

(3) At the end of 1932 the number of Ordinary Fellows 
was 45 ; statutory maximum 50. 

6. Honorary Fellows. 

(1) During the year no new Honorary Fellow was elected. 

(2) One Honorary Fellowr w’^as lost by death : — 

Dr. W. Caland (1930). 

(3) At the end of 1932 the number was 28 ; statutory 
maximum 30. 

7. Obituary. 

(1) During the year the Society received to its great regret 
news of the death of the following distinguished relations : — 

L© R. P. B. E. L. M. Durand, Corresponding Member of the 
French School of the Far East, Hanoi. 

Le R. P, Maximilian Marie Paul Arnoulx de Pirey, Corresponding 
Member of the French School of the Far East, Hanoi. 

B. De, Editor of a work in the Indica and one-time 

Council Member of the Society. 

Dr. Barton Warren Evermann, Director of the Museum and 
of the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy. 

Annual Report for 19Z2 , iv 

8. Condoiences. 

(1) The Council expressed condolences to the relatives 
of the follomng distinguished personalities deceased during 
the year : — ■ 

Dr. W. Caland, Honorary Fellow of the Society. 

Sir Ronald Ross, a recipient of the Barclay Memorial Medal. 

9. ConnciL 

(1) The Council met 11 times during the year. The atten- 
dance averaged 8 of the 19 component members. 

(2) The following resolutions of thanks were passed by 
the Council : — 

To the Hon’ble Sir B. L. Mitter for his nre^^entations to the 
Society of the Full Power granted- to h E ^y^ his Majesty to 
represent the Empire of India at the Leslie of Nations. 

To Dr. Gilbert P. Whitley and Dr. S. L. Hora for the presenta- 
tion to the Society of a valuable autograph MS. of Hamilton 
Buchanan on the Fishes of Lower Bengal. 

To Dr. Brahmachari and Mr. James Insch for meeting the cost 
of the purchase of a Dictionary of the living High Russian 

To the outgoing members of Council for the services rendered 
by them to the Society. 

To Dr. Brahmachari for the valuable services rendered by 
him to the Society as Acting President, and for the com- 
pletion of the set of photographs of the past Presidents of 
the Society presented by him. 

To President, Sir C. C. Ghose, for his offer to defray the ex- 
penses of light refreshments to the Members of the Society 
before the Monthly General Meetings. 

To Dr. B. C. Law for his presentation to the Society of an 
enlarged coloured photograph of the late MM. H. P. Shastri. 

To Mr. James Tnsch for the valuable services rendered by him 
to the Society by his unstinted labour and profitable advice 
as its Honorary Treasurer. 

To Sir J. C. Coyajee for his presentation to the Society of an 
English edition of Swedenborg’s works in 28 volumes. 

To Mrs. Brahmachari for the -presentation to the Society of 
a marble bust of Dr. Brahmachari. 

To Mr. C. W. Garner for his presentation to the Society of a 
set of the Journal of the Hellenic Society, Great Britain. 

10. Office Bearers. 

(1) The changes in the Council during the year were as 


Mr. James Insch resigned from the Council with effect from the 
. .. . 31st July. 

Mr, K. 0. "Mahindra was re-appointed Treasurer from the 1st 

Dr. S. L. Hora was appointed Council Member from the 1st 

Lt.-Ool. R. Knowles resigned from the Council with effect from 
the 27th August. 

M ' ■ PT<xmdings A.S»B. for 

(2) Absences other than those mentioned above were :— 

Mr. Gumer, from 7-4-32 to the end of the year. 

Dr, Jenkins, from 1-4-32 to the end of the year. 

Sir David Ezra, from 4-5-32 to 1-11-32. 

Mr. Fawcns, from 20-4-32 to 1-11-32. 

Dr. Fermor, from 4-5-32 to 16-11-32. 

Sir 0. C. Ghose, from 10-5-32 to 29-5-32, from 2-10-32 to 
13-11-32 and from 15-12-32 to the end of the year. 

Sir J. 0. Coyajee, from 26-5-32 to the end of the year. 

Mr. Mahfuzui Haq, from 15-5-32 to 1-7-32 and from 1-10-32 
to 1-11-32. 

Dr. Brahmachari, from 29-5-32 to 27-6-32. 

Dr. Giiha, from 9-5-32 to 10-7-32 and from 1-12-32 to 15-12-32. 

Col. Sewell, from 1-1-32 to 22-9-32. 

11. Committees of CaunciL 

(1) The Standing Committees of Council during the year, 
namely the Finance, Publication, and Library Committees, 
met monthly, except in September. 

(2) Special Committees were appointed, one to addres.s 
the Government of India on behaM of the Society on the pro- 
posal to abolish the post of Director, Zool6gical Survey of 
India, and another to enquire into, and report on, the delay 
in the issue of the Society^’s Jouriml, and also to devise means 
to speed up the publication and to make good the arrears. 

The Society, having originally furnished important and 
valuable material to the collections under the custody of the 
Zoological Survey of India in the Indian Museum and being 
directly interested in their proper preservation, views the pro- 
posed abolition of the post of Director with grave apprehension.. 

The Journal Committee under the active leadership of 
Dr. S. L. Hora, had already achieved considerable results by 
the end of the year. 

12. Finance Committee. 

(1) The Finance Committee continued during the year 
to meet on dates different from, and a few days prior to,, 
those of the Council Meetings. 

(2) A Special Meeting to frame the budget for the next 
year was held in December. 

13. Office. 

(1) General Secretary . — The General Secretary continued 
to perform the amalgamated duties of Secretary and Assistant 
Secretary and was not absent on leave during the year. He 
completed his tenth year of office and for the first time during 
that period was obliged, for reason of health, to give up attend- 
ing the office on holidays and Sundays. This immediately 
reacted unfavourably on the amount of work performed and 

Annual Report for 1932. 

,lvii , ; 

pointedly brought home the fact that a large portion of the 
work of previous years had been accomplished by working 
overtime, which this year for the first time it was no longer 
found possible to give. This led to immediate results of arrears 
and complications. In previous reports reference has been 
; made more than once to the small margin of leisure in the 

^ Society’s office, so indispensable for smooth working and creative 

I activity as against mere routine action, 

j (2) Staff , — For the first time in many years not a single 

ohange in the office staff of the Society has to be recorded. 

I Attendance and spirit was generally satisfactory, but much 

I greater initiative on the part of the individual members re- 

I mains called for. Qualitative improvement is still desirable 

I in many ways. Other general considerations concerning the 

i staff have been detailed in previous reports and, not having 

changed, need no repetition this year. 

(3) Subordinate Staff —In the subordinate stafi the usual 
I minor changes took place which do not call for comment. 

i (4) Correspondence, — The difficulties of this part of the 

work of the office have been fuUy described in several previous 
reports and there is no sign of their diminishing. In a way the 
office of the Society is almost a Secretariat without having a 
Secretariat staff. For the reason detailed in the first paragraph 
I of this section there was a falling off in correspondence and only 

2,163 letters went out, the lowest recorded total since 1923. 

I The most difficult period in this respect occurs from November 

I to February. In November and December the office is very 

severely pressed by work for the Indian Science Congress and in 
; January by work connected mth the winding up of the affairs 

: of the year, the preparation of the annual report, and the 

V annual meeting. During this winter period correspondence 

! falls behind and by the time it is once more caught up a new 

period of pressure occurs. The General Secretary has written 
, in his decennial period of office nearly 30,000 letters and dealt 

: with an equal number of incoming ones, the bulk almost re- 

I presenting that of an Encyclopaedia Britannica, For years 

i only one typist was at his disposal and all the letters had to be 

j drafted by his own hand. During this last year a stenographer 

; has come to facilitate the work, and this improved matters greatly . 

- But correspondence is not decreasing in any direction and will 

^ remain one of the great problems before the Society. Its volume 

‘ would expand immediately when more and fuller letters could 

be sent out. As it is, the Society’s capacity to deal with this 
work limits it, but not the demand and not the measure of 

(5) Council Circulars. — The number of Council and Coin- * 
mittee circulars issued during 1932 was exactly the same as in 
the previous year, namely 126. The very important activity 
of collecting all Council circulars of the year, together with 

Mil Proceedings A , S,B. for 

all relative documents into separate volumes, was continued^ 
and two further volumes for 1926 and 1931 w^ere added to 
the series which now' comprises 6 volumes. Tw'o further 
volumes, for 1932 and 1925, are almost ready for binding. 

(6) Files.— Dming the year intermittent woA w^as con- 
tinued with regard to our files, old and new% but no real pro- 
gress can be reported. On the other hand an enormous mass 
of miscellaneous old matter, the inchoate accumulation of more 
than half a century, has received close attention and a great 
number of valuable items have been retrieved from the mass. 
We refer to the paragrajjh under this sub-heading in the previous 

(7) Stock-room.— Yevj little attention was given this year 
to the labelling, bundling, and registration of the contents of the 
stock-room. As has been previously reported, the main work 
has been performed, but the publications of the year and 
certain residuals are still to be dealt with in order to complete 
the work. These residuals will be taken up as soon as time can 
be found for it. Several odds and ends have still to be gathered 

(8) DistribiiMon.—^o change was made in the mode of 
distribution of our publications and notices. Ai\ appreciable 
amount of issues of the Bibliotheca Indica w'as again distributed 
during the year. 

(9) Addresses. — The printed address labels remained in 
use and the system of constant revision and addition which 
has been adopted enables us to keep the printed addresses up- 
to-date month by month. 

(10) Card Register. — The card registers of the Society’s 
membership and of that of the Indian Science Congress were 
kept up-to-date and checked at the close of the year. 

(11) Stationery. — ^As the administration regarding this 

item is now’ satisfactorily arranged, the subject does not call 
for special remarks. * 

(12) Circulars and Forms. — ^The number of these printed 
during the year was 52, being a few less than the year before, 
jibout Rs. 768 w'ere expended under this head, 

(13) Office Furniture. — A new' block cabinet was acquired, 
making five in all now in the Society’s possession. All blocks 
were inspected, cleaned, and re varnished. Six small collapsible 
tables W'ere purchased. Several old tables and desks and most 
of the old electric fans w'ill need renew'al in a not far distant 
future. Grradual but regular renewal of old pieces of furniture 
in small instalments should remain a constant policy. 

(14) Office Manual. — This still remains a desideratum. 

(15) Arrangemeyit.—So change w'as made in the present 
disposition of the rooms and their contents. 

(16) General. — For many years the j^oint has been stressed 
ill the annual report that the reputation and functions of the 

Annual Report for 1932. lix 

Society cause demands to be made on it which its financial 
position does not enable it to cope with to the fullest extent. 
Work to be performed, and performed well, demands staff- 
qualified staff — and a staff means salaries. In the year under 
review a total expenditure of nearly Us. 55,000 included over 
E/S. 31,000 under the head of salaries and allowances, which 
is an enormous proportion. Yet the actual expenditure might, 
without waste, be much higher. If the present financial 
depression continues and if cuts in Government grants are 
maintained or even increased, the problem of how^ to find the 
required money will become even more acute, and the question 
has to be very seriously considered whether the Society can go 
on spending as much on its staff as it does at present. For 
two years already no increment of pay has been given to the 
members of the staff, and now the question becomes urgent 
whether even more drastic steps may not have to be taken, either 
by a reduction of salaries or a reduction of staff. Since the 
Society’s correspondence is already inadequate to the demand 
and the question of the expense incurred on publications has 
become a very grave one, not to speak of desirable expenditure 
on the library, this problem is a matter of considerable appre- 
hension and will have to be tackled definitely unless conditions 
improve. The demands of our Members, of the public, and of 
our scholarly relations throughout the world, are very great, 
and Members should clearly realise that the productive capa- 
city of the office has its limits fixed by the Society’s financial 

14. Rules and Regulations. 

During the year no changes were made in the Rules and 
Regulations of the Society. The Regulations framed last 
year for the award of the Paul Johannes Bruhl Memorial Medal 
were confirmed by the Society. 

15. Indian Science Congress. 

(1) Nineteenth Session . — ^The Nineteenth Annual Meeting 
of the Indian Science Oongress was held in Bangalore, from 
January 2nd to January 8th, 1932, under the patronage of 
Colonel His Highness Maharaja Sir Sri Krishnaraja Wadiyar 
Bahadur, G.C.S.I., G.B.E., Maharaja of Mysore. 

(2) President . — Rai Lala Shiva Ram Kashyap Bahadur, 
B.A., M.Sc., I.E.S., Professor of Botany, Government College, 
Lahore, was President of the Congress. 

(3) Proceedings . — The Proce^ings pi the Congress were 
published in the first week of December. The publication 
contained 580 pages and 13 plates, 6 pages of letterpress less 
and 13 plates more than the year before. The number of 

lx PfoceediThgs A,S,B, for 1%^%, 

abstracts sent in for reading to the Congress mimbered this year 
693 as against 699 last year. 

(4) Administration. — During the latter months of the 
year the usual administrative work for the Congress in con- 
nection with the next Session (Twentieth Congress) to be held 
in Patna was performed by the Society’s office, which also 
attended to the general administration of the Congress when 
this is not in session. 

(5) Programme and Abstracts. — ^As in the previous years 
the programme of the meeting and the abstracts were sent, 
as far as was practicable, by post to all Members who had 
applied for membership before the date of their publication. 
This year this date was again late, the 15th December, leaving 
not much more than a barely sufficient margin of time to reach 
distant Members before their departure for Patna. Though 
there was this year still some amount of verj!" late enrolment 
there was a decided improvement in this respect, no doubt, 
chiefly due to the new rules now in force. 

(6) Finance. — The Congress finances remained separate 
from those of the Society. 

(7) General Secretaries. — The General Secretaries to the 
Congress were Prof. S. P. Agharkar and Prof. H. B. Dunnicliff 
as in the previous year, whilst towards the end of the year 
Mr. W. D. West succeeded Prof. H. E. Dunnicliff. 

(8) Reprints. — The Society did not proceed further during 
the year with the reprint of old issues of Proceedings but a 
reprint of those of the 3rd Congress is in type and will be pub- 
lished during the ensuing year. The continuation of the 
series of reprints depends on more favourable financial con- 
ditions.'-'' ■ 

(9) Constitution.— The new constitution adopted in the 
eighteenth meeting of the Congress wmked smoothly and 
facilitated in many ways the administrative work performed 
by the Society. The amount of labour that has to be given 
to the preparation of the Congress and its Proceedings is in 
no way diminishing and remains considerable, tending to crowd 
out, during November and December, the Society’s own 
activities as far as the office is concerned. 

In two respects much immediate improvement is still to 
be made. Supply of copy of abstracts and Presidential 
Addresses should be speeded up and the abstracts themselves 
need more careful editing before they come to the Society 
to be forwarded to the press for composition. The formation 
of a standing body of sub-editors might well be considered. 
Such a body would create a tradition which would enable 
continuity to be arrived at and would generally make for 
quicker and more reliable work. 

Annual Report for M 

16. Indian Museum. 

(1) The Society’s representative on the Board of Trustees 
of the Indian Museum, under the Indian Museum Act, X of 
1910 , continued to be Rai Upendra Nath Brahmachari Bahadur 
who was re-appointed as such for a further period of three 

17, Kamala Lectureship. 

(1) The vacant place of a nominee of the Council to serve 
on the Election Committee of the Kamala Lectureship, ad- 
ministered by the Calcutta University, which had arisen through 
the death of MM. Haraprasad Shastri, last year, was filled by the 
nomination of Rai Upendra Nath Brahmachari Bahadur. 

18. Deputations. 

(1) The following invitations to send representatives 
to various functions were received as follows : — 

(i) Ninth International Congi'ess for the History of Medicine, 
Bucharest, September, 1932. 

(ii) Internationa] Congress of Mathematics, Zurich, September, 

(hi) German Society for Natural History and Ethnography in 
Tokyo, celebration commemorating the 60th Anniversary 
of the Fo\mdation of the Society, March, 1933. 

19. Honours. 

(1) Amongst the Honours conferred during the year several 
were, as usual, bestowed on members of the Society. Mr. Alfred 
Watson and Lt.-Col. Hasan Suhrawardy received the honour of 
Knighthood. Sir J. P. Thompson received the K.C.S.I., and 
the Hon’ble Mr. B. K. Basu received the C.I.E, 

20. Congratulations. 

(1) The Society sent its cordial congratulations to Ur. Baini 
Prashad on the occasion of his election as an Honorary Member 
of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, and again 
on the occasion of the publication of his volume on the 
Pelecypoda in Prof. Weber’s series on the scientific results of 
the Siboga Expedition. 

(2) Congratulations were also sent to several of the above 
recipients of Civic Honours. 

21. Visits. 

(1) During the year the Society was again visited by a 
number of distinguished persons from various parts of 
the world. Asia contributed visitors from India and Java. 

Ixii Proceedings A.8,B. for 1932. 

Europe contributed visitors from Germany, Hungary, Eiigiaiid, 
France, and Sweden. The United States of America and South 
Africa were also represented. The visitors, as usual, represented 
the most diverse branches of scholarship. A valued visitor 
was the Hon’ble Mr. C- ZafPrulla Khan, Member for Ediioatioii, 
Health and Lands, Government of India. 

22. H.E. the Governor of Bengal. 

(1) The incoming Governor of Bengal, the Rt. Hon. Sir 
John Anderson, P.C., G.C.B., G.C.I.E., gracious!}- accepted 
the invitation extended to him to accept the Office of Patron 
of the Society, jointly with H.E. the Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India. 

23. Social Functions. 

(1) On March the 1st, the President of the Society gave an 
At Home to meet H.E. Colonel Sir Francis Stanley Jackson, 
Patron of the Society and Governor of Bengal, on the eve of 
his relinquishing office and departure from India. His Excel- 
lency was accompanied by Her Excellency Lady Jackson. A 
select gathering attended to bid farewell to Their Excellencies, 
and the meeting was a most successful function. The Counci! 
expressed its thanks to Sir C. C. Ghose for providing the enter- 

(2) Sir C. C. Ghose also generously enabled the Society to 
maintain the ancient practice of providing light refreshments 
to the Members present before the General Meetings. 

24. Elliott Prize for Scientific Research. 

(1) The annual prize for 1931, for research in Geology and 
Biology (including Pathology and Physiology), "was in the 
Annual Meeting of 1932 aw^arded to Mr. T. C. N. Singh of 

(2) The prize offered for the year 1932 was for Mathematics. 
Papers were submitted in competition for the prize by four 
candidates. The award will be made in the Annual Meeting 
of 1933. 

(3) The prize for next year, 1933, will l)e for research in 

25. Barclay Memorial Medal. 

(1) The (bieimial) award of the Barclay Memorial Medal 
for 1931 was amioimced in the Annual Meeting of 1932. The 
medal w^as bestowed on Lt.-Col. Robert Beresford Seymour 
Sewell. The General Secretarv received the medal on behalf 
of Col. Sewell. 

(2) The next award will be made in 1934. 


Annual Report for 1932. 

26. Sir William Jones Memorial Medal. 

(1) The next (biennial) award of theJSir William Jones 
Memorial Medal, for 1932, for Asiatic Researches in Philosophy,: 
Literature, and Historj^, will be announced in the Annual 
Meeting in February, 1933. 

27. Annandale Memorial Medal. 

(1) The next (triennial) award, for important contributions 
to the study of Anthropology in Asia, will be announced in 
the Annual Meeting in February, 1934. 

28. Joy Gobind Law Memorial Medal. 

(1) The next (triennial) aw'ard of the Joy Gobind Law 
Memorial Medal, for 1932, for conspicuously important work 
on Zoology in Asia, will be announced in the Annual Meeting- 
in February, 1933. 

29. Paul Johannes Briilil Memorial Medal. 

(1) The first (triennial) award of the medal for important 
contributions to the study of Asiatic Botany was made tO’ 
Reverend Ethelbert Blatter, S.J. 

(2) The next aw^ard will be announced in the Annual. 
Meeting in February, 1935. 

30- Calcutta Indian Science Congress Prize. 

(1) The first award is to be made in connection with the 
next Session of the Congress to be held in Calcutta, and regula- 
tions regarding the award are to be framed by the Council of 
the Society prior to the date of that Session. 

31, Society’s Premises and Property. 

(1) A sum of Rs. 2,000 was again set aside during the- 
year to be credited to the Building Repairs Fund. 

(2) The various desiderata and problems existing under 
the heading Premises and Property have been mentioned in the 
Annual Reports of the last few years and have to be kept in 
mind until realization. 

(3) The extensive repairs to the buildings and its general 
overhauling, begun towards the end of the previous year, were 
successfully terminated by the end of January and the Annual 
Meeting took place in a thoroughly new looking building. The 
cost incurred was considerable and with the petty repairs came 
to a little over Rs. 9,000, reducing the Building Fund to a 

:‘Mv Proceedings A. 8, B. for ■ 

balance of about six thousand rupees. At the same time the 
Building Repairs Fund has been credited with two thousand 
rupees during the year and as this measure will be repeated 
during coming years there should be at the end of three years 
sufficient money in this fund to meet the regular triennial 
repairs. , . ■ 

38. Accommodation. 

(1) The old problems still needing attention are : the 
provision of a set of small work-rooms for various uses; fore- 
most of all for the archives and the editorial work of the Society, 
extension of the steel shelving in the Library and better shelving 
in the stock-rooms. But, as remarked before, a menacing 
cloud on the horizon is, above all, the fact that our library 
rooms are gradually being filled and that the need of extension 
of the space available for the stacking of books becomes daily 
more imminent. We do not yet see where to gain the addi- 
tional accommodation. 

33. Artistic and Historical Possessions. 

(1) In commemoration of the termination of the Kashmiri 
Dictionary {Bibliotheca Indica) by Sir C4eorge Grierson, a 
veteran Member who joined the Society in 1876 and is now 
83 years of age, the Council decided to show its regard for this 
great linguist and great friend by raising a memorial to him 
in the Rooms of the Society. The Council subscribed the 
necessary amount and commissioned an Italian artist, Signor 
A. MarzoUo, to execute a terra-cotta bust of Sir George. The 
very successful and artistic bust was received towards the 
end of the year and has been installed in the Council Room. 

(2) Mrs. Brahmachari presented to the Society an extremely 
life-like marble bust of her husband, Dr. U. N. Brahmachari, 
a past President and an old Member of the Society, and the 
holder of several offices on the Council for many years past. 
The bust executed by the same artist, A. Marzollo, was grate- 
fully accepted and has been installed in the main hall of the 

(3) Dr. B. C. Law presented the Society with a life-size 
coloured photograph of the late MM. Haraprasad Shastri. 
This striking portrait has been gratefully accepted and has 
been hung in the Society’s Rooms. 

34. Presentations, Donations, and Legacies. 

(1) Except for the presentations mentioned under the 
previous heading and those to be mentioned under the next, 
no presentations, donations or legacies, were unhappily forth- 
coming. Does no Maecenas know of the Society ? 

Annual Re^wt for Ixv 

35, Library. 

(1) Permanent Library Endowment Fund.—Thb fund re- 
ceived no further donations during the year. The total invested 
capital remained (face value) Rs. 12,000 in per cent. Govern- 
ment paper. The accumulated interest will permit the purchase 
of one further paper to the face value of Rs. 1,000 during next 
year. The total investments in 3|- per cent, paper have to reach 
the face value of Rs. 30,000 before income from the fund can be 
utilized for library expenditure. We recommend this fund 
to our well-wishers. 

(2) Accessions, — The accessions to the Library during the 
year, exclusive of about 200 periodicals received through ex- 
change or otherwise, numbered 216 volumes, out of which 84 
were purchased and 132 were acquired by presentation. 

The allocation for the purchase of books for the year was 
Rs. 2,500, but actually an amount of Rs. 2,174 was spent. For 
the new year the grant has been decreased by Rs. 500 and 
fixed at Rs. 2,000. This decrease is regretted but cannot be 

The more important items of presentation are given below. 

Mr. C. W. Gurner presented British J ournal of Hellenic 

Studies y Vols. 41-51 . We also received through the Presidency 
College, Calcutta, on behalf of Sir J. C. Coyajee, a set of the 
works of Swedenborg in 28 volumes. Br.. Whitley of Sydney,. 
Australia, presented through Dr. Hora a valuable autograph 
manuscript of Hamilton Buchanan, in Latin, on the Fishes 
of Lower Bengal. 

The more important presentations received are given 

Presentations of Interest 

(1) Francis Buchanan Hamilton: Pfecium Bengalse Inferi- 

oris Delineationes (Ms.). (Dr. S. L. Hora on behalf of 

Mr. G. P. Whitley.) 

(2) Henry Gousens : Somanatha. Calcutta, 1931. (Govt, of 

, India.) ' i 

(3) A. N. J. Th. A. Th. van Der Hoop : Megalithic Kemains in 

Soiith-Sumatra, Zutphen, n.d. (Author.) 

(4) Muhammad Hamid: List of Ancient Monuments in Bihar 

and Orissa. Calcutta, 1931. (Govt, of India.) 

(5) N. J, Krom : Hindoe-Javaansche Geschiedenis. The Hague, 

,1931. (Publishers.) 

(6) John Ashton : Curious Creatures in Zoology. Hew York, 

n.d. (Dr. S. L. Hora.) 

(7) Manoranjan Ghosh : Rock-paintings of prehistoric Times. 

Calcutta, 1932. (Govt, of India.) 

(8) Sir Edward Maclagan : The Jesuits and the Great Mogul. 

London, 1932. (Publishers.) 

(9) H. E. Parry : The Lakhers. London, 1932. (Assam 

Administration. ) 

(10) G. Dandoy : L’ontologie du Vedanta. Paris, 1932. (Author.) 

(11) M. Abid All Khan; Memoirs of Gaur and Paiidua. 

Calcutta, 1931. (Govt, of Bengal.) 


Ixvi Proceedings A.S.B.for 1932. 

(12) Saktisaiigama Tantra. Vol. I. Baroda, 1932. (Gaekwad’s 

Oriental Ser., Vol. 61.) (Oriental Inst., Baroda.) 

(13) Sir John Marshall : Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civiliza- 

tion, 3 vols. London, 1931. (Govt, of India.) 

Of special interest are the new accessions w^hich represent 
works produced by Members of the Society. These were partly 
acquired by presentation and partly by purchase. The follow- 
ing may be mentioned:— 

Accessions of works written hy Members : — 

(1) St. Krainrisch : Pala and Sena Sculptures. Calcutta, 

1929. (Author.) 

(2) B. C. Law: Geography of Early Buddhism. London, 

1932. (Author.) 

(3) B. M. Barua : Gaya and Buddha-Gaya. Calcutta, 1931. 


(4) B. Prashad : Pelecypoda of the Siboga Expedition. 

Leyden, 1932. (Purchased.) 

(.5) B. T. Bhattachaiya : An Introduction to Buddliist Eso- 

terism. Mysore, 1932. (Purchased.) 

(6) M. Mahfuzul Haq : Persian Diwan of Kamran. Calcutta, 

1929. (Author.) 

(7) N. Roerich : Realm of Light. New York, 1931. (Author.) 

(8) K. C. De ; Report on the Fisheries of Eastern Bengal and 

Assam. Shillong, 1910. (Author.) 

(3) Accessions Lists, — For reasons of economy and because 
accessions must for the moment remain less numerous than 
before, it is intended to publish the lists of additions to the 
library only once a year. The list for 1932 is in the press. 

(4) Preservation, — The use of nim leaves and the practice 
of dusting the volumes with an insecticide powder were con- 

(5) Binding the year 660 units, including books, 
pamphlets, and periodicals, were bound at a cost of Rs. 750, 
out of total budget allowance of Rs. 800 sanctioned for the 

Since 1923 about 12,260 units have been bound, and prac- 
tically ail arrears in binding have now been made good. In 
future, if the Society does not again allow itself to fall behind 
in this respect, binding will be on the whole limited to new 
accessions and renewals. 

(6) Arrangejnent.—Th^ segregation of the pamphlets, about 
3,000 in number, was practically completed. No other re- 
arrangements were effected. 

(7) Catalogue. — The new authors’ catalogue of books in 
European languages made no further progress. Necessities of 
economy forbid great expenditure on the continuation of this 
costly work. 

(8) Shelving . — Installation of special steel shelving for 
MSS. and books in the w'estern section remains to be effected, 
and provision has also to be made for further steel shelving, 
■especially for the current accessions of periodical literature. 

Annual Report for 1932. 


The Librarian reports that our available shelving space 
for printed books is rapidly coming to an end. This will in the 
near future constitute a serious problem. 

(9) Fmanee.—The report of two years ago stated as 
follows :~ 

' Attention should once more be drawn to the fact that 
a sum of Rs. 4,000 annually, which constitutes the utmost 
limit which the Society at present can devote to purchase and 
binding of books, is entirely inadequate to build up or to main- 
tain a first-class library. Administration and upkeep of our 
present collection demand at least an equal amount annually, 
and the total expenditure is a heavy burden on the Society’s 
yearly budget. It is impossible to stress sufficiently the neces- 
sity for the speedy creation of a considerable endowment fund 
for our library. We have made a beginning, but that beginning 
is small. We need the generous help of all friends interested 
in our work and in learning in India, to make the little twig 
recently planted grow rapidly into a sheltering banian.’ 

Eor 1931 the allocation of Rs. 4,000 were reduced to 
Rs. 3,300. For 1932 this sum was again reduced to Rs. 2,800 
and now for 1933 again to Rs. 2,000. Comment is superfluous. 

36. Finance. 

(1) Appendix III contains the usual statements showing 
the Society’s accounts for 1932. No change has been made 
in the form of their presentation since the previous year. No 
new statement occurs. 

(2) One statement, still carried over without change from 
the previous year pending final ascertainment of commitments, 

Statement No. 17, International Catalogue of Scientific 
Literature, London. 

During the year correspondence has been received from 
the Royal Society of London regarding the liabihties of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal to the Royal Society in respect of 
this fund. The position is of considerable obscurity and needs 
close investigation, as all transactions relating to this fund 
date from prior to 1923. It is hoped, however, that the 
scrutiny wffiich is now being made will lead to definite results 
so that the fund may be liquidated in the near future. 

(3) The other statements are presented as in the previous 
year and do not caU for special comment. 

(4) The fund accounts again show their invested assets 
written down to the market values as at the end of the year, 
and the Investment Account, Statement No. 26, shows the 
allocations of invested paper to each fund specifically, whilst 
both market and face values of the investments are showm 
in it. 



Proceedings A MM. for 1932« 

I ; : , ; 

; (5) Witli regard to the -various funds coimeeted with , the 

award of gold memorial medals by the Society a difficulty arose i 

during the year owing to the enhanced and unforeseen rise 
of the price of gold. Some of the endowments are now^ no 
longer sufficient to provide from their income a gold medal J 

of the size of the existing dies at the prescribed intervals. The j 

matter has been scrutinized by the Finance Committee and 
Council, and it has become evident that in future an adequate ^ 

margin will have to be provided for in the case of similar endows- 1 

ments being accepted by the Society. Periodical renewal of 
the dies has also to be contemplated. The matter is still under 
consideration in so far as the present endow^ments are coii- 
cerned. i 

(6) Statement No. 28 shows the balance sheet of the 
Society and of the diSerent funds administered by and through 

it.. ■ , ■ ■ . ' ■ ' , , 

(7) The funds belonging to, or administered by, the Society 
may be classified as follows 

(a) General Fuad. 

(i) Permanent Reserve. 

(ii) Working Balance. ; 

(h) Specific Funds belonging to the Society, ? 

(c) Funds administered by the Society, i 

At the end of the year, the position of these funds, as 
compared with their position at the end of 1931, w'as as foilow's : — 









3 1st Dec., 31st Dec., 3 1st Dec., ; 

3ist Dee., 






General Fund 





{a) Permanent Reserve 





(6) Working Balance . . 






Specific Funds belonging to 

the Society . . 






Funds administered by the 

Society . . . . 










(8) The amount standing to the credit of the Permanent 
Eeserve Fund at the end of the year was Es, 2,47,700, Face 
Value, invested in 3|- per cent. Government Paper. 

During the year Rs. 480 were received through admission 
fees, and two members compounded their subscriptions to a 
total amount of Es. 420. The amounts thus received together 
with the sum of Rs. 35-11, cash balance, brought forward from 
1931 under this head aggregated Es. 935-11. This sum was 
transferred to the Permanent Eeserve in the usual manner, 
by conversion at the market rates as on the 31st December, 
1932, of Government Paper 3J per cent, to the Face Value of 

Anmial Report for 1932. Ixix 

Rs. 1,200 belonging to the Temporary E/eserve of the working 
balance whilst a cash balance of Rs. 52-3 is being carried over 
to the ensuing year, for adjustment under this head. 

(9) On account of financial stringency the Government of 
Bengal was obliged to make a cut of 20 per cent, in all grants 
made to the Society. 

The Society received the following grants from the above 
Government : — 





.. 1,600 


O.P. Fund, No. 1 

.. 8,400 


O.P. Fund, No. 2 

.. 2,400 



The two usual grants from the Government of Bengal 
with regard to the Sanskrit Manuscript Fund Account were 
not received. They are a grant of Es. 3,600 for the collection, 
preservation, and cataloguing of Sanskrit Manuscripts, and a 
grant of Es. 3,200 for research work in connection with the 
history of religion, usage, and folk-lore in Bengal. 

As some doubt had arisen whether these two grants had 
been sufficiently correctly styled in the Society's financial 
statements for the last few years the question has been con- 
sidered by the Government who soon after the close of the 
year generously sanctioned their payment, subject to the 
general reduction of 20 per cent. 

The Government of India Grant of Es. 5,000 for the Arabic 
and Persian Manuscripts and Cataloguing Fund was received 
in full and mention has been made of this in Statement No. 5. 
The Government of India have generously decided not to make 
a reduction in the grant for the year. 

(10) The income derived from advertising during the year 
amounted to Es. 9,600. 

(11) The temporary investments of funds in Fixed Deposit 
and Savings Bank are shown in Statements Nos. 23 and 24. 
Amounts set aside for earmarked expenditure are shown in 
Statement No. 16. 

(12) Statement No. 21 gives an account of the amounts 
due to and by the Society for membership subscriptions, sales 
of publications, and contingent charges. 

(13) The Government Securities shown in Statement No. 26 
are held in safe custody by the Imperial Bank, Park Street 
Branch. There was a very substantial appreciation of all the 
Government Securities held at the end of the year amounting 
to Es. 67,263, affecting to that extent the book assets of the 

(14) The budget estimates for 1932 and the actuals for the 
year were as follows : — 


Proceedings A.S,B, for 1932. 







, . 59,000 






. . 59,850 




. . 55,876 




' 900 


.. 56,776 


Of the receipts a sum of Rs. 900, derived from entrance 
fees and compounding fees, is classed as extraordinary and is 
not available for expenditure as it has to be transferred to the 
Permanent Reserve. 

A sum of Rs. 5,000 budgeted for the indispensable increase 
of the Endowment Fund had to be deflected towards expendi- 
ture on the publication of Journal and the Memoirs during 
the next year. The Council was reluctantly forced to suspend 
for the year the intended addition to the Permanent Reserve 
Fund in accordance with the policy inaugurated only two years 

The ordinary income was about Rs. 3,100 less than 
estimated ; this is practically accounted for by diminution in 
income under the headings membership subscriptions and sales 
of publications. 

On the expenditure side salaries absorbed about Rs. 600, 
and building repairs about Rs. 450 more than was estimated. 
On the other hand some savmgs were effected under vanous 
items of expenditure in the budget. 

The income from temporary investments of liquid assets 
amounted to Rs. 1,254, about Rs, 900 less than the year before 
on account of the smallness of interest rates on deposits. 

The ordinary income was about Rs. 1,048 above ordinary 
expenditure if the suspension of the reserve allocation of 
Rs. 5,000 be left out of account. 

(15) The year’s working shows an improvement in the 
net balance by Rs. 57,629 as compared to that of last year 
taking into accoimt the appreciation of our investments. This 
does not represent any real gain to the Society as the invest- 
ments affected are not saleable in accordance with the Rules 
and as their rate of interest remains the same. 

(16) The budget estimates for probable expenditure have 
as usual been framed to meet demands under various heads 
based on as much activity in all departments of the Society’s 
work as can be safely undertaken under present circumstances. 

The receipts have been estimated conservatively. 

Annual Report for 1932. Ixxi 

Budget Estimate for 1933. 

Ordinary Receipts. 










Interest on Investments and Deposits 


( 10,012 
( 1,254 



Advertising . . . . 




Annual Grant . . . . 





Miscellaneous . . 



Members’ Subscriptions 




Publications, Sales, and Subscriptions 





Proportionate Share from Funds 

Assam Government Allowance for 



Publications - . 

Donations . . 


Rent . . 








Ordinary Expenditure. 




Salaries and Allowances . . 



31, .500 





Stationery . . 




Fan and Light 

Telephone . . 




Taxes : 


■ 2,244 


Postage ■ ' ■ 





Freight . . . . 


Contingencies . . . . 




Petty Repairs . . . . 








Menials’ Clothing . . 




Office Furniture 




Artistic Possessions , . 



Building Repairs .. 


2,445 :■ 


Provident Fund Share . . 




Audit Fee . . 




Books, Library . * 




Binding, Library .. 


7 50 


Journal and Memoirs . . 


'■ 4,245 


Printing, Circulars . . 

Contribution to I. S.C. 




Miscellaneous (Legal Fees) 
Permanent Reserve 


Publication Fund 





. • 




Ixxii Proceedings A.S.B. for 1932. 

Extraordinary Receipts. 

Rs. Rs. Rs. 

By Fees , . _ , _ ^ ■ 

by Admission Fees- ■ . , >500 , 480' ,500 

by Compounding Fees •. 300 • 420 300 

by Institutionar Membership 

Registration Fees . . . v • 50 

Total » , . . 850 ■ 900 .850 

Extraordinary Expenditure. 

To Permanent Reserve 

by Admission Fees . , . . 

by Compounding Fees 
by Institutional Membership 

Registration Fees . . 

Es. Rs, 

■ ■ ■ Bs. 

500 480 


300 420 

■ 300 

50 . . 


850 900 


the first part of the year 

j Insch as its 


Treasurer and after Ms departure from India welcomed back 
Mr. K. C, Mahindra in the responsible office. 

(18) The next financial year will be one of considerable 
difficulty to the Society. 

The various grants received from the Government of 
Bengal have been cut down by 20 per cent, and wre express our 
great appreciation to the Government that no greater cut has 
been made in view of the Government’s financial difficulties. 
The grant from the Government of India was not diminished at 
all, which calls for our gratitude. 

There was again a decrease in the proceeds from sales of 
books by another Rs. 800. The proceeds fell about Rs. 2,000 
below the very reduced estimate for the year. 

The very cautious budget estimates of last year produced 
the desired result that no actual deficit occurred, though the 
strengthening of the reserve had to be left over. 

It is evident that the Society’s financial position wdll not 
be satisfactory unless the permanent reserve is increased by 
several lakhs. The Publication Fund should have a permanent 
capital of at least three lakhs. The Library one of two lakhs. 
The Bibliotheca Indica one of at least one lakh, and there should 
also be a fund of at least one lakh of rupees to provide for 
extended free exchange of our Journal, These are the main 
items but they do not exhaust the desiderata. 

It is exceedingly strange that this oldest scholarly Institute 
on the Continent of Asia, which next year will have existed for 
a period of a century and a half and which has produced such 

Annual Report for 1932* ixxiii 

fraitfiil Work throughout its long career, has never received 
^ fli donation or legacy to help its work. Let us 

; ope at the fourth half-century of its existence may hring an 
improvement in this respect. 

37. Publications. 

1 Journal and Proceedings, Vols. XXV 

an X A. VI for 1929 and 1930, respectively, three mimbers 
were issued aggregating 448 pages and 5 plates. 

i years considerable delay has occurred in the publica- 
tion ot the JowmoZ, which has gradually accumulated to such 
an extent as to engage the very serious consideration of the 
Comicil. Late in the year a special Sub-Committee was appoint* 
ea by the Council to expedite the issue of the periodical, to take 
steps to make good the arrears, and to submit a report on the 
whole matter, considering causes and remedies. The Sub- 
committee, under the active leadership of Br. S. L. Hora, has 
macte ^appreciable progress, and has prepared one further number 
for issue early in January, as well as taken steps to enable the 
issue of further numbers in rapid succession. 

trom the preliminary scrutiny of the problem it is already 
eviaent that much material has been received and has been 
accepted for publication in an inadequate state of preparation 
for he press by the authors, and that better preliminary editorial 
prefiaration of the material received for publication is called 
ior— oth with regard to the text and, to the illustrations. The 
variety of matter published in the Journal is so great that no 
single scholar is competent to deal with all of it in an expert 
m^ner. i^ this respect the Asiatic Society of Bengal has 
dimculties to contend with which do not exist for societies whose 
publications range over a more restricted field or which have the 
assis ance of numerous experts in the various branches of 
science at their disposal. 

iT great difficulty is the financial one. Printing 

+ ^^e costly of late years, and the Society belongs 

to tilat minority of institutions which for many years have 
the prices of their publications. It was found 
K ^ <^i^der to bring the Journal up-to-date the ordinary 
budgetary grant for publications would fall short by many 
thousands of rupees, and the Council has therefore resolved 
to vom a special additional allocation of Rs. 5,000 under the 
head Publications for the ensuing year in order to permit an 
increased rate of publication of the Journal, 

(-) Memoirs. — Of the Memoirs three numbers w^ere pub- 
lished aggregating 130 pages and 4 plates. 

Q of the numbers constituted the sixth part of Col. 

hewells series on Geographic and Oceanographic Research 
in Indian Waters for which a special volume of the Memoirs 

ixxiv Proceedings A. 8.B» for 1932. 

is reserved. „ Two or three further numbers wiii coinpiete , the 
volume which now has progressed to page 423. 

(3) Material in hand, — ^An appreciable amoiiiit of material 
is in hand for the Journal but it is not quite certain whether 
there is sufficient reserve material to bring the Joimml up-to- 
date in volumes of the Usual bulk without new papeu’s coming 

(4) Indian Science Congress. — The Proceedings, of the 19th 
Indian Science Congress, consisting of 580 pages and 13 plates^ 
were published during the year. 

(5) Special Publications. — No special pubiications w'ere 
issued during the year. 

(6) Sales.— The sales of pubiications were subject to a 
further drop and fell to about Rs. 800 below the proceeds of the 
year before. A sum of Rs. 4,028 was realised, being almost 
Rs. 2,000 below the budget estimate. This is a matter of very 
anxious concern. 

(7) Expenditure. — The expenditure on Jotimal and Memoirs 
was about Rs. 4,245 and for the ensuing year the necessity for 
providing more than double that amount has been foreseen 
and provided for in the budget. 

33. The Baptist Mission Press. 

(1) Under the capable superintendence of Mr. P. Knight 
the Baptist Mission Press continued to act as our chief printers 
and again gave invaluable assistance and maintained closest 

39. Agencies. 

(1) Our European and Indian Agents remained the same 
throughout the year. 

40. Exchange of Publications. 

(1) The present exchange list of the Society for its Journal 
and Memoirs contains slightly over 200 entries. No additions 
were made to it during the year though several applications 
for inclusion in it w^ere received. Eor the moment the Society 
is not in a position, how^ever desirable it w'^ould be, to extend 
its list. 

41. Meetings. 

(1) The Ordinary Meetings of the Society were held re- 
gularly every month, with the exception of January and the 
recess months of September and October. The time and day of 
the meetings remained fixed at 5-30 p.m,, on the first Monday 
of the month. The recorded average attendance remained 
the same as that of the previous year, namely 14 members and 

Annual Beport for 1932, 


1 visitor. The maximum attendance was in August with 20 
members and 2 visitors. 

(2) Three meetings of the Medical Section were held during 
the jmar. 

42. Exhibits. 

(1) In the Ordinary Monthly Meetings a number of ex- 
hibits were shown and commented upon by the exhibitors. 
The following may be mentioned : — 

Johan van Manen : A set of Tibetan Banners depicting the 
sixteen sthaviras. 

B. S. Giiha : Portman and Molesworth’s photographs of the 

43, Communications. 

(1) Apart from papers submitted both for reading and 
subsequent publication, a number of communications, not 
intended for subsequent publication, were made from time 
to time in the Ordinary Monthly Meetings. 

Amongst such communications made during the year 
the following may be mentioned:— 

Johan van Manen : The derivation and meaning of the name 
Kangchen-dzonga ; The Bibliography of Arabic and Persian 
Manuscrijpts ; Once more the ‘ Wild Men ’ or ‘ Abominable 
Snowmen ’ of Tibet ; Some difficult and interesting ex- 
pressions in the Tao Te King ; A new translation of the 
Gita Govinda. 

M. Mahfuzul Haq : A note on a new manuscript of the Buba’iyat 
of ’XJmar-i-Khayyam, dated A.H. 826 (A.I). 1423). 

Baini Prashad : Preparation of museum Exhibits with particular 
reference to the newly ox)ened hall of south Asiatic mammals 
in the New York Museum of Natural History. 

Sunder Lai Hora : A few observations on a collection of Fishes 
made by the Netherlands Karakorum Expedition, 1929-30 ; 
A marine Air-Breathing Fish, Andamia heteroptera (Bleaker). 

44. General Lectures. 

(1) The following General Lecture was held during the 
year before a fairly numerous audience of members and invited 
guests: — . 

Ph. C. Visser, Consul-General for the Netherlands, Calcutta : 
To the unknown Karakorum mountains. March 16th. 

45. Philology. 

(1) Ten papers were read during the year to be published 
later. These were : — 

Harit Krishna Deb : The Hindu Calendar and the earlier 

E. N. Ghosh ; Studies on ]^g-Vedic Deities. XIII~XXI, 
Indra, Mitra and Varuna, Rtu, Vrsakapi, Brhaspati, Visnii, 
Maruts, Vayu and Vata, Vena. 


Proceedings ASM, for 1932. 

46. Matiiral HistorF: Biology. ■ 

(1) One paper read in the previous year was piiHislied 
during the year. 

(2) Six new papers were read during the year to be published 
later. These were: — 

M. C. Cheriati : South Indian Acariiia. 

A. C. Sen : The Genitalia of the Common Indian Cockroach— 
Periplmieta americana lAxm. 

S. L. Horn : Buchanan’s Ichthyological Manuscript entitled 
^ P 'wckim BeMgalae Injerioris DeUnmtione8\ 

S. L. Hora and D. B. Mukerji : Furthei’ Notes on Haniilton- 
Buchanan’s Cyprinus chagimio, 

B. Sahni and A. R. Rao : On some Jurassic Plants from the 
Rajmahal Hills. 

V. Narayanaswami : Additional information eoneerning the 
provenance of the plants constituting the Malayan collection 
of Sir George King, Hermann Kiinstler, Father Benedetto 
Scortechini and Leonard Wray, being a supplement to Sir 
George King’s ‘ Materials for a Flora of the Malayan Penin- 
sula ’ and Mr, H. N. Ridley’s ‘ Flora of the Malay Pen insula 

47. Natural History: Physical Sciences. 

(1) One paper read last year was published during the 

(2) One new paper was read during the year to be published 
later. This was : — 

M. Z. Siddiqi : The Science of Medicine under the Abbasides. 

48. Anthropology. 

(1) One paper read last year was published during the 

(2) One new paper was read during the year to he published 
later. This was 

H. Or, Bas-Gupta : On a type of Sedentary Game, known as 

49. Medical Section, 

(1) Meetings. — During the year three meetings of the 
Medical Section were held, as detailed helow^ : — 

February. Speaker : Lt.-CoL R. Knowles. Subject : The 
Casualties of the Great War. 

April. Speaker : Br. IJ. N. Brahmachari. Subject : Treat- 
ment of Kala-Azar with intramuscular injection of Sodium 
Sulphomethyl Stibanilate, 

July. Speaker: Br. XJ. N. Brahmachari. Subject: Further ob- 
servations on the treatment of Kala-Azar with intramuscular 
injection of Sodium Sulphomethyl Stibanilate. Also Br. 
Phanindra Nath Brahmachari, Br. Radhakrishna Banerjee 
and Br. XJ. N. Brahmachari. Subjects: (1) The xVction of 
Quinine on a Haemolytic system in vitro and its bearing, if 
any, on the mechanism of Black -Water Fever. (2) The 

Amiual Report for l^S2, 


action of certain Quinoline compounds on Paramoeeia. Also 
Dr. IT. P. Basil. Subject: On the problem of Prevention 
of Diseases of the Heart in India. 

The recorded attendance averaged 4 members and 15 
visitors. " . ■ 

(2) Personal. — To our great regret Colonel R. Knowles, 
w^ho for many years has been a very active Secretary to the 
Medical Section, again fell seriously ill during the year and, 
after a long treatment in hospital, w^as invalided home. He 
consequently resigned his seat on the Council as well as the 
Medical Secretaryship. The Society is in debt to Colonel 
Knowles for his great energy and devotion to the cause of the 
medical activities of the Society. He has inspired and led the 
Medical Section for almost 12 years in succession with short 
interruptions, and no labour has ever been too much for him 
in this connection, 

(3) Oeneral:—T\xe multiplicity of medical institutions in 
Calcutta has been for a long time an obstacle to the numerical 
success of the meetings organised by the Medical Section. The 
attendance has, as a rule, been small as the various existing 
hospitals, colleges, institutes, and societies, all claim attendance 
for their own lectures and meetings. Our medical Members 
feel that this problem needs careful consideration. 

50. Bibliotheca Indica. 

(1) Works published. — ^Actually published w^ere four issues, 
Kos. 1516, 1517, 1518, and 1519, of an aggregate bulk of 12 
fascicle units of 96 or 100 pages and the final Part IV of the 
Kashmiri Dictionary, quarto, 316 pages. The details are given 
in Appendix II to this report. 

Of the above issues one constituted a complete work, 
namely : — . 

1. Pari4istaparvaii, Saii.skrifc (Second, revised Edition). 

(2) Indian works continued. — In the Indian Series work 
was continued on five works as follows : — 

1. Atmafcattva^dvoka, Sanskrit. 

2. Sanndarananda Kavyam, Sanskrit. Be-issue. 

3. Dowazangmo, Tibetan, 

4. Vaikhanasa-sraiita-sutra, Sanskrit. 

5. Manusmrti, with the commentary of Medhatithi, Sanskrit. 

(3) Islamic works continued. — In the Islamic Series work 
was continued on four works, namely : — 

1. ’Amal-i‘Salih, Persian. 

2. Tabaqat-i'Akbari, Persian. 

3. Tabaqat-i-Akbari, English. Translation. 

4. Kashafnl-Hujub, Part II, Index, Persian. 


Proceedings A,S.B.for 1932. 

: (4:) General Progress, —The output for the year, was very 
substantial. The great event of the year in the BUMothem 
Indica was, the completion of Sir George , Grierson’s great 
Kashmiri Dictionary, the first hegimiiiigs of which date back 
as far as 1899. The venerable author has for over 30 years 
devoted all his leisure to the completion of this peat work 
in the midst of his pressing engagements on the iiiiguistic survey 
of India. The work is now complete in four parts comprising 
over 1,270 quarto pages. The expense of the work has been 
very considerable, amounting to over Rs. 25,000, and of the 
labour of the author nothing adequate can be said in praise. 
It is a matter of happiest circumstance that Sir George Grierson, 
still full of vigour, has lived to see the termination of his great 
work and that the Society is able to congratulate him on the 
magnificent completion of this gigantic labour of love. 

During the year we lost through death two aged Editors 
actively engaged on works to be issued in the series : — ^Prof. 
Caland, editing the Vaikhanasa-srauta-sutra and Mr. B. De, 
editing and translating the Tabaqat-i-Akbarl. As to the first 
mentioned work Prof. J. Gonda happily volunteered to continue 
and complete the work in accordance with the wishes of the 
late scholar. The continuation of Mr. De’s work has to be 
arranged. The issue of the second volume of the translatioii 
offers no difficulty as the work was practically ready at the 
time of his regretted death. The issue of the third and final 
volumes of both edition and translation needs special aiTaiige- 
ments. A substantial portion of both is already in type but 
has not been seen by the late Editor and Translator. 

Of the various ’works in progress, nearly 1,900 pages of 
matter, not yet issued, have been printed off whilst a further 
portion is in galley proof, some 150 galleys. 

(5) New Works. — -During the year no new works were 

(6) Prospects.— XJndQV this heading we repeat the paragraph 
in the previous report which applies without change : — 

^ For reasons to be detailed in the following paragraph 
the prospects for the immediate future are none too bright. 
Several works are in need of speedy continuation and several 
wnrks in need of re-publioation. Several applications were 
made during the year for acceptance of new works in the series. 
Some of them are valuable and from the j^oint of view’ of scholar- 
ship it w’ould be most desirable to undertake publication of 
them as soon as possible. The condition of our finances 
militates against such action.’ 

(7) Fina?iciaL — ^As remarked last year, the financial 
position of the Bibliotheca Indies series is bad. At present 
the Society has advanced Rs. 8,500 to the two Oriental 
Publication Funds by which the series is financed wdiich sum 
represents the extent of their deficits. As already noted, the 

Annual Eeport for 1932. Ixxis. 

Government grants in support of the series have been curtailed 
by 20 per cent. Further there has been a great falling off in 
sales during the last two years. No doubt all these difficulties 
are temporary, but we cannot calculate the length of the period 
of depression. The work to be performed is enormous. A great 
many new wnrks are being offered for publication which we 
cannot take up. A great number of old works need new 
editions. Other works again need completion. Our scope,, 
even after more than a century of Sanskrit studies and the 
much longer period of Arabic and Persian studies, remains 
unbounded, whilst the exploration of the Tibetan and verna- 
cular fields has scarcely been begun. However much Oriental 
publishing agencies have multiplied of late years, yet the mass of 
Oriental literature to be converted into accessible print remains 
enormous. The only truly satisfactory solution of the difficulty 
would be, as remarked elsewhere in the report, the establish- 
ment of an adequate reserve fund for the Bibliotheca Indica 
of at least one lakh to begin with, the income of which should 
be devoted in the first instance to the re-issue of works out of 
print. The Bibliotheca Indica does not pay, and as its present 
low prices are fixed cannot pay its way. We are not yet in a^ 
position where the issue of critically edited and technical 
Oriental texts can be made a matter of profit if sold at moderate 
prices. We are working for posterity in this matter but not 
for ourselves. ' But without agencies undertaking the un- 
remunerative work in sheer service of learning for many years- 
to come, no ultimate stage can be arrived at where knowledge 
and interest will be so general that such publications may 
become self-supporting. 

51. Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts. 

(1) Catalogue .—D\xTm.g the ensuing year the question 
has to be considered of the continuation of the publication 
of the great descriptive catalogue of the Society’s Sanskrit 
manuscripts, begun and prepared by MM. Haraprasad Shastri.. 
During the year under review no grants in aid of the catalogue 
of the collection of Sanskrit manuscripts were received from 
the Government of Bengal, but these grants have been sanc- 
tioned early in the current year. The continuation of these 
grants has been considered by the Government and our future 
policy will be largely dictated by the final decision to be given. 
There is work for several years, and involving great sums, still 
to be performed. 

The revised manuscript for volume 8 of the catalogue 
on Philosophy, volume 9 on Tantra, volume 10 on Astronomy 
and Astrology, and volume 12 to contain a description of the 
vernacular manuscripts, is press-ready. The copy for volume 
11 on Jaina manuscripts, volume 13 of miscellaneous contents,. 


Proceedings A, S,B. for 1932. 

.and for volume 14,. the. Addenda and , supplementary matter,, 
‘has still to be given a final revision though the crude niateria.1 
is available. After the close of the series the question of drawing 
lip an amalgamated index and a general introduction for the 
whole series has to be considered, A collection of about 500 
manuscripts on Medical Science was sorted out and separated 
irom the collections to furnish material for a loth volume. 
The notices have already been prepared but they still need 
arrangement and numbering. 

(2) The resident Pandit continued his work on the descrip- 
tion of a collection of Bardic manuscripts, of which the Society 
possesses about 600. He prepared short notices for about 
.350 items and is continuing the work. 

(3) The staff of the Department remained unchanged. 

53. Arabic and Persian Manuscripts, Search and Catalogue. 

The work in this department w^as steadily pursued. 

(1) Gatalogiie . — Work on the first volume of the catalogue 
of Arabic manuscripts, partly printed, partly in type, and 
partly in manuscript, has to be taken up again as soon as possible 
after having been in suspense since the beginning of 1930. 
The small credit balance at the end of the year, of about 
Rs. 1,330, has to increase substantially before further w^ork can 
be taken in hand. 

(2) Binding . — The binding and repairing of previously 
and newly acquired MSS. was continued and 60 MS. volumes 
were bound during the year, making a total of 1,950 MSS. 
bound and repaired since the end of 1924. As already stated 
before, the binding of the manuscripts in this department has 
now been practically completed and henceforth the number 
of MSS, to be bound annually will in all probability be reduced 
to a few dozens. 

(3) Acquisitions . — During the year three manuscripts were 
acquired by purchase. Besides, photographic reproductions 
of three very valuable manuscripts in the Vienna State Library, 
the Bodleian Library in Oxford, and the British Museum Library 
in London, were acquired for editorial purposes. Such photo- 
graphic copies of rare manuscripts are exceedingly valuable 
and desirable acquisitions, but expensive, and their purchase 
is a luxury to be indulged in but rarely. A total amount of 
.about Rs. 540 was spent on these new acquisitions. 

(4) Reference Works . — During the year a special endeavour 
w-as made to complete the collection of bibliographical reference 
works describing Arabic and Persian MSS. throughout the 
wmrld. The department was fortunate in obtaining a sub- 
stantial number of rare items hitherto lacking, and the collec- 
tion in the possession of the Society may be now counted as 

Annual Report for 1932. Ixxxi 

the most complete one existing in India, numbering over 165' 
items, large and small.' ■ 

(5) Arrangement— The re-arrangement of the Persian 
manuscripts aecording to the serial numbers in Mr. Ivanow’s 
catalogues was continued and completed during the year and 
now all the manuscripts described in the four volumes are placed 
on the shelves in a sequence corresponding to the serial numbers 
of the catalogue, which greatly facilitates their handling, 

(6) The staff of the department remained unchanged. 

53. Numismatics. 

One Numismatic Supplement No. 43 (for 1930) was pub- 
lished (60 pages and 5 plates) containing 9 articles. No further 
material was received for publication during the year. An 
endeavour to procure indexes for the third series of the >Supple- 
ment to cover the articles between 200 and 300 met as yet with 
no success, and the lack of contact was felt between the Editor 
of the Supplement and the office of the Society on account of 
the great distance between the two, 

54. Conclusion. 

For ten years now the annual report has been written on a 
methodical plan which has been modified and extended in, 
detail year by year as circumstances demanded, until a skeleton 
has been evolved which practically covers all the facts and 
allow^'s for a well-balanced presentation of all elements and 
items constituting the year’s work. Stress has been laid on a 
relation of facts, supplemented by a modicum of reflection and 
comment. The main aspects of our problems have been 
illustrated from various angles of view in difierent reports and 
the burden of our considerations has been repeated in different 
wording in the successive issues of the annual review. It may 
be, therefore, that in future years the element of comment 
may be curtailed and reserved to whatever new considerations 
may arise from time to time. The decennial description of 
the Society’s work as embodied in the last ten years’ reports 
gives clear and full expression to almost every desideratum and 
consideration to which experience has drawn attention. 

55. Summary. 

Though the year 1932 was one of sustained activity in all 
the (departments of the Society it continued to be at the same 
time strongly and adversely influenced by the financial diffi- 
culties prevalent throughout the world. The Society’s income 
was reduced under various headings^ the number of new" 


Proceedings AS for 1932. 

accessions in membership was only slightly above that of the year 
before, and the number of resignations very great. The number 
of Members who let their membership lapse through iion- 
payment of subscriptions was exceptionally large. Xevertheless 
the total number of Ordinary Members on the roll by the end 
of the year, though representing a decrease of 07, still remain 
over 450, a total almost equal to that of the year 1925. The 
number of Life Members increased to 54. The Council and its 
Committees were active. The staff worked well but needs 
strengthening and improvement. The hand of death made us 
lose our oldest member as well as several other valued adherents. 
No new Institutional Members were enrolled. The roll of 
Ordinary Fellows decreased to 45, that of Honorary Fellows to 
28. Some improvement was made in furniture and fittings, 
and thorough repairs to the building were undertaken. Tlie 
correspondence of the year remained very exacting. The 
many official and ceremonial obligations of the Society were 
as much as possible attended to and internationai intelleetiial 
relations were fully maintained. The number of distinguished 
visitors to the Society’s Rooms during the year was satisfactory 
and varied. The various awards of the Societ}? foi* scholarly 
merit were administered with care. No new’ rules were framed. 
Two valuable artistic objects w^ere received as presentations. 
The Library added 216 volumes to its collections and iiiore than 
660 volumes were bound. The permanent Library Endow- 
ment Fund received no further gifts and its invested corpus 
of Rs. 12,000, face value, remained the same. The financial 
position of the Society w’^as far from satisfactory, and invest- 
ments of only about Rs. 1,200, face value, w^ere added to tlie 
Permanent Reserve Fund. The year’s working produced no 
actual deficit but a proposed increase of the permanent fund 
had to be deferred. The Government of Bengal made a reduc- 
tion in its various grants by 20%. Proceeds from book sales 
decreased by about Rs. 800. The chief financial problem be- 
fore the Society remains the speedy and considerable strengthen- 
ing of the Permanent Reserve Fund, by several lakhs of rupee.s. 
The publication of the Journal and Memoirs during the year 
w’-as seriously delayed but steps were taken to make good the 
arrears in the near future. The supply of new^ materials for 
publication remained considerable. The Monthly Meetings 
•continued to be of interest and were w^ell attended. A number 
of interesting exhibits w^ere shown during the year. One 
General Lecture was given. The number of Philological papers 
presented during the year amounted to ten and six papers on 
Biology were contributed. One paper was received on Physical 
Science, There was one Anthropological paper. In all IS 
papers w’ere received. The Medical Section held three meetings. 
The issues in the Bibliotheca Indica w’ere not only numerous, 
but bulky and important. Amongst them W’as one complete 

Annual Report for 1932. 


work, and together they were of a hulk of 19 units of 96 or 100 
octavo pages. ISTo further cataloguing of manuscripts in the 
Arabic and Persian Section and of the Sanskrit manuscripts was 
undertaken during the year. The binding of the collection of 
Persian and Arabic manuscripts was continued and 60 further 
volumes were bound making a total of 1,950 volumes bound 
during the last nine years. Three new volumes of Arabic and 
Persian manuscripts were added to the Society’s Library as 
well as 3 photographic copies of such manuscripts. 

The year under review was one of activity and satisfactory 
success notwithstanding adverse financial and economic con- 
ditions. All Members and OfS.cers worked harmoniously to- 
gether with undiminished enthusiasm and though the financial 
aspect is not bright the scholarly and social prestige of the 
Society was fully maintained. 

Though the Report this year had necessarily to be written 
in a minor key in order not to underrate the Society’s diffi- 
culties, there is no reason for despondency or dissatisfaction. 
Our activities not only continued without interruption or 
abatement, but the vitality of the Association remained un- 
impaired. It is, however, necessary to depart, to some extent, 
from that unworldly standpoint which in the past has invariably 
led to an omission of any stress being laid on the Society’s 
financial difficulties, desiderata, and hopes. It has been rightly 
said that if needs are not expressed they will never be met. 
It has therefore been judged advisable to stress clearly the 
financial needs of the Society and to point out that an Institu- 
tion of the magnitude, the record, and the reputation, of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, not to speak of its ambitions and 
hopes, should have an adequate capital as a permanent endow- 
ment so that its financially unprofitable labours may continue 
and even increase, independently from the vicissitudes of a 
fluctuating and, at present, alas, too limited income. 

Membership Statistics* 

(As calculated for December' Slstj for 30 years,) 

































































































. . 





























• . 






















































































































































































































































































































61 1 














: 46 




































































1 5 




28 1 


( Ixxxiv ) 


List of Publications issued by tbe Asiatic Society of 
Bengal during 1932. 

(a) Bibliotheca Indica (New Series) 

Manusmrti, VoL I (6 units) 
’Amal-i-Salih, Vol. Ill, Fasc. 3 (1 unit) . . 
Kashmiri Dictionary, Part IV (Special 
Price) . . . . 

Pari4ispparvan (2nd Ed.) (5 units) 

(b) Journal and Proceedings (New Series) : 

Vol. XXV : No. 3 (13 units) . . . . 4 14 ( 

Vol. XXVI : No. 2 (9 units) . . . . 3 6 ( 

Vol. XXVI : No. 3 (12 units) . . . . 4 8 ( 

Title page and Index for Vol. XXV. (Free to Members and fSub 
seribers on application.) 

(c) Memoirs : 

Vol. IX, No. 6 : Temperature and Salinity of the 
Deeper- waters of the Bay of 

Bengal and Andaman Sea — (5 
units) . . . . . • 

Vol. XI, No. 4 : String Figures from Gujarat and 

Kathiawar (2 units) . . 

Vol. XT, No. 5: Algal Flora of the Chilka Lake 

(7 units) . . . . . . 

(d) Miscellaneous : 

Proceedings, Nineteenth Indian Science Congress . . 

( IXXXY ) 


Abstract Statement 


Receipts and Disbursements 

of the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

the Year 1932 

( Ixxxvii ) 


Proceedings A.8.B. for 1932. 


1932. Asiatic Society 



Ks. As. P. Bs* As. P. 

Salaries and Allowances ,, 31,365 6 3 

Gommission .. .. .. 298 7 0 

. — Sl,a63 13 .3 


Stationery . . 

■ ■ ' . . 382 



Fan and Light . . 




Telephone . 




Taxes . . . . 

. . , 2,244 



Postage . . 








Printing Circulars, etc. 

.. 768 



Audit Fee • • 




Petty Repairs 

' . . 42 







Menials’ Clothing . . 




Furniture . . 

. . 412 



Building Repairs 




To Library 

and Collections. 

Books . . 




Binding . . . . 





To Publications. 

Journal and Proceedings and Memoirs * . 4,244 13 3 

To Contributions to Funbs. 

Provident Fund Contribution for 1932 . , 677 5 0 

Building Repair Fund Account . . 2,000 0 0 

Publication Fund Account . , , . 5,000 0 0 

To Sundry Adjustments. 

Bad Debts written-off 
Balance as per Balance Sheet . , 


8,321 1 6 

2,924 1 0 

4,244 13 3 

7,677 5 0 

2,263 6 6 
2,20,619 0 4 

2,77,713 8 10 


Beceipts and Disbursements, 


of Bengal. 1932. 


Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P . 
By Balance from last Acconnt .. . . 1,57,960 10 11 

By Cash Bbobipts 





Interest on Investments 

. . 10,013 



Interest on Fixed Deposit 




Miscellaneous . . 




Government Allowance 








Rent . . . . . . 




By Personal 


Members’ Subscriptions . . 

. . 12,085 



Compounding Subscriptions 




Admission Fees 




Miscellaneous . . 




13,198 7 8 

By Transfer from Funds. 

Proportionate Share in General Expen- 
diture . . . . . . . . 9,000 0 0 

Publiea-tion Fund for Publications . . 4,436 9 0 

13,436 9 0 

By Appreciation of Govt. Segurixies. 

Appreciation of Gbvt. Securities revalued 
on3M2-32 .. .. .. 60,840 12 0 


2,77,713 8 10 

Proceedings AS.B. for 1932. 



1932. Oriental Publication 

From a moiithiy grant mad© by the Government of Bengai for the pnbli- 
(Bs. 500), and for the publication of Sanskrit 

{Less from the 


Rs. As. P. 

To Balance from last Account . . . . 5,749 :i 10 

To Cash Expenbitube. 

Printing . . . . ■ ^ " ... - . 5,159 1 i 0‘ 

To Proportionate Share in General Ex- 
penditure . . . . . . . » 3,000 0 0* 

Total . . ' 13,908 14 10 


1932 . Oriental Publication 

From a monthly grant made by the Government of Bengal of 


{Less 20% Jrom the 


To Cash Expenditube. 

Es. As., P , Rs. As. P. 

Printing .. .. .. .. 5,589 7 10 

Editing .. .. 280 0 0 

5^869 7 10 


7 10 


Bsceipts and Disbursements. 



Fund^ No. F Account with A.S.B. 1932. 

cation of Oriental Works and Works of Instruction in Eastern Languages 
Works hitherto unpublished (Rs, 250). 

1st of April, 1932.) 


By Cash Receipts. 

Rs. As. P. 

Annual Grant . . . . . . . . 8,400 0 0^ 

By Balance as per Balance Sheet . . . . 5,508 14 10 

Total .. 13,908 14 10 


Fund^ No. 2 9 in Account with A.S.B. 1932., 

Rs. 250 for the publication of Arabic and Persian Works of 

Ist of April, 1932.) 


By Balance from last Account 

Rs. As. P. 

By Cash Reobipts. 

Annual Grant for 1932-33 . . . . 

By Balance as per Balance Sheet 


Rs. As. P. 
383 14 3 

2,400 0 

5,869 7 10 


xcii Proceedings A.S.B. for 19^2. 


1932. Sanskrit Manuscripts Fund 

From an annual grant of Rs. 3,200 made by the Government of Bengal 

by the Sodety ; and Rs. 3,600 from the 

\ ( Less 20% from the 


To Cash Exfisisidituee. 

■ ■ Rs. .As. P 

Pension. ,, ; ' ... 120 0 0 

Allowance . .. . ^00, 0 0' 

Printing '' .. ■ . . , . . , 484 14 0 

To Proportionate Share in General Ex- 
penditure . ... . . . . ... 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet 


. Rs. As. P. 

904 .14, 0 

2,000 0 0 
10,964 ,6 3 

13,869 4 3 


1932 . 

Arabic and Persian Manuscripts 

: From .an annual grant of Rs.- 5,000 made by .the Govem,m 0 iit of India for 
by the Society ; for the purchase of further Manuscripts, 

. .Manuscripts fo'und in , 


Rs.. As. P. ' : , ,Rs. As, ,P.. 

To Cash ExEEHniTUBB. 

, Manuscripts Purchase .- ■ '.... . ■ ■. ■. ■ ■ . , . 

Binding . . 


, Printing ... ... ■ ' ■ . . . . . . 

To Proportionate Share in General Expendi- 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet 


854 14 3 
148 n 0 
100 0 0 
1,313 12 0 

2,417 6 3 

2,500 0 0 
1,331 4 6 

6,248 10 0 

Receipts and Disbursements. 



Account^ in Account with A,S B. 


for the publication of the Catalogue of Sanskrit Maiiuscripts acquired 
same Covernment for Research Work. 

Ist of April, 1932.) 


By Balance from last Aceount . . 

Rs. As. P. Bs. As. P 
13,869 4 , ,.3 


13,869 4 3 


Fund Account i in Account with AS. B. 

■ 1932 . 

the cataloguing and binding of Arabic and Persian Manuscripts, acquired 
and for the preparation of notices of Arabic and Persian 
various Libraries in India. 


By Balance from last Account 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

1,248 10 9 

By Cash Receipts. 
•Oovernment Allowance for 1932-33 ■. . , . . . 

5,000 0 0 

6,248 10 9 



xciv Proceedings A.S.B. for 19Z2. 


1932. Barclay Memorial 

From a sum of Rs. 500 odd given in 1896 by the Surgeon. 

encouragement of Medical 


To Cash Expenditure. 

Cost of a Medal 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet — 
Rs. 400, 3|% G.P.N., 1854-55 \ 

,, 100, „ „ 1900-01 ( 

» 100, „ „ 1865 ( 

„ 100, „ „ 1854-55 ) 

Accumulated Cash Balance . . 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

17 14 O' 

515 6 0 
58 6 2 ' 

573 12 2 ' 

Total .* 591 10 2 


1932. Servants' Pension Fund 

Founded in 1876 as the Piddington Pension Fund 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet — 

Rs. 2,000, 34% G.P. Notes i 
„ 500, 3|% G.P. Notes f 

Accumulated Cash Balance 

Rs. As. ;P. " Bs. As. P. 

1,840 10 0 
187 11 10 

— ; 2,028 5 10' 


2,028 5. 10- 

Receipts and Disbursements, 



Fund Account^ in Accowit with A,8,B. 

General, for the foundation of a medal for the 

and Biological Science. 


By Balance from last Account . . 

Rs. As. P. 

By Cash Receipts 

Interest realized for the year 
By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 



Account^ in Account with A 8,B, 

with Rs. 500 odd from the Piddington Fund. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . .. 

By Cash Receipts. 

Interest realized for the year . . .. 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 
31-12-32 .. .. .. 

Total .. 


Rs. As. P. 
419 9 4- 

23 11 10 
148 5 0' 

591 10 2 


Rs. As. P. 
1,411 3 S' 

87 7 2 ' 
529 11 0 

2,028 5 10^ 

scvi Proceedhigs A.S.B. for 1932. 


J932. Annandale Memorial Fund 

• From donations by subscriptioB, 


To Cash Expenditure. 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet 
Rs. 3,000, 3^% G.P. Notes ) 

„ 1,000, 3|% G.P. Notes § * * 
Accumulated Cash Balance . . 

Rs. As. P. Rs, As. P, 
... ' ■ .1 8 0 , 

2,945 0 0 
111 3 7 

. 3,056 3 ■: 7 

Total . . 3,057 11 7 



Permanent Library Endowment 

From gifts received 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet — 
Rs. 11,000, 3i% G.P. Notes ) 

„ 1,000, 3J% G.P. Notes) ’* 
Accumulated Cash Balance . . 

Rs. As. P. ■ : Rs. As. P. 

8,835 0 0 
701 0 0 

9,536 0 0 

9,.536 0 0 


Receipts and Disbursements. 


Account s in Account with A.8.B. 

started in 1926. . 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . 

By Cash Receipts. 

Interest realized for the year .. 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 



Fund Account^ in Account with A,8,B. 

started In 1926. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . . . 

By Cash Receipts. 

Interest realized for the year . . 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 
31-12^32 .. : , ' . , 

■ xovif 


Rs. As. P. 
2,070 11 I 

139 8 6 
847 8 0 
3,057 11 7 


Rs, As. P. 
6,575 5 6 

418 2 6 
2,542 8 0 

xoviii Proceedings A.S.B.for 1932. 


1932- Sir William Jones Memorial 

From a sum gifted for tlie purpose in 


Bs. As. P. Ks. As. P. 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet — 

Bs. 3,000, 3i% G.P. Notes . . 2,208 12 0 

Accumulated Cash Balance - . 216 10 0 

■ . 2,425 6,0 

Total , . . 2,425 6 0 


1 932. Joy Gobind Law Memorial 

From a donation for the purpose 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet— 
Bs. 3,000, 34% G.P Notes . . 
Less Cash Advance' ' . .. ■ 

Rs. ,As.' P. 

2,208 1,2, 0 
4 , 8 "0 

'Rs. ,As. P. 

,2,204 , , ,4, , 0 



Receipts and Disbursements, 



Fund Account^ in Account with A,S,B, 

1926, by Dr. U. N. Brahmachari. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Aceonnt , , 

By Cash Receipts, 

Interest realized for the year . . 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 

31-12-32 .. .. ■ .. 



Fund Account^ in Account with A,S,B, 

by Dr. Satya Ghiirn Law, 1929. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . , . . . 

By Cash Receipts, 

Interest realized during the year .. .. 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 
31-12-32 .. .. ^ *• 

1932 . 

Rs. As. P. 
1,685 4 0 

104 8 0 
63510 0 
2,425 6 0 

1932 . 

Rs. As. P. 
1,464 6 0 

104 4 0 
635 10 0 
2,204 4 0 



Proceedings A.S.B. for 1932. 


1932- Akbarnama Reprint 

■ , From a sum set apart in 1923 for 


■ To Cash Expenditure. 

Rs. As,. P. 

Printing . . , 

7,7.64 10 8 


7,764 .10 8 



Building Fund 

From a sum of Rs. 40,000 given by the Government of India 

proceeds of a portion 


To Cash Expenditure. 

' Rs. As. ' F. 

Building Repairs . . . . 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet . . . . 

4,802 11 0 

6,321 9 6 

.Total ' " . . 

11,124. ' 4 6 


1932. Calcutta Science Congress Prize 


■ , 'Es* As» "P» „ ■. 'Ks. .,A,s» "F. 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet — 

Rs. 3,000, 3i% G.P. Notes . . . . 2,208 12 0 

Accumulated Cash Balance , . . . 359 7 7 

. — 


Receipts and Disbursements. 



Account^ in Account loith AS.B, 

the reprint of the Akbarnama in England. 



Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . , 

7,764 10 8 


7,764 10 8 


Account^ in Account with A,8.B, 


towards the rebuilding of the Society’s premises, and from the sale 
of the Society’s land. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . . . . , 

11,124 4 6 


11,124 4 6 


Fund Account^ in Account with A.8.B. 



By Balance from last Account . , 

By Cash Receipts 

Interest realized during the year . . 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 
31-12-32 .. .. .. 

Rs. As, F. Bs, As, P. 

1,828 5 7 

104 4 0 
635 10 0 


2,568 S 7 

Proceedings A.8.B. for 1932. 




Dr. Briihl Memorial 

From a sum gifted for the purpose by ' 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet- 
„ Rs. 1,000, 3i% G.P. Notes 
Accumulated Cash Balance 

Rs. As. P. : Ms. As. P. 

736 ' 4 0 
312 4 , 0 

1,048 .8 0 


1,048 8 0 



Building Repair 


To Cash Expkdtbxthrb. 

Building Repairs 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet 


Rs. As. P. 

4.000 0 0 

2.000 . 0 0 

6,000 ■ 0 ' 0 



International Catalogue of Scien- 


To Balance as per Balance Sheet 

Rs. As- P. 
4,374 7 8 

4,374 7 8 


Receipts and Disbursements. ciii 


Fund Account^ in Account with AM. B, 1932. 

the BriiM Farewell Committee, 1929. 


Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . 

801 14 0 

By Cash Receipts. 

Interest realized for the year . . . . . . 

By Appreciation, Investments revalued on 

31-12-32 , ■ 

■ 34 12 , 0 

211 14 0 






Fund Account, in Account with A.S.B. 



Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account 

By Transfer from the A S.B. 

4.000 0 0 

2.000 0 0 


6,000 0 0 


tific Literature, in Account with A.S.B. 



Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account . . 


4,374 7 8 


• • 

4,374 7 8 


Proceedings A*S.B. for 1932. 


' 't . ■ 

1932. Personal 


Bs. As. P. Rs, As. P. 

To Balance from last Accoimt .. .. 4,789 . 6 9 

To Advances .. ■ .. .. 1,786 14 3 

To Asiatic Society’s Subscriptions, etc. . . 13,198 7 8 

To Subscriptions to Journal and Proceedings 
and from Book Sales, etc., from Publica- 
tion .Fund . . . . . . 4,436 9 0 

17,635 , 0 8 

Total , 24,211 5 S 


1932. Publication Fund 

From sale proceeds 


To Proportionate Share in General Ex- 
penditure .... .. 

To Publications of the A. S.B. .. 

To Books returned, etc. . . 

To Balance as per Balance Sheet . , 


Rs. As. P. R-s. As. P, 

■1,500 0 0 

4,436 9 0 
56 3 0 

^ 4492 12 ^ 0 

.. ■ ■ 7,181 6 0 


Receipts and Disbursements. 






By Cash Receipts during the year 


• .a 

By Bad Debts written-off. 


. 2,263 



By. Books .returned, etc. 







Amount due 

Amount due 


the Society. 


the Society. 

-Hs. ! As. 






3.707 ' , 





Bill Collector's 

72 1 ... 








Miscellaneous ... 

13*26 i 'S 






5,605 : S 




By Balance 



Account, in Account toith A.S.B. 

of publications. 


Rs. As. P. 

By Balance from last Account ... 

By Cash Becexpts. 

Cash Sales of Publications .» .. .. 

By Pebsonal Accouht. 

Credit Sales ol Publications, etc. .. ^ ■3»644 9 0 

Subscriptions to Journal and Proceedings . . 672 0 0 

Institutional Members’ Subscriptions . * 120 0 0 

' By Tbahspeb fbom Fxjhds. ' 

AiS..B. for publications . , , 6,000 0 0 

.By .exchange diSerence,' etc. ' 45 4 6 



Rs. As. P. 
17,798 4 8 

2,319 9 6 

4,093 7 6 
24,211 5 8 


Re. As. P. 
3,535 10 9 

156 9 9 

4,436 9 0 

6,045 4 6 
13,174 2 0 



Proceedings A.S.B.for 1932. 


1932. U) Investment Account 


Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

To Balance from last Account . . 

To Deposits of Contributions during the year 
To Deposits of Advances, returned 
To Interest realized for the year 1931 

1,714**3 0 
290 0 0 
62 5 1 

2,872 1 1 ,0 

2,066 S 1 

Total .. 4,939 3 1 


1932. (2) Investment Account 


To Balance from last Account 

Fixed Deposits 

To Cash Expbnditube. 


Rs, As. P. 
6,025 14 3 

38,206 0 9 
44,231 15 0 


1932. (3) Investment Account 


To Balance from last Account . . 

24,562" 8; vd 

Rs. As. P. 
24,562 S 0 


Beceipts and Disbursements, 



{Bamngs Bank Deposit, Imperial Bank of India), 1932. 


By Cash Receipts. 

Rs. As. P. 

Rs. As. P. 

Withdrawal of Deposits for staff Advance 

By Balance as per Balance Sheet 

100 0 0 
4,839 3 1 


4,939 3 1 


{Fixed Deposit with Central Bank of India), 

1932 . 


By Cash Receipts. 

Rs. As. P. 

Withdrawal of Deposits 

By Balance as per Balance Sheet 

21,081 6 3 

23,150 8 9 


44,231 15 0 


{Qovernme'nt of India Treasury Bills). 

1932 . 


By Cash Receipts.. 

Rs. As. P. 

.Treasury realized on '.maturity . ■ , . ; ■ ,, ■ . . ■ 

24,562 8 0 


24,562 8 0 


1932 (4) Investment 


To Balance from last Accotint . . 

To Appreciation in value of Investments revalued on 
... 31 - 12-32 .. ■ 

Total . » 

Es. As. P. 
1 , 70,230 10 0 

67,552 8 . 0 





Rate (^. 
Rs. % i 

3.1,st i .Hist ; A|tprecia- 
Deceniber, i Peconiht.'r. riouonSlst 
193*2, Yaliia- 119BL Valua- December, 
tion, I lion. 1932. 












Permanent Reserve. 


3.‘% O. Loan No. 155119, 1842-43 ... 




3.^% Ci. Loan No. 216811, 1854-55 ... 




l3.^% O. Loan No. 216812, 1854-55 •• 



3A % G-. Loan No. 029544, 1879 




34% G. Loan No. 029548, 1879 






1 oq 





.‘1.‘ % G. Loan No. 33742S, 1865 




34 % G. Loan No. 238369, 191X1-01 ... 
34% G. Loan Part of No. *288816, 






3% G. Loan No. 093715, 1896-97 ... 


Temporary Reserve. 


3.4% G. Loan Part of No. 238816. 











4.4% G. Loan 1955-60 

■ 95/7/-. 







Pension Fund. 




3.4% G. Loan No. 029546, 1879 

6.|% G. Loan No. 244056, 18,54-55 



j 1,840 







Barclay Memorial Fund. 


34% G. Loan No. 170971, 18.54-.55 ... 




3.4% G. Loan No. *2*20763,18.54-55 ... 





34% G, Loan No. 304677, 19lX)-0i .. 


> 515 








3|% G, Loan No. 354795, 1^5 




34% G. Loan No. *243773, 1854-55 ... 



■' , 

Sir William Jones Memorial 


' Fund. 


3.4 % G. Loan No. 188719, 18,54-55 ... 
3.4% G. Loan Nos. *28.5807, *292707, 


1,500 1 

y *2,208 









Annandale Memorial Fund. 



3.4% G. Loan Nos. 195892, 195893, 




3.4% G. Loan No. *22287*2, 1854-55 ... 



} 2,945 


j 0 






Permanent Library Endowment 

1' ; ■■ 



3.4 % G. Loan No. *230065, 1854-55 ... 

3.4% G. Loan Nos. *231119, 230787, 





■ 1854-,55 ■ ... .. 

.3.4% G. Loan No. 2.34698, 1854-55 



>* 8,835 









3.4 % G- Loan No 235353-55, 181^-55 


1,000 j 

3.4 % G. Loan No. *2*22874, 1854-55 ... 

Calcutta Science Congress Prize 



■■ Fund. 

S,000 i 

3|% G. Loan No. 2358.51,1854-55 ... 










Dr. Brithl Memorial F\tnd. 

1,000 1 

34% G-. Loan No. 235843, 1854-55 ... | 










Joy Gobind Law Memorial Fund, i 


' ] 


34% G. Loan No. 213534, 1854-55 ... 




1 ■ , ■ ■■ 



34% G. Loan No. *213535, 1854-55 ... 
34% G. Loan No. 213536, 1^54-55 ... 
3.43t G. Loan No. 219673, 1854-55 ... 

: 73/10/- 

} 2,208 

■ , 1 


I 0 









Provident Fund Account, 


44% G. Loan No. G. 004779-83, 1934 










3^7,800 1 

1 ■ 


' 2 


, 1,70,230 






Eeceipts and Disbursements. 


Account (Governme^it Securities). 


By Balance' as per Balance Sheet 


1932 , 

Rs. As. R 
2,37,783 ' 2 0 


2,37,783 2 0 


Proceedings A.S.B. for 1932, 

STATEMENT No. 27. . . 

1932. Cash 

Fo,r the year to Slst 



Rs. As. 


Balaac© from last Account 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 




Oriental Publication Fund No. 1 Account . . 




Oriental Publication Fund No. 2 Account. . 




Arabic and Persian Manuscripts Fund Ac- 

count . . . . . . . , 




Barclay Memorial Fund Account 




Servants’ Pension Fund Account 




Annandaie Memorial Fund Account 




Permanent Library Endowment Fund 





Sir William Jones Memorial Fund Account 




Joy Gobind Law Memorial Fund Account 




Calcutta Science Congress Prize Fund Ac- 

count . . 




Dr. Brtihl Memorial Fund Account 




Current Deposit Account, Chartered Bank, 





Provident Fund Account 




Advances Account . , 




Personal Account . . . . . . 




Publication Fund Account 




Savings Bank Deposit Account, Imperial 

Bank of India 




Fixed Deposit Account, Central Bank of 

India, Calcutta . . 




Government of India Treasury Bills Ac- 

count . . 




Es. As. P, 
10,251 5 7 

1,17, 8i2 2 11 


1,28,093 8 6 

Receipts mid Disbursements. 



December,, 1932. 



Asiatic Society of Bengal 
Oriental PubHcation Fund No. 1 Account . . 
Oriental Publication Fund No. 2 Account. . 
Sanskrit Manuscripts Fund Account 
Arabic and Persian Manuscripts Fund Ac- 
count . . 

Barclay Memorial Fund Account 
Annandale Memorial Fund Account 
Akbarnama Reprint Account .. 

Building Fund Account 
Building Repair Fund Account 
Advances Account . . 

Personal Account 

Savings Bank Deposit Account, Imperial 
Bank of India, Calcutta 
Fixed Deposit Account, Central Bank of 
India, Calcutta 

Rs. As. P. 











































Balance carried forward 


1932 . 

Rs, As. P. 

,20,866 6 9 
7,227 1 9 


1,28,093 8 6 

CXiV ■ 

Proceedings A.8.B. for 1932. 


1932 . 


Asiatic Society of Bengal . . . . 2,20,619 0 ■ 4 ■ 

Sanskrit Manuscripts Fund Account . . 10,964 6 $ 

Arabic and Persian Manuscripts Fund 
Account .. .. .. 1,331 4 6 

Barclay Memorial Fund Account ■ . . ' 573. 12 2 

Servants’ Pension Fund Account . . 2,028 5 10 

Annandale Memorial Fund Account . . 3,056 3 7 

Permanent Library Endowment Fimd 
Account . . , . . . 9,536 0 0 

Sir William Jones Memorial Fund Account 2,425 6 0 

Joy Gobind Law Memorial Fund Account 2,204 4 0 

Building Fund Account . . . . 6,321 9 6 

Calcutta Science Congress Prize Fund 

Account . . . . . . 2,568 3 7 

Dr. Brubi Memorial Fund Account . . 1,048 8 0 

Building Repair Fund Account . . 2,000 0 0 

International Catalogue of Scientific Litera- 
ture Account . . . . . . 4,374 7 8 

Provident Fund Account .. . 10,459 3 I 

PufoJication Fund Account .. .. 7,181 6 0 


As at 31st 

Rs. As. P. Rs. As, P, 


2,86,692 0 6 
2,86,692 0 6 

We have examined the above Balance Sheet 
and the appended detailed accounts with the 
Books and V ouchers presented to ns and certify 
that they are in accordance therewith, and set 
forth correctly the position of the Society as at 
31st December, 1932. 

Prick, Watkrhouse, Peat & Co., 

Calcutta, Auditors, 

January 23rd, J9S3. Chartered Accountants 

Receipts and Disbursemefits. 



December, 1932„ 




Oriental Publication Fund No. 1 Account . . 
Oriental Publication Fund No. 2 Aecotmt . , 
AdYances Account . . 

Personal Account 

Investment Account ' . . . ■ 

Savings Bank Deposit ■ Account, Imperial 
Bank of India 

Current Deposit Account, Chartered Bank, 

Fixed Deposit Account, Central Bank of 
India, Calcutta 

Cash and Bank Balances . . .. 


Rs. As. P. Rs. As. P. 

5,508 1 4 1,0 
3,085 9 7 
570 0 0 
4,093 7 6 

13,257 1.5 11 



3 1 

434 1 0 
23,150 8 9 



2,86,692 0 6 

K . O * Mahihdea, ■ 
Honorary Treasurer, 



Abstract Proceedings Council, 1932. 

(Rule 48 f.) 


Annual Report, Approved. 

Ho. 15. , 16-1-32. 

Annual Meeting, 1932. Arrangements approved. 

Ho. 16. 16-1-32. 

Artistic anb Historical Possessions — 

Presentation by the Hon’ble Sir B. L. Mitter of the Royal Warrant 
to iiim to represent the Empire of India at the League of Hations. 
The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the donor. 

Ho. 1. 16-1-32. 

Report completion by Dr. Brahmachari of the set of photographs 
of the past Presidents of the Society. The Council’s thanks to be 
conveyed to Dr. Brahmachari. 

Ho. 1. 27-6-32. 

Letter from Dr. B. 0. Law offering to present to the Society an 
enlarged coloiued photograph of the late MM. H. P. Shastri. Accept 
with the Councirs cordial thanks to the donor. 

Ho. 2. 25-7-32. 

Letter from Brahmachari offering to present to the Society a 
marble bust of Dr. Brahmachari. Accept with thanks. 

Ho. 2. 31-10-32. 

Bust of Sir George Grierson by Antonio Marzollo. General Secretary 
to invite subscriptions from Council Members and sympathisers to 
enable purchase and proper installation. 

Ho. 18. 28-11-32, 

Associate Members — 

Quinquennial re-election Associate Members. Recommended for 
election for a further period of five years the following three Associate 

Members : — 

Rev. Pierre Johanns, S.J. 

MM, Anantakrishna Sastri. 

Mr. H. H. Yasu. 

:■ Ho. 2. 16-1-32. 

Bibliotheca' Inbioa — 

Kashmiri Dictionary. The question of the suitability of dedicating 
the completed volume to its author. Sir George Grierson, by the Society. 
To be decided by the President. 

Ho, 19. ' 29-2-32. 

Edition Rubaiyyat of ’Umar-i-Khaiyyam’, by M. Mahfuz-ul Haq. 
Accept with thanks for publication in the Bibliotheca Indica Series. 
Ask for estimates for printing also from other press than the Baptist 

( cxvii ) 


Proceedings A.S.B, for 1932» 

Missioa Press. Mr. Percy Brown, Dr. Baini Prashad, and the General 
Secretary to arrange the details of the edition. 

Ho. 14. 25-4-32. 

Interesting reviews of the two recent issues of the Bibliotheca Indica. 

Ho. 1. " 25-7-32. 

Pinance Committee Ho. 4 (1) of 26-10-32. Refund to Mr. Mahfuz-ul 
Haq the cost of blocks prepared for the edition of ’IJmar-i-Khaiyyam, 
Recommendation ; Pay. Accepted by Council. 

Ho. 6. 31-10-32. 

Report completion printing of the Kashmiri Dictionary by Sir George 
Grierson. Final printing bill to be paid. 

Hd, 14. 31-10-32. 

Report completion of the second edition by Prof. H. Jacobi of the 
Sthaviravalicarita. Editor’s fees to be paid. 

Ho. 15. 31-10-32. 

Review in the Journal, Royal Asiatic Society, London, of Tarikh-i- 
Mubarak Shahi, edited by Dr. M. Hidayat Hosain. Record. The 
Editor to be paid a fee of Re. 1 per page. 

Ho. 1. 28-11-32. 

Builbing — 

Finance Committee Ho. 3 (3) of 14-12-32. Society’s contribution to 
the Building Repair Fund Account as per estimate of Rs. 2,000. 
Recommendation : Pay. Accepted by Council. 

Ho. 9. 19-12-32. 

Committees — 

Constitution of the Standing Committees, 1932-38. To be constituted 
as follows : — 

(a) Finance- 

{b) lAbrary- 

General Secretary 
Mr. J. C. Mitra. 



General Secretary 


Jt. Philological 

Hat. Hist. (Biology) 

Hat. Hist. (Phy. Sci.) 






) Ex-officio. 

(c) Publication — President 

■,;Ho.' 12., 

General Secretary 


Jt. Philological 

Hat. Hist. (Biology) 

Hat, Hist. (Phy. Sci.) 






Abstract Proceedmgs Oouncily 1932, 


Condolences — 

Notice of the decease of Rev. Fr. E. B. Xi. M. Durand, a correspoiiding 
member of the French School of the Far East, Hanoi. Record with 

5. 25-4-32. 

Report receipt of news of the death of Prof. W. Caland, an Honorary 
Fellow of the Society. The Groneral Secretary to convey the condolence 
of the Society to Mrs. Oaland. 

No. 6. 25-4-32. 

Report death of Mr. B. De. Record with regret. 

No, 3. 31-10-32. 

Notice of the decease of La R. P. Maximilien Marie Paul Arnoiilx de 
Pii’ey, a corresponding member of the French School of the Far East. 
Record with regret. 

No. 2. ' 28-11-32. 

Notice of the decease of Dr, Barton Warren Evermann, Director 
of the Museum and of the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy. 
Record with regret. 

No. 3. 28-11-32. 

Report receipt of news of the death of Sii* Ronald Ross, one of the 
recipients of the Barclay Memorial Medal. Record with regret. A 
letter of condolence to be sent to the Ross Institute. 

No. 4. 28-11-32. 


Presentation by the Hon’ble Sir B. L. Mitter of the Royal Warrant 
to him to represent the Empire of India at the League of Nations. 
The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the donor. 

No. 1. 16-1-32. 

Letter of thanks from Lt.-Col. R. B. S. Sewell in reply to the letter 
of condolence, sent by the Society, at the death of Mrs. Sewell. Record. 

No. 10. 16-1-32. 

Presentation to the Society by Dr. S. L. Hora, on behalf of 
Dr. Gilbert P. Whitley, of a valuable autograph MS. on the Fishes of 
Lower Bengal. The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the 
donor. Dr. Gilbert P. Whitley, and especially to Dr. Hora, as the Council 
feels sure that but for the interest shown by Dr. Hora in the affairs 
of the Society this gift might not have been forthcoming. 

No. 11. 16-1-32. 

Donations by Dr. U. N. Brahmachari and Mr. James Insch to meet 
the cost of purchase of ‘ Dictionary of the Living High-Russian 
Language The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the 

No. 12. . 16-1-32. 

The President expressed his thanks to the outgoing Members of 
Council for their services rendered to the Society and for their valued 
support of himself as Acting President and Chairman of the meet- 
ings of Council. Resolved that the GounciFs thanks be conveyed to 
the outgoing members. 

No. 20. 16-1-32. 

On the proposal of Sir C. C. Ghose a cordial vote of thanks to 
Dr. Brahmachari was carried by acclamation for the valuable services 
rendered by him to the Society as Acting President ; and also for his 

oxx Proceedings A. S.B. for 

presentation to the Society of a series of portraits of the former 

No. 21. 164-32. 

On the proposal of Sir C. C. Ghose it was resolved to address a letter 
of congratulation to Dr. Baini Prashad on behalf of the Council with 
regard to his election as an Honorary Member of the California 
Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 

No. 1. 23-3-32. 

Letter of thanks from Dr. Baini Prashad in reply to the letter of 
congratulation addressed to him on behalf of the Coimcil for his election 
as an Honorary Member of the California Academy of Sciences. 

No, 2. 25-4-32. 

Report completion by Dr, Brahmachari of the set of photographs 
of the past Presidents of the Society, The Council’s thanks to be con- 
veyed to Dr. Brahmachari. 

. No. I. 27-6-32. 

Letter from Dr. B. C. Law offering to present to the Society an 
enlarged, coloured photograph of the late MM. H. P. Shastri. Accept 
with the Council’s cordial thanks to the donor. 

No, 2. 25-7-32. 

Publication on the Pelecypods by Dr. Baini Prashad as a volume of 
Prof. Weber’s series on the Scientific Results of the Siboga Expedition. 
The Council’s congratulations to be conveyed to Dr. Prashad. 

No. 13. 29-8-32. 

Letter from Mrs. Brahmachari offering to present to the Society a 
marble bust of Dr. Brahmachari. Accept with thanks. 

No. 2, 31-10-32. 


The question of holding another Council Meeting in January. No 
other Council Meeting to be held in January; current business to be 
finished m the present meeting. 

No. 7. 16-1-32. 

The President expressed his thanks to the outgoing Members of 
Council for their services rendered to the Society and for their valued 
support of himself as Acting President and Chairman of the meetings 
of Council. Resolved that the CounciFs thanks be conveyed to the 
outgoing members. 

No. 20. 16-1-32. 

On the proposal of Sir C. C. Ghose a cordial vote of thanks to 
Dr. Brahmachari was carried by acclamation for the valuable services 
rendered by him to the Society as Acting President; and also for his 
presentation to the Society of a series of portraits of the former 

No. 21. 16-1-32. 

Signatures signifying acceptance of the election to Council by the 
Council Members. Record. 

No. 1. 29-2-32. 

Fixing date of the next (March) Council and Committee Meetings 
the last Monday in March, 28th, being Easter Monday. Wednesday, 
March 23rd. " 



Abstract Proceedings Council, 1932. cxxi 

Letter from Mr., C. W. Gimier intimating Ms absence from India. 
Hold over. 

No. 7. 25-4-32. 

Vacancy Council. Mr. K. C. Mahindra was unanimously elected a 
member of Cotmeil for the remainder of the year under the terms of 
Rule 45 and was also appointed a member of the Finance Committee. 

No. 12. ' 27-6-32. 

Letter from Mr. James Insch tendering his resignation as Honorary 
Treasurer and Member of Council. Accept with regret. Formal 
letter to be addressed to Mr. Insch expressing the cordial thanks of the 
Council to him for the valuable services rendered by him to the Society 
by his labours, industry, willingness and profitable advice. Further 
unanimously resolved to elect Mr. K. C. Mahindra to be Honorary 
Treasurer nice Mr. Insch. 

No. 3. 25-7-32. 

Recommendation of the Finance Committee No. 5 of 20-7-32. In 
view of the resignation submitted by the Honorary Treasurer on 
account of his impending departure from India an unanimous and 
most cordial vote of thanks and appreciation was passed to Mr. Insch 
for his devoted and capable work as Honorary Treasurer, Also 
unanimously resolved to recommend to Council that Mr. K. C. Mahindra 
be invited to resume the Honorary Treasurership on acceptance of 
Mr, Insch’s resignation. Accepted by Council. 

No. 6. 25-7-32. 

Vacancy Council. Dr. S. L. Hora was unanimously elected a member 
of Council for the remainder of the year under the terms of Rule 45. 

No. 12. ‘ 25-7-32. 

The question of having Committee and Council Meetings during 
the recess months of September and October. No meetings if no 
urgent business ; General Secretary to convene meetings if necessary. 

No. 8. 29-8-32. 

Resignation fi’om Council of Col. Knowles. Accept with regrets. 

No. 11. 29-8-32. 

Fixing dates for the next (December) Council and Committee 
Meetings. Preliminarily to be fixed for the 19th December, General 
Secretary to have authority to modify in the event of any clashing 
public function. 

No. 10. 28-11-32. 

Informal consideration composition of Council, 1933-34. After dis- 
cussion the following list of candidates for nomination for next year’s 
Council was placed fcfore the meeting for consideration 



General' Secretary 
Treasurer , , . . ' 

Phil. Secretary 
Jt. Phil. Secretary 
Nat. Hist. Secy. (Biology) 
Nat. Hist. Secy. (Phy. Sci.) 
Anthropological Secretary 

The Hon’ble Mr. Justice C. C. Ghose, 
Lt.-Col. R. B. Seymour Sewell. 

Dr. L. L. Fermor. 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee. 

Sir David Ezra. 

Mr. Johan van Manen. 

Mr. K. C. Mahindra. 

Dr. S. K. Chatterji. 

Dr. M. Hidayat Hosain. 

Dr. Baini Prashad. 

Dr. J. N. Mukerjee. 

Rev. P. 0. Bodding. 

cxxii Proceedings for 1932« 

Medical Secretary 
Library Secretary 
Member of Council 

93 - 33 

93 ‘ 

.. . Dr. D. N. Brahmaohari. 
. . Dr. B. S. Guba. 

. . Mr. M Mahfuz-ul Haq. 

. . Mr* L. R. Fawcus. 

. . Mr. Percy Brown. 

. , Dr. S- L. Hora. 

. . Lt.'OoL R. JST. Chopra. 

Resolved ; That the General Secretary do print and circulate to 
the Members of the Council the list of the Council as at present con- 
stituted, together with the new list placed before the meeting, and pro- 
vided with a blank column for additional names ; that these lists shall 
be returned to the General Secretary within a week of date of issue, 
that a list be compiled of the candidates finally proposed and be 
placed before the next Council Meeting to be voted upon. 

. Ho. 15. , 28-11-32. 

Letter from Mr, Gurner regarding his Philological Secretaryship. 

■. Ho. 3. ■ ■ 19-12-32. 

Council nomination, 1933-34. The General Secretary reported that 
18 Council Members had returned the list of candidates circulated, 
duly signed and unanimously approved without any alternate sugges- 
tion. Resolved ; That the list of names placed before the Council in 
the November Meeting be declared that of the Council candidates for 
election to next year’s Council, and that it be ordered to be issued to 
the Resident Members as prescribed in Rule 44. 

. No. 14. , . . 19-12-32, 


Recommendations of the Meeting of Fellows. Accept. 

No. 3. 16-1-32. 

Letter of thanks from M. J. Bacot for his election as an Ordinary 
Fellow of the Society. Record. 

No. 2. : , , 29-2-32. 

Finance — • . 

Special Finance Committee No. 1 of 16-1-32. Consideration of 
Budget estimates for 1932-33. Recommendation ; On the proposal of 
Mr. J. C. Mitra unanimously resolved to recommend the Budget pro- 
posals for 1932 as placed before the meeting for adoption by the Council. 
Accepted by Council in its Special Meeting. 

No. 5. 16-1-32. 

Consideration of the Budget estimates for 1932. Accept Budget 
as recommended by the Finance Committee. 

No. 6. 16-1-32. 

Letter from Messrs. Price, Waterhouse, Peat and Co., forwarding 
certified copies of the Society’s balance sheet for 1931. Record. 

No. 6. 29-2-32. 

Finanoe Committee No. 3 (c) of 24-2-32. Report by the Honorary 
Treasurer, of the renewal during January, 1932, of a fixed deposit of 
Rs. 6,062-11-9 with the Central Bank of India, Ltd., Calcutta, for a 
further period of one month. Recommendation t Approve. Further 
recommended that the Hon. Treasurer be authorised to arrange 
further short term investments of available cash at his discretion. 
Accepted by Council. 

V No. A4.VV ^'■■-■29-2-32.--:; 

Abstract Proceedings Council, 1932. 


Finance Committee No. 4 of . 24-2-32., 'Application by the family 
of the late MM. H. F. Shastri, for payment due to the latter at the 
moment of his death in respect of salary. Recommendation ; That 
the family be written to that a full month’s salary (Rs. 300) will be 
made over to them on receipt of the books from the Society’s Library 
out on loan with the late MM. H. P. Shastri, and all papers and proofs 
connected with the Sanskrit Catalogue still in hands of the family. 
Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. 29-2-32, 

Finance Committee No. 7 of 24-2-32. Application from the Collecting 
Sarkar of the Society to be allowed to reduce his monthly deposit for 
the increase of his security deposit from Rs. 10 to Rs. 5. Recom- 
mendation : Grant. Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. " 29-2-32. 

Finance Committee No. 9 of 24-2-32. Letter from the Government 
of Bengal, Education Department, 9-12-31, No. 2029 Misc., intimating 
that the local Government will make a reduction of 20 per cent, in the 
grants hitherto paid to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Recommenda- 
tion : The Government be written to ask for sanction to the Society 
to distribute the proposed reduction at its discretion between the 
various funds for which various grants are received. Accepted by 

No. 14. 29-2-32. 

Library Committee No. 4 of 29-2-32. Recommended that the 
Treasurer, Library Secretary, and General Secretary do meet and 
prepare a note concerning commitments, standing charges and amount 
available for further purchases, to be placed before a subsequent 
meeting of the Committee. Accepted by Council. 

No. 15. 29-2-32. 

Finance Committee No. 3 of 16-3-32. Report by the Honorary 
Treasurer of a fixed deposit made during the month with the Central 
Bank of India, Ltd., Calcutta, for Rs. 15,000 for a period of one month. 
Recommendation : Approve. Accepted by Council. 

No. 4. 23-3-32. 

Finance Committee No. 4 (2) of 20-4-32, Report by the Honorary 
Treasurer of a fixed deposit made during the month with the Central 
Bank of India, Ltd., Calcutta, for Rs. 7,500 for a period of three 
months. Recommendation : Approve. Accepted by Council, 

No. 9. 25-4-32. 

Loss of Rs. 90 by one of the Society’s Chaprasis by being pickpocketed 
in the Park Street Post Office. The amount lost to be written off, 
and the Chaprasi to be fined one month’s wages as disciplinary punish- 
ment for his carelessness. In future whenever Society’s servants are 
sent out with amounts in cash over Rs. 100 the cash bearer to be 
accompanied by a second man. 

No. 6. 30-5-32. 

Finance Committee No. 3 {a) of 20-7-32, Report by the Honorary 
Treasurer of a fixed deposit made with the Central Bank of India, 
Ltd., Calcutta, for Rs. 7,564-2 for a period of six months. Recom- 
mendation : Approve. Accepted bv Council. 

: ;No. 6.;^"^ ^ ^ 2f>-7.32. 

Recommendation of the Finance Committee No. 4 of 20-7-32. The 
General Secretary drew attention to the fact that present financial 
conditions make it desirable that no appreciable unspent balance 
should be left over at the end of the year in the funds derived from 


Proceedings A,8,B.for 1932. 

Government , Grants-in-aicl. He placed before the meeting a schedule 
of expenditure during the current year for the Arabic and Persian 
MS. department as follows : — (1) Payment to the Baptist Mission 
Press of all composition charges incurred for the unprinted portion of 
Mr. Ivanow’s Arabic MS. Catalogue. Approximately Rs. 2,000. 
(2) The acquisition of a Rotograph copy of the Vienna MS. of the 
Persian work Mirsadu-l-ibad, etc. (Flugel’s Vienna Catalogue, III? 
p. 417, Ho. 1939). Approximately Rs. 200-250. (3) The compila- 

tion by Mr. Bogdanov of a Bibliography of Bibliographies of Persian 
and Arabic MSS. Approximately Rs. 200. Unanimously approved. 
Accepted by Council, 

Ho. 6. 25-7-32. 

Investment Funds. The Honorary Treasurer to be authorised to 
invest during the year such liquid cash as seems desirable to him. 

Ho. 12. 31-10-32. 

Finance Committee Ho. 4 (1) of 25-11-32. The Hon. Treasurer 
reported of a fixed deposit for Rs. 15,396-2 renewed during the month 
with the Central Bank of India, Ltd., Calcutta, for another two months. 
Recommendation : Approve. Accepted by Council. 

Ho. 11. 28-11-32. 

Finance Committee Ho. 4 (2) of 25-11-32. Statement of receipts and 
expenditure of the Society for the ten months ending with the 31st 
October, 1932. Recommendation : Record. Accepted bv Council. 

No. 11. 28-11-32. 

Finance Committee Ho. 4 (3) of 25-11-32. Late MM. H. P. Shastri’s 
allowance for November, 1931. Recommendation : Pay. Accepted 
by Council. 

Ho. 11. 28-11-32. 

Finance Committee Ho. 4 (4) of 25-11-32. Authority to make pay- 
ments before the end of the year of all bills. Recommendation : 
That the Council be asked to authorise the Hon. Treasurer to do so. 
Accepted by Coiincii. 

Ho. 11. 28-11-32. 

Recommendations of the Finance Committee of 14-12-32. Accept 
with the modification of the budget estimates. 

Ho. 9. 19-12-32, 

Finance Committee No, 3 (1) of 14-12-32. Society’s contributions 
to the Provident Fund for 1932, amounting to Rs. 677-5. Recommend- 
ation : Pay. Accepted by Council. 

Ho. 9. 19-12-32. 

Finance Committee Ho. 3 (2) of 14-12-32. Bad Debts written off 

during the year 1932, amounting to Rs. 2,263-6-6. Recommendation ; 
Write off. Accepted by Council. 

Ho. 9. 19-12-32. 

Finance Committee Ho. 3 (3) of 14-12-32. Society’s contribution to 
the Building Repair Fund Account as per estimate Rs. 2,000. Recom- 
mendation : Pay. Accepted by Council. 

9 . 19 - 12 - 32 . ' 

Finance Committee Ho. 3 (4) of 14-12-32. Depreciation of invested 

medal funds with reference to gold. Recommendation : Recorded that 
in the opinion of the Committee the cost of no medal should exceed 
the income of its endowment. Accepted by Council. 

Ho. 9. 

19 - 12 - 32 . 

Abstract Proceedings Ccnmcil, 1932 * 


Finance Committee No. 3 (5) of 14-12-32. Increment of salaries for 
1933. (No increment granted for 1:932.) Recommendation,:'.. No 
increment. Accepted by Council. 

No. 9. 19-12-32, 

Finance Committee No. 3 (6) of 14-12-32. Budget for 1933 as con- 
sidered and approved by the Committee Meeting. Recommendation : 
That the budget estimates as approved in the Special Budget Meeting 
of the Committee be recommended to the Coxmcil for adoption. Council 
order : Accept with the modification of the budget estimates. 

No. 9. 19-12-32. 

Budget estimates for 1933. (Special Finance Committee of 14-12-32.) 
Accept with transfer of Rs. 5,000 budgetted as an increase of the 
permanent Reserve Fund to Journal and Memoirs. 

No. 10. 19-12-32. 

Fxirnitxjbe — 

Furniture Grant, The General Secretary to be authorised to spend 
available balance of the grant voted for the year on purchase of 
necessary articles. 

No. 11, 31-10-32. 

Grants — 

Finance Committee No. 9 of 24-2-32. Letter from the Government 
of Bengal, Education Department, 9-12-31, No. 2029 Misc., intimating 
that the local Government will make a reduction of 20 per cent, in the 
grants hitherto paid to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Recommendation : 
The Government be written to ask for sanction to the Society to 
distribute the proposed reduction at its discretion between the various 
funds for which various grants are received. Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. 29-2-32. 

Honorary Fellows — 

Report receipt of news of the death of Prof. W. Caland, an Honorary 
Fellow of the Society. The General Secretary to convey the condolence 
of the Society to Mrs. Caland. 

No. 0. 25-4-32. 

Indian Museum— 

Representation of the Society on the Board of Trustees, Indian 
Museum. Dr. U. N. Brahmachari to be re-nominated. 

No. 6. 28-11-32. 

Indian Science Congress — 

Letter of thanks from the 19th Indian Science Congress, Record. 

No. 4. 29-2-32. 

Invitations — 

Invitation to H.E. the Governor of Bengal to preside over the 
Annual Meeting in February. Invite. 

No. 17. 28-11-32. 


Representation on the Selection Committee, Kamala Lectureship, 
Calcutta University, in place of MM. H. P. Shastri, deceased. 
Dr. U. N. Brahmachari to be the Society’s representative. 

No. 7. 29-2-32, 


Proceedings A,S.B.for 1932 . 

Bepreseixtation on the Seiection Committee^ Kamala Lectweshipy. 
Calcutta University, for the year 1932-33. Dr. U. Brahmachari to- 
be the Society’s representative. 

No, 8. 23-3-32. 


Public Lectures, Winter, 1932-33, The General Secretary to arrange* 

No. 4. ' 25-7-32. 

Winter lectures, 1932-33, The General Secretary to arrange pro- 
gramme to conclude preferably before March. 

. No. 16. 28-11-32. 


Presentation to the Society by Dr. S. L. Hora, on behalf of 
Dr. Gilbert P. Whitley, of a valuable autograph MS. on the Fishes of 
Lower Bengal. The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the 
donor, Dr. Gilbert P. Whitley, and especially to Dr. Hora, as the Council 
feels sure that but for the interest shown by Dr. Hora in the affairs of 
the Society this gift might not have been forthcoming. 

No. 11. 16-1-32. 

Donations by Dr. U. N. Brahmachari and Mr. James Insch to meet 
the cost of purchase of ‘ Dictionary of the Living High-Bussian 
Language The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the 

No. 12. 16-1-32. 

Library Committee No, 4 of 29-2-32. Recommended that the 
Treasurer, Library Secretary, and General Secretary do meet and 
prepare a note concerning commitments, standing charges and amount 
available for further purchases, to be placed before a subsequent meeting 
of the Committee. Accepted by Council. 

No. 15. 29-2-32. 

Circular letter to the General Secretary and Honorary Treasurer 
regarding the Monthly Periodical ‘ Current Science ’. Record, subscribe 
to Journal. 

No. 4. 31-10-32. 

Loan of Books and Manttsoripts — 

Loan of MS. to Mr. Sabitri Prasanna Chatterji. The General Secre- 
tary to invite the applicant to come and talk over his requirements. 

No. 19. 28-11-32. 

Membership — 

Letter from the Secretary to the Raja Bahadur of Nashipur. Record. 
If further occasion arises a courteous letter to be sent inviting the 
Raja to become a Resident Member. 

No. 8. 29-2-32. 

Finance Committee No. 3 (6) of 24-2-32. List of members in arrears 
with subscriptions for four or more quarters. Recommendation : Apply 
Rules. Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. 29-2-32, 

List of members in arrears with subscriptions for four or more- 
quarters. Copies of the lists to be sent to all Council Members with a. 
view to exercising their good offices in the matter. Defer action pending, 
further consideration. 

No. 18. 


Abstract Proceedings Gouncil^ 1932. 


^Financ© Committee No. 4 (1) of 20-4-32. List of members in arrears' 
with subscriptions for four or more quarters. Becommendation ; , Apply 
Rules. Accepted by Council. 

No. 9. ' 25-4-32. 

List of members in arrears with subscription for four or more quar- 
ters. Apply Rules. ' r" 

No. 13. : 25-4-32. . 

Finance Committee No. 3 (6) of 20-7-32. List of members in arrears 
with subscriptions for four or more quarters. Recommendation : Apply 
Rules. Accepted by Council. 

No. 6. 25-7-32. 

List of members m arrears with subscriptions for four or more quarters. 
Apply Rules. 

No. 10. 25-7-32. 

Removal of names of members in arrears with subscriptions under 
Rules 37 and 38. Apply Rules. 

No. 11. ■ 25-7-32. 

Recess months. No General Meetings during September and 
October, but the General Secretary to be empowered to arrange other- 
wise in case a meeting becomes desirable. 

No. 13. 25-7.32. 

Removal of names under Rules 37 and 38. Apply Rules. Announce 
names 1-11 as removed under Rules 37 and 38. 

No. 7. 29-8-32. 

Consideration of the removal of names under Rule 40. Apply Rules. 

No. 10. 31-10-32. 

Mbmobials — 

Recommendations of the Barclay Memorial Medal Advisory Board. 

No. 4. 16-1-32. 

Matters relating to the ‘ Paul Johannes Briihl Memorial Medal’. 
That the General Secretary do address a letter to Dr. S. P. Agharkar 
conveying the following resolution of the Council : — ‘ The Council of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal has carefully considered the question 
raised by Dr. S. P. Agharkar and they are of opinion that what has 
been done by the General Secretary on behalf of the Council has their 
entire concurrence \ 

No. 8. 16-1-32. 

Recommendations of the ‘ Paul Johannes Briihl Memorial Medal ’ 
Advisory Board. Accept. 

No. 9, t 16-1-32. 

Letter of thanks from Rev. E. Blatter, S.J., for the award to him 
of the * Paul Johannes Briihl Memorial Medal Record. 

No. 3. 29-2-32. 

Letter of thanks from Lt.-Col. R. B. S. Sewell for the award to him 
of the Barclay Memorial Medal. Record. 

No. 3. 25-4-32. 

Appointment Advisory Boards for : (a) Sir William Jones Memorial 
Medal (Literature). The Board to consist of : — Philological, Joint- 
Philological Secretaries, Dr. S. K. Chatterji, Dr. XT. N. Brahmachari, 

cxxviii Proceedings A.S.B, for 1932. 

and the General Secretary. (6) Joy Gobind Law Memorial Medal. 
The Board to consist of: — -Biological Secretary, Lt. -Col. R. B. S. 
Sewell, Dr. S. L. Hora, Dr. S. 0. Law, and the General Secretary. 

No. '9. 29-8-32. 

Recommendations of the Sir William Jones Medal Advisory Board, 

: „ No. 5. 19-12-32. 

Recommendation of the ‘Joy Gobind Law Memorial Medal’ Ad vi» 
sory Board. Accept. 

No. 6. 19-12-32. 

The question of the metal contents for the various medals awarded 
by the Society in comieetion with the enhanced price of Gold. A 
Committee consisting of Col. Sewell, Dr. Brahmachari, and the General 
Secretary to consider the matter and to decide in each case the metal 
for the medals to be awarded next year whether bronze or alloy. 

No. 7. 19-12-32. 

Finance Committee No, 3 (4) of 14-12-32. Depreciation of invested 
medal funds with reference to gold. Recommendation : Recorded 
that in the opinion of the Committee the cost of no medal should 
exceed the income of its endowment. Accepted by Council. 

No. 9. 19-12-32. 

Miscellaneous — 

Letter of thanks from the family of the late MM. H. P. Shastri. 

No. 5. 29-2-32. 

Letter from the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, IJ.S.A., 
regarding the publication of the International Catalogue of Scientific 
Literature. Dr. Fermor and Dr. Prashad, together with any other 
member conversant with the matter kindly to submit a memo for the 
Council’s guidance. 

No. 10. 29-2-32. 

Finance Committee No. 4 of 24-2-32. Application by the family 
of the late MM. H. P. Shastri, for payment due to the latter at the 
moment of his death in respect of salary. Recommendation : That 
the family be written to that a full month’s salary (Rs. 300) will be 
made over to them on receipt of the books from the Society’s Library 
out on loan with the late MM. H. P. Shastri, and all papers and proofs 
connected with the Sanskrit Catalogue still in hands of the family. 
Accepted by Council. 

No, 14. 29-2-32. 

Letter from Sir David Ezra regarding the International Office for 
the Protection of Nature. Request Sir David Ezra, Dr. Baini Prashad, 
and Dr. S. L. Hora, with power to consult others, to advise the Council, 

No. 2. 23-3-32. 

B. De Memorial. Report by the General Secretary concerning the 
verbally expressed intention of the sons of the late Mr. B. De to donate 
a sum of money to the Society to provide for a memorial to the late 
Mr. B. De. The General Secretary to negotiate. 

No. 13. 31-10-32. 

Letter from the Registrar, Calcutta University, regarding the preserva- 
tion of the scientific relics of eminent scientists in India. Suitable reply 
■to be sent. 

No. 7. 

28 . 11 - 32 . 

Ahstmct Proceedings Council, 1932. 


Letter from the Secretary to the Educational Department, Govern- 
ment of Bengal, regarding a joint catalogue of books in the Prussian 
Libraries, etc. Record. 

No. 8. 28-11-32. 

Letter from the Dhector, Z.S.I., concerning the proposal to suppress 
the post of Director, Z.S.I. Record that the Society contemplates 
with regret the contemplated abolition of the post of Director, Zoological 
Survey of India. A Committee consisting of Col. Sewell, 
Dr. Brahmaehari, and Mr. Fawcus to consider the matter and to be 
empowered to instruct the General Secretary as to the terms in which 
to address the Goveimnent of India on the matter. 

No. 4. 19-12-32. ■ 

Patbons — 

Patronship of the Society, Sir John Anderson, the new Governor 
of Bengal. Address letter of welcome to the incoming governor and 
request him to accept the patronship of the Society. Address a letter 
to the outgoing Governor conveying the Society’s thanks and good 

No. 9. 23-3-32. 

Letter from the Private Secretary to H.E. the Governor of Bengal 
intimating acceptance by H.E. of the Patronship of the Society. 

No. 1. 25-4-32. 


Presentation by the Hon’ble Sir B. L. Mitter of the Royal Warrant 
to him to represent the Empire of India at the League of Nations. 
The cordial thanks of the Council to be conveyed to the donor. 

No. 1. 16-1-32. 

Letter from Dr. B. C. Law offering to present to the Society an 
enlarged coloured photograph of the late MM. H. P. Shastri. Accept 
with the Couneil’s cordial thanks to the donor. 

No. 2. 26-7-32. 

Presentation on behalf of Sir J. C. Coyajee by the Principal, 
Presidency College, Calcutta, of an English edition of Swedenborg’s 
works in 28 volumes. Accept with thanks. 

No. 1. 31-10-32. 

Letter from Mrs. Brahmaehari offering to present to the Society a 
marble bust of Dr. Brahmaehari. Accept with thanks. 

No. 2. 31-10-32. 

Letter from Mr. C. W. Gurner presenting to the Society a set of 
Journal of the Hellenic Society, Great Britain. Accept with thanks 
to donor. 

No. 2. 19-12-32, 

PBOviDBisra? Fund-— 

Finance Committee No. 8 of 24-2-32. Application from the jmiior 
Pandit, B. B. Mukherjee, to be allowed to join the Society’s Provident 
Fimd. Recommendation ; That the application be granted provided 
the applicant waives any claim to increase of his salary in consequence 
of hisi joining the Fund and does not raise the question of his con- 
firmation in consequence. Accepted by Council. 

.. ■ ■ ■■ . 



Proceedings A,8,B. for 1932, 

Finance Committee No. 3 (1) of 14-12-32. Society’s contributions 
to the Provident Fund for 1932, amounting to Bs. 677-5. Recommend- 
ation : Pay. Accepted by Council. 

No. 9. ^ 19-12-32. 

Rhbbesbntation — 

Notice concerning the International Congress of Mathematics, 
Zurich, September, 1932. The General Secretary to endeavour to 
make suitable arrangements. 

No. 2. 27-6-32. 

Representation of the Society at the Ninth International Congress 
for the History of Medicine, Bucharest, September, 1932. The General 
Secretary to endeavour to make suitable arrangements. 

No. 3. 27-6-32. 

Representation of the Society at the 60th anniversary celebrations to 
commemorate the foundation of the German Society for Natural 
History and Ethnography in Tokyo. Letter of congratulation to be 

No. 5. 28-11-32. 

Requests — 

Request from the Mining and Geological Institute of India fox' the 
use of the Society’s Hall for their Annual Meeting on the 29th J anuary . 

No. 13. 16-1-32. 

Request for the use of the Society’s Hall for a lantern lecture on 
Saturday, the 16th April, by the Flying Club. Grant. The General 
Secretary’s letter approved. 

No. 4. 25-4-32. 

Request from Mr. O. C. Gangoly for the loan of two plate works 
from the Society’s Library. Grant. 

No. 4. 27-6-32. 

Letter from the Registrar, Calcutta University, requesting the 
Society to nominate an expert to serve on the Committee to appoint a 
Professor of Zoology for the University. Dr. Baini Prashad to be the 
Council’s nominee. 

No. 5. 27-6-32. 

Request for the use of the Society’s Hail by the Mining and Geological 
Institute of India. Grant. The General Secretary’s letter appro ved.i 

No. 11. 27-6-32. 

Letter from Mr. Percy Brown asking for the loan of certain relics 
connected with Warren Heistings to the Trustees of the Victoria 
Memorial at the occasion of an exhibition celebrating the bi-centenarj?’ 
of Warren Hastings’ birth. Grant, including Kettle’s portrait. Loan 
to be made under Mr. Percy Brown’s personal supervision and 

No. 16. 31-10-32. ■ 

Request for the use of the Society’s Hall by the Mining and Geological 
Institute of India for their Annual Meeting. Approve. 

. '.No. 1. . 19-12-3:2..'' 

State — ' , , 

Finance Committee No. 5 of 24-2-32. Application by Pandit 
Aghorenath Bhattacharya to be granted salary for the period he was on 

Abstract Proceedings Council^ 1932» 


sick leave. Recoimnexidatiori ; That the application be granted as a 
special case without force of precedent. Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. 29-2-32* 

Finance Committee No. 6 of 24-2-32. Application from Mr. H, A. 
Brown, Stenographer, for a loan of Bs. 150. Becommendation s 
Decline. Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. 29-2-32. 

Finance Committee No. 8 of 24-2-32. Application from the junior 
Pandit, B. B. Mukherjee, to be allowed to join the Society’s Provident 
Fund. Recommendation ; That the application be granted provided 
the applicant waives any claim to increase of his salary in consequence 
of his joining the Fund and does not raise the question of his con- 
firmation in consequence. Accepted by Council. 

No. 14. 29-2-32. 

Loss of Rs. 90 by one of the Society’s Ohaprasis by being pickpocketed 
in the Park Street Post Office. The amount lost to be written off, 
and the Chaprasi to be fined one month’s wages as disciplinary punish- 
ment for his carelessness. In future whenever Society’s servants are 
sent out with amounts in cash over Bs. 100 the cash bearer to be 
accompanied by a second man. 

No. 6. 30-5-32. 

Report sickness of menial staff. The General Secretary to use his 
discretion in the matter. 

No. 12. 29-8-32. 

Finance Committee No. 3 (5) of 14-12-32. Increment of salaries for 
1933. (No increment granted for 1932.) Recommendation : No incre- 
ment. Accepted by Council. 

No. 9. 19-12-32. 

Visits — 

Report visit to the Society of the Hon’ble Mr. C. Zaffrulia Klhan, 
Member for Education, Health and Lands, Government of India. 

No. 1. 


List of 

Officers, Council Members, Members, 
Fellows, and Medallists 
of the 

Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

On the 31st December, 1932. 

( cxx:siii ) 


1931 .. 

1932 .. 


1916 - 1921 

1917 - 1922 

1921 - 1926 

1922 - 1927 

1926 - 1931 

1927 - 1932 


.. H.E. the Earl of Willingdon, 
G.M.S.I., G.C.M.G., G.M.I.E., 

G.B.E., Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India. 

. . H.E. the Right Honourable Sir John 
Anderson, P.C., G.C.B., G.C.I.E., 
Governor of Bengal. 

. . Lord Hardinge of Penshurst, K.G., 
P.C., G.C.B.. G.C.MG., G.C.S.I.. 
G.C.I.E., K.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., 

K.C.V.O., C.B.. C.V.O., I.S.O. 

.. Lord Chelmsford, P.C., K.C.M.G., 
G.C.M.G., G.C.S.I., G.C.LE., G.B.E. 

.. Marquess of Zetland, P.C., G.C.S.I., 
6 C I E 

. . Eariof Reading, G.C.B., P.C., G.C.V.O., 
K.C.V 0., G.B.E. 

. . Earl of Lytton, P.C., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. 

. . Baron Irwin, of Kirby under Dale, , 
P.C., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. 

. . Colonel Sir Francis Stanley Jackson, 
P.C., G.C.I.E. 

{ exxxiv ) 


Elections Annual Meeting. 


The Hon’ble Mr. Justice C. C. Grliose, Kt., Barrister-at-LaAV. 

Vice” Presidents, 

Lfc.-CoL R. B. Seymour Seweil, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.O.P., Sc.D. (Cantab.), 
F.L.S., RZ.S., F.A.S.B. 

L. L. Fermor, Esq., O.B.E., D.Se., A.R.S.M., F.G.S., M.Inst.M.M., 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee, K.G.I.E., K.C.V.O., Hon. F.A.S.B. 

Lt.-OoL R. Knowles, B. A. (Cantab.), M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., I.M.S., F.A.S.B. 

Secretaries and Treasurer. 

General Secretary Johan van Manen, Esq., C.I.E., F.A.S.B. 

Treasurer : — James Insch, Esq. 

Philological Secretary : —C. W. Gurner, Esq., B.A. (Oxon,), LO.S. 

Joint Philological Secretary : — ^amsu’l ’Ulama Mawlawi M. Hidayat 
Hosain, Khan Bahadur, Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

r Biology: — Baini Prashad, Esq., D. Sc., F.Z.S., 

Natural History ^ F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B. 

Secretaries. ) Physical Science : — W. A. Jenkins, Esq., D.Sc. 
( (Sheffield), I.E.S. 

Anthropological Secretary ; — Rev. P. O. Bodding, M.A., F.A.S.B. 

Medical Secretary: — Rai Upendra Nath Brahmaehari, Bahadur, M.A., 
M.D., Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

Library Secretary : — B. S. Guha, Esq., M.A., Ph.D. (Harvard). 

Other Metnbers of Council. 

Sir J. C. Ooyajee, Kt., B.A. (Cantab.), LL.B., I.E.S. 
M. Mahfuz-ul Haq, Esq., M.A. 

Sir David Ezra, Kt., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U, 

L. R. Fawcus, Esq., B.A. (Cantab.), I.C.S. 

Percy Brown, Esq., A.R.C.A, 


Mr. James Insch, resigned on 31st July, 1932, and was replaced by 
Mr. Mahindra. 

Dr. Hora was appointed Council Member from the 1st August, 1932. 

Col. Knowles resigned with effect from the 27th August, 1932. 

Mr. Gurner, absent from the 7th April to the end of the year. 

Dr. Jenkins, absent from the 1st April to the end of the year. 

Sir David Ezra, absent from 4-5-32 to 1-11-32. 

Mr. Fawcus, absent from 20-4-32 to 1-11-32. 

Dr. Fermor, absent from 4-5-32 to 16-11-32, 

Sir C. C. Ghose, absent from 10-5-32 to 29-5-32, from 2-10-32 to 13-11-32 
and from the 15th December to the end of the year. 

Sir J. C. Coyajee, absent from the 26tb May to the end of the year. 

Mr. Haq, absent from 15-5-32 to 1-7-32 and from MO-32 to 1-11-32. 

Dr. Brahmaehari, absent from 29-5-32 to 27-6-32, 

Dr. Guha, absent from 9-5-32 to 10-7-32 and from 1-12-32 to 15-12-32. 

OoL Sewell, absent from 1-1-32 to 22-9'32. 



The Hon’ble Mr. Justice C. 0. Chose, Kt., Barrister-at-Law 

Lt.-Gol. R. B. Seymour Sewell, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., 
Sc.D. (Cantab.), F.L.S., F.Z.S,, LM.S., F.A;S.B. 

L. L. Fermor, Esq., O.B.E., D.Sc., A.R.S.M., F.C.S., 
M.Inst.M.M., F.A.S.B. 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee, K.CJ.E., K.O.V.O., Hon. F.A.S.B. 

Sir David Ezra, Kt., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. 

Ill Secretaries and Treasurer, 

General Secretary : — Johan van Manen, Esq., C.I.E., F.A.S.B. 

• Treasurer: — K. 0. Mahindra, Esq., B.A. (Cantab.). 

Philological Secretary:^ — S. K. Chatterji, Esq., M.A., D.Lit. 
i, (Lond.). 

Joint Philological Secretary: — ghamsu’l 'Ulama Mawlawi 
M. Hidayat Hosain, Khan Bahadur, Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

f Biologj’^ : — Baini Prashad, Esq., D.Sc., F.Z.S. , 
Natural History ) F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B. 

Secretaries. J Physical Science: — J. N. Mukherjee, Esq., 
V D.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S. (Lond.). 
Anthropological Secretary: — Rev. P. 0. Bedding, M.A., 

Medical Secretary: — Rai Upendra Nath Brahmachari, 

Bahadur, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.A.S.B. 

Library Secretary :~-B. S. Guha, Esq., M. A., Ph.D. (Harvard). 

Other Members of Council. 

, ! M. Mahfuz-ul Haq, Esq., M.A. 

L. R. Fawcus, Esq., B.A. (Cantab.), I.C.S. 

Percy Brown, Esq., A.R.C.A. 

S. L. Hora, Esq., D.Sc. (Edin.), F.Z.S., F.R.S.E., F.A.S.B. 
Lt.-CoL R. N. Chopra, M.A., M.B., I.M.S., F.A.S.B. 

( cxxxvi ) 


'R=Resident. N=:Noi.i-Residenb. F=Foreign, A= Absent. L=Lif 0 . 
An Asterisk is prefixed bo names of Ordinary Fellows of the Society. 

Date of 




Abbiasi, Mohammad Amin, Shams-ul-Ulama ^Assistant 
Superintendent, Hooghli Madrassah, Hooghli. 


, R 

1 Abdul All, Abul Faiz Muhammad, m.a., m.b.a.s., f.b.s.l., 
F.B.G.S., F.E.H.s. 3, Tumor Street, Calcutta. 


!■ R 

‘ Abdul Kadir, A. F. M., m.a. (Adlahabad), maulvie fazid 
(Punjab), madbassah final (Calcutta), Professor ^ 
Islamia College. Wellesley Street, Calcutta. 



Acharya, Pabamananda,, Archaeological Scholar. 
Mayurbhanj State, Baripada. 



*Acton, Hugh William, c.i.b., m.b,.c.s., l.b.c.p., f.a.s.b., 
LT.-COL., i.M.s. School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 
Chittaranjan Avenue, Calcutta. 



Afzal, Syed Mohamad, Khan Bahadub, Civil Sur- 
geon, Bihar and Orissa Medical Service. Civil Surgeon, 



Agharkar, Shank ab Pubushottam, m.a., ph.d., f.l.s., 
Sir Bash Behari Ghose Professor of Botany, Calcutta 
University. 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta. 



Ahmad, Syed Khalil, Provincial Service {retired). Zafar 
Manzil, Gaya. 



Aiyangar, K. V. Rang asw ami, Rao Bahadub, m.a.. 
Late Director of Public Instruction, Travancore. Trivan- 
drum, Travancore. 




*Aiyangar, S. Kbishnaswami, m.a., ph.d., m.b.a.s., 
F.K..HIST.S., F.A.S.B., Rajasevasahta, Professor, University of 

1 Madras. ‘‘ Sripadam ”, 143, Brodies Road, Mylapore, 
Madras, S. 





Akbar Khan, The Hon’ble Ma job Nawab Sib Mohammed, 
-K.i&M., G.i.'m., Khan of Hoti. Hoti, N.-W.F.P, 

, 3-7-12 i 

' i 


Andrews, Egbeet Arthub, b.a. c/o The Royal Empire 
Society, Northumberland Avenue, London, W.C. 



Asadullah, K, M., b.a.. Librarian. Imperial Library, 




Ashton, Hubert Shorbock, Merchant. Trueloves, Ingates - 
tone, Essex, England. 



: R, 

Austin, George John, Sanitary Engineer, Messrs. J, B. 
Norton db Sons, Ltd. Norton Building, Lalbazar, Calcutta. 








Awati, P. R., B.A. (Cantab.), d.i.c., i.e.s.. Professor of 
Zoology. Royal Institute of Science, Mayo Road, Fort, 




3-3-14 1 


*Bacot, J.,F.A.s.B., Boulevard Saint-Antoine, 6 1, Versailles, 
Seine-et-Oise, France. 

( cxxxvii ) 


Date of 





; 2-4-24 










6.5-26' ' 





3-8-31 1 

































Proceedings A ,8.B. for 1 932. 

Bagchij Pbobodh Chanbra., m.a., br.'ES'LEtte,es (Paris)* 
Member oj the A.S. of Paris; Lecturer, Calcutta Univer^ 
sity. 9, Bust omjee Street, Ballygunge, Calcutta, 

Bagnall, John Fbbdebiok, Consulting Engineer. 18/4, 
Ballygunge Circular Boad, Calcutta. 

Bahl, K. N.,, Professor of Zoology^ Lucknow 

University. Badshabagh, Lucknow. 

Baidil, A. Mann AN, Assistant Superintendent, Dormitory. 
Patna College, Bankipur. 

Bake, A. A., Dootorandus Or. Lit. P.O. Santiniketan. 

Banerjee, Habbndba Nath, m.i.p.o.k.e., Divi- 

sional Engineer, Telegraphs. 38/1, Gariahat Boad, Bally- 
gunge, Calcutta. 

Banerjee, P. N., m. a. (Cantab.), a.m.i.e., Civil 
Engineer. 12, Mission Row, Calcutta. 

Baral, Gokhb Chandea, Zemindar, JS^nicipal Councillor 
and Honorary Presidency Magistrate. 3, Hidaram Baner- 
jee’s Lane, Calcutta. 

Barhut, Thakub Kishobesingh Ji, State Historian 
of Patiala Government, History and Besearch Depart- 
ment, Patiala. 

Barua, The Hon’ble Kanak Lal, Rai Bahadub, b.e., 
F.R.S.E., President, Kamarupa Anusundhan Samiti, 
Minister to the Government of Assam. Shillong, Assam. 

Harwell, N. F„ lt.-col. (betd.), m.c., m.a., Bar.-at-Law. 
First ITloor, 1 0, Middleton Street, Calcutta {and) Ayimer- 
ton House, Aylmerton, Norfolk, England. 

Basak, Sabat Chandea, m.a., d.l., Advocate, High Court, 
24, Ashutosh Mukherjee Road, Calcutta. 

Bassewitz, Count, late Consul-General for Germany. 

Basu, The Hon’bde Bejoy K., o.i.e., m.a,, b.l., Solicitor,. 
High Court. 50, Goaltule Road, Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Basu, Jatindba Nath, m.a., m.l.o., Solicitor. 14, Baloram 
Ghose Street, Calcutta, 

-Basu, Nabendba Kumab, m.l.o.. Advocate, High Court. 12, 
Ashu Biswas Road, Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Basu, Nabendba Mohan, Professor of Physiology. 
63, Hindusthan Park, Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

Basu, NA;ctENDRANATH, L.M.S., Frofessor of Obstetrics and 
Gyyicecology, Carmichael Medical College. 7, Raja Bagan 
Street, Calcutta. 

Basu, Sabat Chandea, Advocate. 143, Dhurrumtollah 
Street, Calcutta. 

Bazaz, Rangnath Khemeaj, Proprietor, Shri Venhatesh- 
war Press. 7th Khetwadi, Bombay No. 4. 

Beatson-Bell, Rev. Sir Nicholas Dodd, k.c.s.i., 
Edgecliase, St. Andrews, Scotland. 

Benthall, E. C., Merchant. 37, Ballygunge Park, Cal- 

*Bentley, Charles A., €.i.e., m.b., d.p.h., d.t.m. & h., 
E.A.S.B., Professor of Hygiene. University of Egypt, Cairo. 

Berthoud, George Felix, Stock-broker. 12, Russell 
Street, Calcutta. 

Bhadra, Satyendra Nath, Rai Bahadur, m.a., Principal, 
Jagannath Intermediate College. Nayabazar, Dacca. 

Bhagwant Rai, Munshi Rai, Sabdab, m.p.h.s., Betired 
District Judge. Bhagwant Ashram, Patiala. 

Alfliahetioal List of Ordinary Members. 







**'Bhandarkar,. Devadatta . Ramketshna, m.a., ph.d., 



F.A.s.B. 35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Calcutta. 

Bhatia, M. L.,, Lecturer in Zoology. Lticknow Uni* 



versity, Lucknow. 

Bhattacharjee, Nibaean Chahdra, m.a., Projessor oj 


R 1 

Physiology, Presidency College. 19, Hindusthan Road, 
Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

Bhattacharjee, XJmesh Chandra, m.a., Professor of Philo- 



sophy, Bethune College. 181, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta. 
Bhattacharji, Shib Nath, m.b. 80, Shambazar Street, 

4-11-08 i 



Bhattacharya, Bisvesvar, b.a., m.r.a.s. 16, Townshend 



Road, Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhaba, Pandit, Principal, 



Vidyabhavana. Visvabharati, Santiniketan, Birbhum. 
Bhaj:tacharyya, Binoytosh, m.a., th.d., Rajaratna, 


\ R 

Qerieral Editor, GaeJcwad'^s Oriental Series, and Librarian, 
Oriental Collections, Baroda State. Baroda. 
Bhattacharyya, Sivapada, m.b, 48B, Kailas Bose 


1 N 

Street, Calcutta. 

Bhattasali, Namni Kanta, m.a., Curator, Dacca Museum. 


i R 

Ramna, Dacca. 

Bhose, JoTisH Chandbr, m.a., b.l., Advocate, Calcutta 


! i 

I R ; 

High Court. 24 A, Ray Bagan Street, Calcutta. 

Biswas, Charu Chandra, o.i.e., m.a., b.l.. Advocate, High 


1 rJ 

Court. 58, Puddopukur Road, P.O. Elgin Road, Calcutta. 
Biswas, Kalipada, m.a. Royal Botanic Garden, Sibpur, 


! N 


1 Bivar, Hugh Godfrey Stuart, i.c.s., District and 



Sessions J udge. Murshidabad. 

^Boddin^, Rev. P. O., m.a. (Christ.), f.a.s.b. Mohui- 

6-5-25 ; 


pahari, Santhal Parganas. 

! Bose, H. M., B.A., Bar.-at-Law. 25/1, Rawdon Road, 




’‘‘Bose, Sir Jag ADIS Chandra, kt., c.s.i., o.i.e., f.b.s., 




M.A.,, F.A.S.B. Bose Institute, 91, Upper Circular 

1 Road, Calcutta. 

' Bose, JoGBSH Chandra, Vidyabinodb, Snh-Manager, 



1 R. 

, Gontai Khas Mahal. Oontai, Dt. Midnapore. 

1 Bose, Manmatha Mohan, m.a.. Professor, Scottish Church 



i N 

College. 19, Gokul Mitra Lane, Hatkhola, Calcutta. 

Bose, Sudhansu Kumar, (Cal.), a.r.s.m., 



(mining), London, Professor of Mining and Surveying. 
Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad. 

Bose Mullick, G. N., m.a., Professor of History. Meerut 



College, Meerut, U.P. 

Bottomley, John Mellon, b.a. (Oxon.), i.e.s., Director of 


■■ L 

Public Instruction, Bengal. 1, Sunny Park, Ballygunge, 

*Brahmachari, Upend r a Nath, Rai Bahadur, m.a. , 



PH,D., M.D., F.A.S.B. 82/3, ComwalUs Street, Calcutta. 
Brahmachary, Sarat Chandra, Rai Bahadur, m.a., b.t. 



Kasba Road, Ballygunge, P.O. Dhakuria, 24-P0rgs. 
’•'Brown, John Coggin, o.b.e.,, f.g.s., m.i.m.e., 

6-10-09 1 


M.INST.M.M., M.I.B., F.A.S.B. c/o. Mossrs. Grindlay & Co., 
54, Parliament Street, Westminster, London, S.W.l. 
Brown, Percy, a.r.o*a.. Curator, Victoria Memorial. 




Proceedings A,S,B^for 1932. 

ate of 

27-10-15 I 

j *Briihl, Pxul Johannes, i.s.o.,, r.c.s., f.g.s., 

: F,A.s.B. 2, Convent Road, Bangalore. 

*Burn, Sir Richard, kt., o.s.i., f.a.s.b. 9, Staverton 
Road, Oxford, England. 

j Calder, OHARiiES Cctmiviino,, f.l.s., Superintendent. 

! Boyal Botanic Garden, Sibpur, Howrah. 

I Campbell, G. R., Partner, Messrs, MacJcinnon Mackenzie 
j db Go, 16, Strand Road, Calcutta. 

I Captain, Daba Manekshaw, Merchant, 1, Corporation 
i Street, Calcutta. 

: Chakladar, Haran Chandra, m.a. 28/4, Srimohan Lane, 

I Kalighat, Calcutta. 

! Chakraborty, Iahirode Behari, Engineer and Manufac* 

I hirer. 7, Hindusthan Park, Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

I Ghakravarti,CHiNTAHARAN, m.a.. Lecturer, Bethune College. 

! 28/3, Sahanagar Road, Kalighat, Calcutta, 
i Chakravarti, M. N.,, A.T.S, Gitanjali ”, 15, Lodge 
1 Road, Lahore. 

Chakravarti, Niemani, m.a., Professor of Sanskrit and 
Pali, Presidency College. Calcutta. 

Ghakravarty, Niranjanprasad, m.a., ph.d. (Cantab.), 
Government Epigraphist, Office of the Government Epi- 
graphist, Ootacamund, Nilgiris, S. India. 

Ghakraverti, Shrish Chandra, b.l.. Attorney -at-Law, 
High Court, Calcutta. 2, Marquis Street, Calcutta. 

^Chanda, Ramaprasad, Rai Bahadur, b.a., f.a.s.b. 
P. 463, Manoharpukur Road, Kalighat, Calcutta. 

Chapman, John Alexander, Librarian, Rampur State 
Library. Rampur, 

Ghatterjea, Sir Nalini Ranjan, kt., m.a., b.l., Retired 
Judge and sometime acting Chief Justice, Calcutta, 
91 A, Harish Mukerjee Road, Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Ghatterjee, Ashoke, b.a. (Cal.), b.a. (Cantab.), Editor, 
Welfare 91, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta. 

Ghatterjee, Sir Atul Chandra, k.o.i.e., k.c.s.i., Late High 
Commissioner for India, Withdean, Cavendish Road, 
Weybridge, Surrey, England. 

Ghatterjee, Nirmal Chandra. 52, Haris Mukerjee Road, 
Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Ghatterjee, Patitpabon, m.a., b.l.. Vakil, High Court, 
84, Harrison Road, Calcutta. 

Ghatterjee, Sabitbi Prasanna, b.a., kavyaeinode. Editor, 
‘ Upasana \ 56, Dhurrumtollah Street, Calcutta. 

Ghatterji, Durgacharan, m.a., p.b.s., Lecturer in Sans- 
krit, Bethune College. 181, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta. 

Ghatterji, ICedar Nath, (London), a.e.c.s. 
(London). 43, Wellesley Street, Calcutta. 

Ghatterji, Karuna Kumar, lt.-gol., i.t.f., m.c., v.h.a.s. 
6/1, Wood Street, Calcutta. 

Ghatterji, Mohini Mohan, m.a., b.l.. President, Incorpo- 
rated Law Society of Calcutta, 33, McLeod Street, Calcutta. 

Ghatterji, Suniti Kumar, m.a. (Cal.), d.lit. (London), 
Khaira Professor of Linguistics, Calcutta University, 
“Sudharma”, 16, Hindusthan Park, (ofi; Ras-bihari 
Avenue East End), Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

Chattopadhyay, K. P., Education Officer, Corpora- 
tion of Calcutta, 55/1 , Old Ballygunge 1st Lane, Calcutta. 

Alfhabetical List of Ordinary Mmihsrs, 


Bate of 













































2- 7,-28 


3-12-24 . 






Ghattopadhyaya, Kshetbesa Chandba, m.a., Lecturer in 
Sanskrit. Allahabad University, Allahabad. 

Ghaiidhuri, Gopal Das. 32, Beadon Row, Calcutta. 

Ghhibber, H. L.,, b*.g.s., f.r.g.s.. Assistant Superin^ 
tendentf Geological Survey of India, Burma Party. 2Z0, 
Dalhousie Street, Rangoon. 

Ghokhani, Sbeenarayan, Secretary, Shree Hanuman 
Pustkalaya. 8, New Ghuseri Road, Salkea, Howrah. 

Chopra, B. N.,, f.l.s. , Assistant Superintendent, Zoolo- 
gical Survey of India. Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

*Ghopra, R. N., m.a., m.d. (Cantab.) jlt.-col., i.m.s., p.a.s.b., 
Professor of Pharmacology, School of Tropical Medicine 
and Hygiene, Chittaranjan Avenue, Calcutta. 

Ghoprha, Gofiohand. 4-7, Khangraputty, Calcutta. 

Ghowdhury, Sm Chhajuram, kt., c.i.e., m.l.c, 21, 
Belvedere Road, Calcutta. 

Ghowdhury, Rai J atindbanath. Zemindar. 36, Russa 
Road, Tollygunge, Calcutta. 

^Christie, Wii-liam Alexander Kynooh,, ph.d., 
M.iNST.M.M., F.A.s.B. 10, Inkerman Terrace, Kensington, 
London, W. 8. 

♦Christophers, Sir Samuel Rioeard, kt., o.le., o.b.e., 
F.R.S., F.A.s.B., M.B., LT.-coL., I.M.S. Central Research 
Institute, Kasauli. 

Gleghorn, Maude Lina West (Miss), f.l.s., f.e.s. 43, 
Moulahat Road, Calcutta. 

Clendeniti, David Lawrence, b.a. (Yale, 1928), 32, East 
64 Street, New York City, U.S. A. 

Clough, John, Barrister-at-Law. 4, Merlin Park, Bally- 
gunge, Calcutta. 

Connor, Sir Frank Powell, kt., lt.-col., i.m.s., d.js.o., 
F.R.C.S., Late Professor of Surgery, Medical College. 2, 
Upper Wood Street, Calcutta. 

Cooper, G. A. P. 29, Eecleston Street, Eaton Square, 
London, S.W. 1. 

♦Cotter, Gerald de Purcell, b.a., so.d. (Dublin), 
M.INST.M.M., F.a.s., F.A.S.B. “Norland”, Manon Road, 
Buckingham Shire, England. 

Coyajee, Sir J. C., kt., b.a. (Cantab.), ll.b., 
i.E.s. (retd.). Andhra University, Waltair, B.N.R. 

Griper, William Risdon, f.o.s., f.i.c., a.r.s.m. Konnagar. 

Crookshank, Henry, b.a., b.a.i. (Dublin), Assistant 
Superintendent, Geological Survey of India. Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

Oarbari, M. D., Chartered Accountant. 100, Clive Street, 

Das, Ajit Nath, Rai Bahadur, m.r.a.s., f.z.s., Zemindar, 
24, South Road, Entally, Calcutta. 

Das, Probodh Kumar, M.A. , b.l. P-84, Park Street 
Extension, Calcutta. 

Das, SuRENDRA Nath, Medical Practitioner, 67 

Nimtala Ghat Street, Calcutta. 

Das-Gupta, Hem Chandra, m.a., f.g.s.. Professor, 

Presidency College. 60, Chakrabere Road, North, 

Das-Gupta, , Surendra Nath, m.a., ph.d., i.e.s.. 
Principal, Sanskrit College, College Square, Calcutta. 


Proceedings for 1932. 

Date of ) 
kh^otioii , 





0-8-24 ■ 




4-3-29 , 


19-9-96 : 

















1 ■ 


5-1-98 ' 






















Datta, Hibendba Nath, m.a., b.l., Solicitor , High Court, 
139, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta. 

Datta, S. K., B.A., M.B., OH.B. (EimTS,), Priricifal^ Forman 
Christian College, Lahore. 

Davies, L. M., major, Boyal Artillery, c/o The Lloyds 
Bank, King’s Branch, 6, Pall Mali, London. 

De, Anil Coomab, Proprietor, Calcutta Trading Co,, and 
President of the Bengal Association oj Master Printers and 
Allied Industries, 79-9, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta. 
De, J. C., M.B., LT.-COL., Projessor of Clinical Medicine, 

Medical College. 229, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta. 

De, Kiran Chandra, b.a., i.o.s. (retd.), Manager, 

Nawab Bahadur of Murshidahad Estate. Lalbagh, 

Deb, Komar Harit Krishna, m.a., Zemindar. 8, Raja 
Nabokishen Street, Calcutta. 

Deb, Raja Kshitindra, Rai Mahasai oe Bansbebia 
Raj. 21/E, Rani Sankari Lane, Kalighat, Calcutta. 
Dechhen, H.H. Maharani Kijnzang, Maharani of Sikkim. 
Gangtok, Sikkim. 

Deo, Pratap Chandra Bhanj, Maharajah, Euler of 
Mayurhhanj State. P.0, Baripada, Mayurbhanj, B.N.R, 
Dev, Raja Ramchandra, Superintendent, Jagannath 
Temple. Puri. 

Dewick, Rev. Edward Chisholm, m.a. (Cantab.), National 
Literature Secretary, Y.M.C.A, of India, Burmah and 
Ceylon. 6. Russell Street, Calcutta. 

Dhavle, The Hon’blb Mr. Justice Shankar. Bala ji, b.a.,. 

Judge, Patna High Court. Patna. 

Dikshit, Kashinath Narayan, m.a., Superintendent, 
Archaeological Survey of India. Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
Dods, William Kane, Agent, Hongkong and Shanghai 
Banking Corporation, 6, Minto Park, AUpur, Calcutta. 
Douglas, Gordon Watson, B. sc., d.l.m., State Chemist to 
the Government of Bhopal. State Laboratory, Bhopal, 
Central India. 

Doxey, Frederick. 37, Strand Road, Calcutta. 

Driver, Darab Cursetji, m.a. (Cantab.), Batrister-at- 
Law, Comtituted Attorney to Messrs. Tata & Sons, Ld., 
Managing Agents for The Tata Iron db Steel Co., Ld. 
100, Clive Street, Calcutta. 

Drummond, J. G., m.a„ i.o.s„ j.p.. Commissioner, Bajskahi 
Division. Rajshahi. 

Dunn, John Alexander,, d.i.o., f.g.s.. Assistant 
Superintendent, Geological Survey oj India. Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

Dutt, Nalxnaksha, M.A., ph.d., d.litt. (Lond.), Xec^Mrer, 
Calcutta University. 91 -IB, Manicktollah Street, Calcutta. 

Eberl, Otto, Dr. Jur., Laie Vice-Consul for Germany. 2, 
Store Road, Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

Edwards, L. Brooke, Manager in India, The Baldwin 
Loco, W orks of Philadelphia, V.S.A. 5, Dalhousie Square, 

Eliade, Mircea, Docteur en Philosophie, Conferentiaire 
Vniversitaire. 1, Str. Melodiei, Bucharest (1). 

Ezra, Sir David, kt., e.z.s., m.b.o.o. 3, Kyd Street, 
' Calcutta. , ■ . 

Alphabetical List of Ordinary MeMibers, 


Date of 

242-29 i R 
3-8-04 R 

31-10-06 F 

2-12-29 : F 




' B 



2-4-19 , 


I A 


. ' i 


4-1-26 ‘ 


5-11-28 1 


1-11-26 : 






5-4-26 ■ 


■2-4-24 ; 


1-4-29 ' 






2-4-24 [ 


6-2-18 : 




5-5-20 ! 


I Hawciis, Louis Reginald, e, a. Indian Givil 

Service. 13, Loudon Street, Calcutta. 

^Ferinor, Lewis Leigh, o.b.e.,,, e.g.s., 
F.A.s.B., Director^ Geological Survey of India. Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

Fiiilow, Robert Steel, c.i.e.,, f.i.c., Late Director of 
Agriculture, Bengal, c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., Ld,,, 
j 54, Parliament Street, London, S.W.l. 

FisLer, Rev. Fbbdebick B,, s.t.b., ph.d., d.d., ll.d.,. 
i F.R.s.s. 1430, Cambridge Road, Ann Arbor, Micbigan,. 

0.S.A. , , 

Fleming, Andrew, Post Box Ho. 2436, Johannesburg, 
S. Africa. 

Fooks, Herbert A., 14, Ballygunge Park Road, Bally- 
gunge, Calcutta. 

Fox, Cyril S.,, m.i.m,e., f.o.s.,. Geological Survey 
of India, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Friel, Ralph, i.o.s., b.a., dHcjBLiN), jt.p.,. 

Commissioner, Assam. Silchar, Assam. 

FukusMma, Naoshiro. 33, Hikawacho, Akasaka, Tokyo, 

Galfar, Abdul, Khan Bahadur, Deputy Magistrate and' 
Deputy Collector, Bengal. 23, Gardner Lane, EntaUy,. 

Galstaun, John Oarapibt, o.b.e.. Merchant and Land- 
holder. 234/4, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta. 

Galstaun, Shanazan, m.a., d.m.r.e., m.b.c.s., l.r.o.p.,- 
; Medical Practitioner, Radiologist, Medical College Hospi- 
I tal. 39, Theatre Road, Calcutta. 

Gangoly, Ordhbndra Coomar, b.a. 12/1, Gangoly Lane, . 

Gbosal, Upendra Hath, m.a., ph.d.. Professor of History, 
Presidency College. 12, Badur Bagan Row, Calcutta. 
Gliose, Bimal Chandra, Barrister-at-Law. 27/1, Harish. 
Mukherjee Road, Calcutta. 

i Ghose, The Hon’ble Mb. Justice Chabu Chandra, et., 
Barrister-at-Law, Judge, High Court. 10, Debendra Ghose - 
Road, Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Ghose, Deb Prosonno, Zemindar. 75, Beadon Street, 

^ Calcutta. . . 

Ghose, The Hon’ble Mr. Justice Mohim Chandra, b.a,- 
(Cal.), m.a. (Cantab.), i.o.s. Barrister-at-Law [Inner 
Temple), Judge, High Court. 4A, Little Russell Street, 

! Ghose, SusHiL Chandra, b.a.. Deputy Magistrate. I, 
Sikdarbagan Street, Calcutta. 

Ghosh, K., D.T.M., D.p.H. (Cantab.), l.m.s.. Medical 
Practitioner. 45, Creek Row, Calcutta. 

Ghosh, Ekendra Hath, m.d.,, p.z.s., f.r.m.s,, Fro- 
fessor of Biology, Medical College. 66, Cornwallis Street, 

; Ghosh, Phanindra Hath, m.a,, ph.d., sc.d.^ (Padua), 
F. INST. p. , SirRashbehary Ghosh Professor of Applied Physics , 

I University of Calcutta. 92, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta, 
j Ghosh, SUKHENDRA HaTH, B.A, (CaL.), B.SC. (GlAS.), 
M.I.O.E., F.R.SAN.I., M.I,E., MxecuUve Engineer, P.W.D.,, 

‘ Central Division, Bengal. 7, Heysham Road, Calcutta. 


Proceedmga A.S.B. for 19Z2. 

Date of 



Ghosh, Tabapada, Zemindar, 14, Paddapukur Street, 
Kidderpore, Calcutta- 



Ghuznavi, A. H., m-L-a., Zemindar, 18, Canal Street, 
Entally, Calcutta. 



Ghuznavi, Iskandeb S. 'K., Zem.indar and Member, Advisory 
Boa7'd of Industries, Government of Bengal. 30, Theatre 
Road, Calcutta {and) Pilduar, Mymensingh. 



Ghoznavi, The Hoh’ble Alhadj Sib Abdelkerim Abu 
Ahmed Khan, kt-,m.d.c.. Zemindar of Dilduar, 30, Theatre 
Road, Calcutta (and) ISTorth House, Pilduar, Mymen- 



Ginwala, Sir Padamji, kt.. Late Fresideyit, Indian Tariff 
Board. Europe. 



Gooptu, PwiJENDBA Nath, Medical Practitioner ajid Land- 
holder. 5, Middleton Street, Calcutta. 



*Gravely, Fbedebic Henry,, f.a.s.b. Museum 
House, Eginore, Madras. 



Grieve, James Wyndham Alleyne. e/o Messrs. Coutts 
& Co., 440, Strand, London, W.C. 2. 



Guha, B. S., m.a,, ph.d. (Harvard). Indian Museum, 



Guha, The Hon’ble Mb. Justice Subendranath, .Rai 
Bahadur, Judge, High Court. 16 , Lansdowne Road, 



Gupta, J. N., O.I.E., I.C.S., Late Member, Board 

of Revenue, Government of Bengal. 5, Riverside, Barrack- 



Gupta, Sivaprasad. Seva Upavana, Benares City. 

.5 8-16 


Gurner, Cyril Walter, b.a. (Oxon), i.c.s., Magistrate 
and Collector. Barisal. 



fiabib-ur-RAHMAN, The Hon’ble Nawab Sadr Yar 
Jung-, Maulana, Bais, Bhihanpur. Habibganj, Pistrict 



Haidar, Sudhindra Kumar, m.a., i.c.s., Commissioner of 
Excise and. Salt, Bengal. 241, Lower Circular Road, 




Hamilton, Sir Daniel Maokinnon, kt.. Retired Partner, 
Messrs. Maokinnon Mackenzie & Co. Balmacara, Rosshire, 

2-4-24 1 


Haq, M. Mahpuz-ul, m.a., Lecturer, Preside^icy College. 
13/1, Collin Lane, Calcutta. 



Harley, Alexander Hamilton, m.a., i.b.s.. Principal, 
Islaniia College. 19, Wellesley Square, Calcutta, 



Harris, H. G., c/o Messrs. Martin & Harris, Ltd,, Row- 
lette Buildings. 17, Prinsep Street, Calcutta. 



Harris, Lawrence Ernest, Engineer, Manager for India, 
Messi's. Sulzer Brothers. 4, Lyons Range, Calcutta. 



. i 

Helland, Bernhard Alvin, b.a., Augsburg College {U.S. A.), 
B.D., Augsburg Seminary {U.S, A,), m.a., Univei^sity of 
Minnesota {U.S, A.), Missionary, Principal, Kaerabani 
Boys" Middle English and Guru Training School. Kaera- 
bani, viaDumka, Santal Parganas. 



Hemraj, Manyabara Raj Guru, c.i.e., Panditji. 
Dhokatole, Nepal. 



Henderson, Alexander Gavin, b.a. (Oxon). Buscot 
Park, Faringdon, Berks, England. 

Alphabetical List of Ordinary Members. 


Date oi 



















2-7-28 i 















: R 



6-6-27 1 


2-2-21 ^ 




6-8-28 1 






6-5-25 ; 


4-2-29 - 






Hendry, 0. A. John, f.r.g.s., m.i.s.e., a.m.i.m.b., m.i.e.. 

M. MiN.i., Consulting Mechanical Engineer, Messrs, Martin 
Go. 12, Mission Row, Calcutta. 

Heron, A. M., (Edin.), f.g.s., f.:r.g.s., f-R-S-e,,.. 
Superintendent, Geological Survey of India. Indian 
Museum, Calcutta. 

’^Hidayat Hosain, Muhammad, Shams ’ul-^Ulama, Khan 
Bahadur, ph.d., f.a.s.b. 96/2c, Collin Street, Calcutta. 
Hingston, H., Lt.-Coi., m.d., Surgeoyi to H.M. the 

Governor of Bengal. 5, Wellesley Place, Calcutta. 

Hobart, Robert Charles, i.c.s.. Collector. Bareilly, U.P. 
Hobbs, Henry, Merchant. 9, Old Court House Street, 

Holme, James William, m.a., i.e.s. (retd.), Frincipal, Lcr 
Martiniere. 11, Loudon Street, Calcutta. 

Hopkinson, Arthur John, i.c.s. Kahalla, Nathiagali, 

N. -W.F.P. 

'i*Hora, Sunder Lal, d-sc., f.z.s., f.r.s.e., f.a.s.b. Zoolo- 
gical Survey of India, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Hossain, Nawab Mcsharrup, Khan Bahadur, m.l.c. 
42- A, Hazra Road, Calcutta. 

^Howard, A., c.i.e., m.a., f.a.s.b.. Late Director, Institute of 
Plant Industry, Indore, and Agricultural Adviser to States in 
Central India. British Science Guild, 6, John Street,. 
Adelphi, London, W.C. 2. 

Hubert, Otto, Chancellor to the German Consulate General. 

3, Lansdowne Road, Calcutta. 

Hughes, Arthur, b.a. (Manchester), Indian Civil Service.. 

Additional District Magistrate, Dacca. 

*Hutton, J. H., C.I.B., i.c.s., m.a.,, f.a.s.b., Census 
Commissioner of India. Chelmsford Club, New Delhi. 

Imam, Abu Mohammad Sybd Hassan, Zemindar. Has- 
nain Manzil, Gaya, E.I.R. [England., 

Insch, James. 18, Beechwood Avenue, Boscornbe, Hants, 
Ishaque, Mohammad, m.a.,, m.r.a.s.. Lecturer, 
Calcutta University. 0, Hospital Street, P.O. Dhurrum- 
tollah, Calcutta. 

ftjackson, P. S. 4, Temple Chambers, 6, Old Post Office’ 
Street, (Calcutta 

Jain, Baldeodas, Merchant and Banker. 21, Armenian 
Street, Calcutta. ^ 

Jain, Ghhotb Lal, m.r.a.s. 25, Central Avenue North, 

Jain, Nirmal Kumar. Devashrama, Arrah. 

Jaitly, P. L., Electrical Engineer, Merchant, 15, Canning: 
Road, Allahabad. 

Jameson, Thomas Blandpobd, major, m.c., m.a. (Can- 
TAB.), i.c.S.^ District and Sessions Judge. Hooghly. 
Jarvis, Robert Y. The Department of State, Washing- 
ton, District Columbia, U.S, A. 

Jatia, Sib Onkab Mull, kt., o.b.e.. Merchant. 2, Rup- 
chand Roy Street, Calcutta. 

I Jenkins, Walter Allen, (Sheffield), i.e.s.. Prin- 
cipal, Bajshahi College. Rajshahi- 
1 Jones, THORNTOisr, o/o Messrs. Morgan & Co.,, 

j 1, Hastings Street, Calcutta. 

I Judah, N. J,,M.B., OH.B.,F.B.q.s. 43, Chowringhee, Calcutta.. 


Proceedings A. 8 M, for 1932. 

Date 01 

l-lTll L 

5- 3-24 R 

5-11-24 B 

1- 2-26 N 

.10-6-12 R 

4-5-10 L 

2- 5-30 N 

6- 2-28 N 

1- 2-26 R 

:2- 12-29 N 
.3-12-24 R 

I ' 

6- 5-25 R 

2- 8-26 R 

.2-11-25 F 

7- 7-20 R 

6- 6-.26 F 

3- 2-30 A 

,2-3-31 N. 

1- 3-26 R 

2- 4-28 I R 
4-11-29 N 

7- 3-23 j B 
1-4-26 N 


.3-6-25 j N 

I ICamaluddin Ahmad, Shams-hl-^Ulama, m.a., i.e.s.. 
Inspector of Schools, Fresidency Division, P. 17, New 
1 Park Street, Calcutta. 

I Kaiijilal, M. N., m.a. (Cal.), ll.b. (Cantab.), Barrister- 
j at’Law, 17, Loudon Street, Calcutta. 

Kapur, Shamlal, Import and BanJcing. 84, Kheiigra- 
patty, Calcutta. 

Kashyap, Shiv Ram, Rai Bah:aduk, .b.a,,,, i.b.,s., 
Professor of Botany. Government College, Lahore. 

Kazim Shirazi, Aga Mohammed. 16A, Ahiripukur Sst 
i Lane, Ballygunge, Calcutta. 

*Kemp, Stanley W., b.a.,, e.3:1.s., f.a.s.e. ‘ Disco- 
very Expedition, ’ 52, Queen Anne Chambers, Dean 
j Farrar Street. London, S.W. 1. 

I Kenny, Diok Edward Courtenay, lt.-col., i.a., Deputy 
i Commissioner, Tavoy. Burma. 

1 Kewal, G AND A Singh, PH., i.o.g.e.,p.r.g.s. (London), 

! F.T.S., (London), Research Scholar in Sikh 

History. Khalsa College, Amritsar. 

Khambata, R. .B., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.p.h.. Director of 
Public Health, Be^igal. 2-B, Camac Street, Calcutta. 

1 Khan, Matiur Rahman, Khas Mahal Circle Officer. 

' 27, Panchbhaighat, Dacca. 

; Khan, Rbzaur Rahman, m.a., b.l.. Deputy President, 
Bengal Legislative Council. 28, Convent Road, Entally, 
i Calcutta. 

Khanna, Vinayek Lal, m.r.a.s.. Merchant. 137D, Balaram 
Dey Street, Beadon Street P.O., Calcutta, 
j Khettry, Benimadho, Proprietor, Messrs. Qouri Shanher 
Khettry, Landholders, Bankers and Merchants. 15, Paggiya- 
I patti, Barabazar, Calcutta. 

I Kimura, R. (Ko-Shi), Principal, College Department of 
Rissho University. Osaki Machi, Tokyo, Japan, 

*Knowles, Robert, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., b.a. (Cantab.), 
F.A.S.B., LT.-COL., i.M.s. 93, Park Street, Calcutta. 

Koester, Dr. Hans, Legations Sehretdr, Auswaertiges 
Amt, Abteilung \\\, Berlin W. 8, Wilhelmstrasse 75. 

Korni, Michael Alexandrowitz (Dr.), Architect and 
j Engineer, Messrs. Bird <£? Co. 53, Chowringhee Road, 

! Kothari, N. L., Colliery Manager, Agent, Khas Jharia. 
j Colliery. Jharia, Manbhum. 

Kramrisch, Stella (Mrs.), ph.d.. Lecturer in Ancient 
Indian History {Fine Arts), Calcutta University, 57, Bally - 
! gunge Circular Road, Calcutta. 

: Kumar, Kumar Krishna, m.a., b.l., Zemindar and 
j Banker. 31 & 31-1, Bur toll a Street, Calcutta, 
j Kurup, Pokiarath Chenchbri Krishna, l.m.p.. Licentiate 
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Bombay, 
Medical Officer. Taliparamba P.O., North Malabar. 

L-,abey, George Thomas, m.c., Bengal Pilot Service. 
United Service Club, Calcutta. 

j Laden La, Sonam Wangfel, Sardar Bahadur, o.b.e,, 
F.R.G.S., Hony. A.D.C. to H.E. the Governor of Bengal, Chief 
of Police, Lhassa, Tibet. ‘ Yangang Villa Darjeeling. 

Lal, Budh Bbhabi, Rai Saheb, b.a., ph.d., Head Master. 
48B, New Mandi, Muzzaffarnagar. 

Alphabetical List of Ordinary Members 


D lilt 0 0 i 








































1 R 








' N 



4-11-29 ] 



1 B 


i B 

I *La Toiicbe, :Thomas Hknby Digges, m.a., f.g.s., f.a.s.b. 

230, Hills Hoad, Cambridge, England, 
j Law, Bimala Chaban, 'm.a,, b.l,, fh.d., f.b.hist.s. 43, 
Kailas Bose Street, Calcutta. 

Law, Nabendba Nath, m.a., b.b., p.e.s., ph.d. 96, 

! Amherst Street, Calcutta. 

j Law, Satya Chubn, m.a., b.l., ph.d,, f.z.s., m.b.o.u. 

' 50, Kailas Bose Street, Calcutta. 

! Lemmosi, Richard Dennis, Merchant. c/o Messrs. 

Martin & Harris Ld., 17, Rrinsep Street, Calcutta. 

I Lomax, G. E., m.a. La Martiniere, Calcutta. 

■ Lort- Williams, The Hon’blb Mr. Justice John, x.c., 

Barrister -at-Law., Judge^ High Court. 227/1, Lower 
Circular Road, Calcutta. 

, Lunan, A. G., Partner, Mes87'8. Bathgate c&f Co. 19, Old 
Court House Street, Calcutta. 

Lyne, Howard, William, i.c.s. Khulna, E.B.R, 

*iVicGay, David, lt.-gol., i.m.s., m.d., b.oh., b.a.o., 
i M.R.C.P., F-A.s.B, c/o The Standard Bank of S. Africa, 
j Cradock, Cape Province, S. Africa. 

I McKay, John Wallace, DeZegra^e, Chilean Nitrate Com- 
i mittee {hidian Delegation). 7, Hare vStreet, Calcutta. 

; *Maclagan, Sir Edward Douglas, k.c.s.l, k.c.i.e., 
F.A.s.B. 188, West Hill, Putney, London, S.W. 15. 

I McPherson, James, c/o Messrs. Begg Dunlop & Co., Ltd., 

; 2, Hare Street, Calcutta. 

■ Mahajan, Surya Prasad. Murarpur, Gaya. 

i Mahalanobis, P. C., m.a.,,, i.e.s.. Professor, Presi- 
dency College. 210, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta. 

Mahtab, Sir Bijay Chand, k.g.s.i., i.o.m., Maharaja- 
DHiRAJA Bahadur op Burdwan. 6, Alipur T^ane, 
Calcutta. (England.) 

Mahtab, Uday Chand, b.a. , Maharaj Kumar of Burdwan. 
The Palace, Burdwan. 

Mahindra, K. C., b.a. (Cantab.). Messrs. Martin & Co., 
12, Mission Row, Calcutta. 

Mahudavala, Jehangir J., (Birmingham), Insu- 
rance Representative, c/o J. C. Mahudavala, Esq., Fort, 
Broach, B.B. & C.I.Ry. 

Maitra, Jatindra Nath, Physician and Burgeon. 68/A, 
Beadon Street, Calcutta. 

Majumdar, Dhirendra Nath, m.a., Lecturer in Anthro- 
pology. University of Lucknow, Lucknow. 

Majumdar, Narendra Kumar, m.a.. Professor, Calcutta 
University. 3, Government Place, West, Calcutta. 
Majumdar, Bamesh Chandra, m.a., ph.d.. Professor, 
Dacca University. Bamna, Dacca. 

Mallam, G. L., Captain, i a.. Census Superintendent. 
Peshawar, N.-W.F.P. 

Mallik, The Hon’blb Mb. Justice Satyendra Chandra, 
M.A., I.C.S., Judge, High Court. 7-3, Burdwan Road, 
Alipur, Calcutta, 

Mallya, Bantwal Ganapathy, Major, i.m.s., f.r.c.s.e. 
Civil Surgeon. Chittagong. 

Mani, M. S. Entomology Section, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 
*Maneii, Johan van, c.le., f.a.s.b. 6, Temple Chambers, 
6, Old l?ost Office Street, Calcutta. 

cxiviii Proceedings A. S.B. for 1932. 

Pate of 



, . ' 5-6-01 


Mann, H-s^rold Hart, d. sc.,, f.i.c,, f.l.s. Wobum 
Experimental Station, Aspley Guise, Bedfordshire^ 



Martin, M. P. C., Capt., r.e. Office of C.R.E., Waziris- 
tan District, Dera Ismail Khan. 



: Martin, T. Leslie, m.a. ' (Cantab.). 12, Mission Row, 



Matthias, Owen Gardiner, iVfa?^ac)ri^^Qf Director, Messrs. 
Smith Stanistreet S Co., Ld. Stanistreet House, 18, Convent 
Road, Entally, Calcutta. 

■ 24-28 


Mello, Eroilano de, CoLomisi,, Director-General of Medical 
Services in Portuguese India, Professor of Parasitology . 
Nova Gda. 



*Middlemiss, Charles Stewart, c.i.e., p.r.s., b.a., f.g.s., 
F.A.s.B. Aviemore, Crowborough, Sussex, England. 



*MiUs, James Philip, i.c.s., m.a. (Oxon), j.p , f.a.s.b.. 
Deputy Commissioner, Kohi'^a. Naga Hills, Assam. 



Misra, Champ aram, b.a., Dy, Director of Industries. Cawn- 
pore, U.P. 



Mitra, J. C., m.a., b.l.. Retired Accountant-General, Bengal. 
1, Abinash Mit ter Lane, Calcutta. 



Mitra, jAMiNi Mohan, Rai Bahadur, m.a., Laie Registrar, 
Co-operative Societies, Bengal. 24, Ray Street, Bhawani- 
i pore, Calcutta. 



: Mitra, Kumar Manmatha Nath. 34, Shampukur Street, 



Mitra, Mathura Nath, b.a.. Solicitor. 12-1, Old Post 
Office Street, Calcutta. 



Mitter, The Hon’ble Sir B. L., kt., m.a., b.l., Barrister- 
at-Law, Law Member, Viceroy's Council, New Delhi. 



Mitter, The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Dwarkanath, m.a., 
D.L., Judge, High Court. 12, Theatre Road, CvUicutta. 



Mitter, Hiranya Kumar, Landholder. 1, Jhamapukur 
Lane, Amherst Street P.O., Calcutta. 



Mitter, Khagendra Nath, Rai Bahadur m.a.. Professor, 
Presidency College {Retired). 72/1, Bondel Road, 
Bally gunge, Calcutta. 



Mitter, The Hon’blb Sir Provash Chandra, xt., c.i.e., 
M.L.c. 34/1, Elgin Road, Calcutta. 



Modi, Jal R. K., b.a. 4, Camac Street, Calcutta. 



Moledina, Mohamed Hashimi, Landlord and Merchant. 
30, Main Street, Camp Poona. 


■, N 

Moloney, William J., General Manager of ReutePs for the 
Bast, c/o 26/7, Dalhousie Square, Calcutta. 



Mookerjea, Bhabadeb, Merchant. 48, Barraekpore Trunk 
Road, F.O. Baranagore. 



Mookerjee, Aditya Nath, m.a., ph.d., Late Principal, 
Sanskrit College. 10/B, Mohun Lai Street, Shambazar, 

; 5-11-24 


Mookerjee, B. N., b.a. (Cantab.), Engineer. 12, Mission 
Row, Oalcutta. 



Mookerjee, J. N,, Civil Engineer. 12, Mission Row, Cal- 



^Mookerjee, Sir Rajbndra Nath, k.c.i.e., k.c.v.o., hon. 
F.A,s,B. 7, Harington Street, Calcutta. 

i 2-7-24 


Mookerjee, Syama Prasad, m.a., b.l., Vakil, High Court, 
Fellow of the University of Calcutta. 77, Russa Road 
North, Calcutta. 

Alphabetical List of Ordinary Members. 


Date of 





I R 






1 R 








2-8-26 , 






2-2-21 ; 



! R 


1 ^ 






1 ^ 


1 N 




1 ^ 













I Muhammad, Mibza, 'Khan Bahadur, c.i.b,, ll-b., 
M-B.A.s., Strand Road, Basrah. 

* Mukerjee, Subodh Chandra, Shastri, m.a., Docteur-es- 
Lettres (Paris). 3/lA, Raja Rajaballav Street, Calcutta. 

' Mukerjee, Shsii. Kumar, f.r.o.s. (Edin.), d.o. (Oxon.), 
D.O.M.S. (Lond.), Ophthalmic Surgeon, Garmichael Medical 
Gollege Hospitals. I /I, Wood Street, Calcutta. 

^ Mukerji, The Hon’blb Mr. Justice Manmatha Nath, 
M.A., B.B., Judge, High Court. 8/1, Harsi Street, Calcutta. 

> Mukerji, S., m.a., b.i.,, Vahil and Zemindar. 7, Old Bally- 
gunge Road, Calcutta. 

Mukharji, Is an Chandra, Bai Bahadur, Tazimi Sardar and 
Retired Member oj Jaipur Council. Jaipur, Raj putana. 

I Mukherjee, DeVabrosanna, m.a., b.l., Zemindar. 


I Mukherjee, Harbndra Nath,, m.b. (Cal.), d.i.o. 
(Lond.), Medical Practitioner, Biochemical Department, 
Carmichael Medical College, Belgachia, Calcutta. 

Mukherjee, Jnanbndra Nath, (London), f.o.s, 

I (London), Fellow of the Indian Chemical Society ; Guru- 
’ praaad Professor of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92, 
Upper Circular Road, Calcutta. 

Mukhopadhyaya, Prabhat Kumar, m.a.. Research Assist'^ 
ant, Calcutta University, 27, Oo vinda Ghosal Lane, 
Bhawanipur, Calcutta. 

Mukhopadhyaya, Ramaprasad, m.a., b.l. 77, Russa Road 
North, Bhawanipore, Calcutta. 

Muilick, Kartiok Churn, Kumar, Director, Baja D. N, 
Mullick ds Sons, Ltd. Colootola Rajbati, Chittaranjan 
Avenue, Calcutta. 

Mullick, Pramatha Nath, Rai Bahadur, Zemindar and 
Landholder. 129, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta. 

Murray, Eugene Florian Oliphant, a.i.m.m., f.g.s., 
Mining Geologist and Engineer. Tatanagar, B.N.Ry, 

Murray, Howard, o.i.b., lt.-col., Indian Army, Deputy 
Finaticial Adviser. Flashman’s Hotel, Rawalpindi. 

Musa, Muhammad, Moul VI, Khan Bahadur, m.a., Princi- 
pal, Islamic Intermediate Gollege. Dacca. 

Muzammil-Ullah Khan, The Hon’blb Nawab, Mohd., 
Khan Bahadur, K.c.i.E., k.b., Rais. Bhikanpur, Dist. 
Aligarh, U.P. 

rSFahar, Puran Chand, Rai Bahadur, Solicitor, c/o 48, 
Indian Mirror Street, Calcutta. 

Namgyal, H.H. Maharaja Sir Tabhi, x.c.i.b., Maharaja 
of Sikkim. Gangtok, Sikkim. 

Nandi, Maharaja Sris Chandra, u .’ l . q .. Zemindar. 
Kasimbazar Rajbari, Kasimbazar, Murshidabad, 

Narain, Hirde, m.a., b.t.. Professor of History, Morris 
College. Nagpur, C.P. 

Narasimham, Ybchuri, m.a., Dewan, Vizianagram Sams* 
thanam. Vizianagram. 

Neogi, Panohanan, m.A., ph.d., i.e.s., Professor of Che* 
mistry. Presidency Gollege. 21, Kundu Lane, Belgachia, 

■ ■ Calcutta. ’■ '■ , ■ ■ ■ 

Newman, Carl Damien, m.b.b.s., d.t.m. &; h., District 
Medical Officer, E.B.Ry. 1/1, Old Ballygunge Road, 


Proceedings A.S.B. for 1932. 

Date o£ 



Newman, Chas. F., f.e.g.s., m.c.p. Kutcha Bungalow, 
Bhopal, C.I. 



Nyss, Wm, B. S., Late Superintendent^ Excise and SaU> 
175B, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta. 



Olitani, Count Kozui. San-ya-so, Edomachi, FusMmi, 
Kyoto, Japan. 



Olpadvala, E. S. 52, Chowringhee, Calcutta. 



Oyevaar, J. J., Vice-Consul for the Netherlands, e/o The 
Java Bengal Line, E-1, Clive Buildings, Clive Street (Post 
Box No. 71), Calcutta. 


Paede, Shiva Bandhan, Retired Tahsildar and Zemindar, 
Ramaipatti, Mirzapur, IJ.P. 



Parker, Richard Henry, i.g.s., Scholar of St. John's 

College^ Oxford, District and Sessions Judge, AKpore, 

^ Calcutta. ■ ■ 



Parry, Nevidd Edward, i.o.s. (Retd.). 12, Howell Road, 
Exeter, England. 



’^‘Pascoe, Sib Edwin Hall, kt., m.a., so.d. (Cantab.), (Lond.), F.G.S., F.A.S.B., Late Director, Geological 
Survey of India. England. 



Pawsey, C, R., Indian Civil Service, Mokokchung, Naga 
Hills, Assam. 



Pennell, Aubray . Pbboival, b.a., Barrister -at- Law. 
Lamb’s Building, Temple, London, E.C. 4. 



Perier, Ferdinand, s.j., Most Reverend the Archbishop of 
Calcutta. 32, Park Street, Calcutta. 



Pessein, B-mv. J, Catholic Missionary, Superior of the 

Catholic Missionary Sanatorium, Wellington, Nilgiris. 



Pettigrew, Rev, WmLiAM , Missionary. American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society, P.O. Kangpokpi, Manipur, 



^Pilgrim, Guy E.,, f.g.s., f.a.s.b. Late of the Geolo- 
gical Survey of India, Indian Museum. England. 



Popper, Stephen W., Merchant, c/o Messrs. Havero 
Trading Co., Ltd., Commercial House. 15, Clive Street, 
Calcutta. ■ , ■ ■ 



Prasad, Sharda. c/o Messrs. Gopinath Lai Behari, Satna. 

3»4-18 , 

*Praslaad,'BAiNi,, f.z.s., f.r.s.e., f.a.s.b. Zoological 
Survey of India, Indian Museum, Calcutta. 


R ; 

Prntlii, Hem Singh, (Punjab), ph.d. (London), 
Assistant Superintendent^ Zoological Survey of India, 
Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



Piiri, I. M., PH.D.' (Cantab.), (Punjab). Centra! 
Research Institute, Kasauli, Punjab- 



Pushong, E. S., M.D., L.S.A., Medical Practitioner, 1, 
Chapel Road, Hastings, Calcutta, 



l^aliman, Shah Kalimur, m.a., Lsciwrer in Arabic and 
Persian, Calcutta 51, Baitakhana Road, 




Rai, Lakshmi Narain, l.m.s., Medical Officer . In-charge, 
King Edward VII Hospital, Benares. 



*Raman, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata, xt., m.a.,, 
F.R.S., F.A.S.B. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 



Ramanujaswami, P. V., m.a., Principal. Maharaja’s 
Sanskrit College, Vizianagram. 

Alphabetical List of Ordinary Members. 


'.Date ef 1 





Ranktii, The Hon’ble Sib Gbobge, kt., Ghief Justice of 
Bevigal. 9, Camac Street, Calcutta. 


N 1 

Rao, Y. Ramachandra, Rao Sahib, m.a., f.e.s,. Deputy 
! Locust Research Entomologist. McLeod Road, Karachi. 



Raparia, Tara Chand, b.a.. Business Manager, c/o 
Messrs. Bansidhar Sumerchand & Co,, Beiangunj , Agra,!!. P. 



1 Ray, Abinash Chandra, b.a. R.M.H.E. School, P.O. 

1 Baidyabati. 



1 Ray, Hem Chandra, m.a., ph.d. (London). P.39A, 
i Manicktollah Spur, Calcutta. 



1 Ray, Jagadisnath, Maharaja, Maharaja of Dmajpore. 

\ Din a.j pore. 



1 *Ray, Sir Proeulla Chandra, ht., c.i.e.,, e.a.s.b. 

University College of Science, 92, Upper Circular Road, 
j Calcutta. 

5-11-28 1 


Reinhart, Werner, Merchant. g(o Messrs. Volkart Bros., 
Rychenberg, Winterthur, Switzerland. 



Reneman , Nioo. 52/1 , Bally gunge Circular Road, Calcutta. 



Richards, F. J., i.c.s. 6, Lexham Gardens, London, W. 8. 



Rizvi, Syed Hamid Husain, Excise Sub- Inspector. Mohalla 
Saiiechri, Near Musjid of Munshi Sk. Ghassu, Saugor, C.P. 



Roerich, George Nicholas, m.a., m.b.a.s,. Orientalist. 

' 310, Riverside Drive, New York, U.S-A. (Naggar, Kulu, 



Roerich,, Professor, Honorary President, Master 
Institute of United Arts, New York, U.S.A., Artist- 
Painter. 310, Riverside Drive, New York, TJ.S.A. 



Rogers, T. E., Tea Planter. The Ty room Tea Co., Ld., 
Kharikatia, Assam. 


1 A 

Rose, G. F., Director, Messrs. Andrew Yule dh Go., Ltd. 
8, Clive Row, Calcutta. 

4-12-01 ^ 




’S'Ross, Sir Edward Denison, kt., c.i.e., ph.d., f.a.s.b., 
Director, School of Oriental Studies. Finsbury Circus, 
London, E.C. 2. 

6-12-26 I 



Roy, The Hon’ble Mr. Justice A. Y.., Barrister-at^Law, 
Judge, High Court. 3, Upper Wood Street, P.O. Theatre 
Road, Calcutta. 



Roy, Kumar Kamalranjan, b.a.. Zemindar. Kashim- 
bazar Post, Dt. Murshidabad. 

2-4-28 ' 

! ^ 

Roy, SuHRiD Kumar,, ph.d,, f.g.s., Professor of 
Geology, Indian School of Mines. Dhanbad. 


1 N 

Roy-Ghowdhury, Brajendra Kishore, Zemindar. 

I (53, Sukea Street, Calcutta.) Gauripur, Mymensingh. 



Rmthnaswamy, M., m.a.. Barrister -at-Law, Principal, 
Law College. Esplanade, Madras. 


1 N 

I’^Saha, Megh Nad,, p.r.s., e.a.s.b.. Professor of 
\ Physics, University of Allahabad. Katra, Allahabad. 


j N 

Sahaya, Shyamnandan, b.a.. Agent, New India 
Assurance Go., Ltd., Bombay, and Agent, The 

I National Banking and Loan Go., Ltd., Calcutta. Bank 
Road, Patna. 


, N 

^Sahiii, B., M.A., sc.D. (Cantab.),,, f.a.s.b., 
Professor of Botany. The University, Lucknow. 



Sanyal, Srish Chandra, Astronomer. 25, Rani Branch 
Road, P.O. Cosslpur, Calcutta. 


1 R 


Sarkar, C. K., c.isi., Engimer and Architect. 10, Hastings 
Street, Calcutta, 

clii Proceedinga A, 8. B, for 1932. 

Date of 

[ ■' ■ 



' Sarvadhikary, Sir Bbvaprasad, kt., o.i.e.,. o.b.e.j 

a.B.E., M.A,,. . B.Ii.,, . LL.D. (ABERDEEN), LL.D. 

(St. Andrews), . SuBiBATNA, Vidyabatnaear, Jnana- 
SINDH0. 20, Suri Lane, Entally, Calcutta. 



SastrivB. S, Badasxjbramaniya, Pan- 

dita {Passed Nyaya Mimansa Siromoni Glass in 1913)^ 
Telugu Pandit, Borstal School, Tanjore. Borstal Teachers’ 
Lines, Tanjore. 



Sen, Bbnoy Chandra, m.a.. Professor of History, City 
College. ‘ Rupeswar’, Diamond Harbour Road, Behala. 



Sen, H. K.,- m.a., d;so. (London), d.i.o.. Professor of 
Ghemistry, University College of Science. 92, Xpper 
Circular Road, Calcutta. 


■ Sen, ■ Lakshman, H.H. Raja of Suket. Suket State, 



Sen- Gupta,- H ares. Chandra, m.a., Advocate, High 

Oouft. 36, Girish Mukherje© Road, Bhawanipore, Cal- 
cutta. . 

5-4-26 . 

R . 

Senior-White, Ronabd, f.e.s., f.b,s.t.m. <fc h., Malariolo- 
gist. B.N. Ry. House, Kidderpore, Calcutta. 



Seth, Mbsrovb Jacob, m.r.a.s., m.s.a,, f.b.s.a., Exami- 
ner in Classical Armenian to the Calcutta University. 9, 
Marsden Street, Upper Flat, Calcutta. 

5-7-11 . 


’^Sewell, Robert Beresford Seymour, m.a., sc.d. (Can- 
tab.), M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.A.S.B., LT.-OOL., 
I. M. s. , Late Director, Zoological Survey of India. Engian d. 



Sharif, Mohammad,, f.b.m.s., f.e.s., Pec toer in 
Zoology. Muslim University, Aligarh. 



Sharma, Sri Ram, m.a., m.b.a.s., m.a.o.s., Professor of 
History. D. A. V. College, Lahore. 



Shebbeare, E. 0., Conservator of Forests, Darjeeling. 



Shirreff, Alexander Grierson, b. a., i.c.s. ' Sitapur, U.P. 




Shortt, H.' E,, LT.-GOii., i.m.s. ■ Pasteur Institute of India, 
Kasauli, Punjab. 



Shukla, Jasannath Prasad.' ' Trans Gomti Outram Boad» 
near Badshahnagar, Railway Station, Lucknow. 


Shumsber Jung- 'Bahadur. Rana, Sir Kaiser, e:.b.e.,.. 


Army. Kaiser Mahal, Kathmandu, Nepal. 



Shyam Lai, Lala, 'm. a,, ll.b. Nawabganj, Cawnpore, U.P, 


. E. ■ 

Sidiq, Syed Mohammad, Shifa-ul- Mule, Unani Physician. 
11, Harm Bari 1st Lane, Calcutta. 



SiddiqL Mohammad Zubayb, Sir Asutosh Professor of 
Islamic Culture, Calcutta University. P.274, Bright 
Street, Park Circus, Calcutta. 


'■X, '. 

***81111008611, John Lionel,, f.i.o., f.a.s.b. Univer- 
sity College of North Wales, Bangor, North Wales. 



Singh, Manyabara Badakaji Marichi Man, c.i.e. 38, 
Khiehapokhari, Kathmandu, Nepal. 



Singh, Jaipal, m.a. (Modern Greats), St. John's College, 
Oxford University. Aehimota College, Accra, West 



Singhi, Bahadur Singh. (Azimganj, Mnrshidabad. ) 
116, Lower Circular Road, Calcutta. 



Sinha, Bhupendra Narayan, Raja Bahadur, b.a. 
Nashipur Rajbati, Nashipur. 



Sinha, Lord, of Raipur. Queen Anne Mansions, St. 
James Park, London. 

Alfhabetical List of Ordinary Members. 


Date of I ! 

.KlectionJ i 

6-6'27 j N I Sinha, Sheonandan Prasad, m.b.. Assistant Surgeon . 
; ‘ Chatra, Dt. Hazaribagh. 

6- 2-28 i R I Sinlia, Suhrid Chandra, Kttmar, 15/1/1, R.ama- 

kanto Bose Street, Bagh Bazar, Calcutta. 

4- 1-26 I 3Sr I SInton, J. A.,o.b.e., lt.-col., v.o., 0 fficer 4 n - Gharge , 

I Malaria Bureau. Central Research Institute, Kasauli. 

5- 7-16 I L j Sircar, Ganapati, Vidyaratna. 69, Beliaghatta Main 

Road, Calcutta. 

5-3-24 i R j Sircar, Sir Nbipendba Nath, kt., m.a., b.l., Barrister - 
at'Law, Advocate’Qeneraly Bengal. 36/1, Elgin Road, 
I Calcutta. 

5- 3-24 ! R I Sircar, Sir Nil Ratan, kt., m.a., m.d., Physician. 7, 

Short Street, Calcutta. 

7-11-32 : N ■ Sitling, G. T. The Ong Press, Kalimpong, D.H. Ry. 
2-6-20 A Skinner, S. A., Engineer and Director, Messrs. Jessop ds 
i Go., Ltd. 93, Clive Street, Calcutta. 

1- 3-26 ; R : Snaith, John Frank, Managing Director, Messrs. Bamih 

i ton ds Go. 8, Old Court House Street, Calcutta. 

2- 8-26 N ! Sohoni, Vishvanath Vishnu, b.a.,, Meteorologist. 

Meteorological Office. Poona 5. 

0- 8-29 R j Sommerfeld, Alfred, Merchant. 5, Ballygunge Park, 

i Calcutta. 

7- 3-27 R ; Stagg, M., lt.-ool., r.e., o.b.e.. Master, H.M.^s Mint. 

I 47, Strand Road, Calcutta. 

7-3-23 F Stamp, L. Dudley, b.a., University of London, 
i London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London, 

I W.C. 2. 

4-l«26 N ; Stapleton, Grace (Miss), m.d., b.s. (London). Govern- 
ment Caste and Gosha Hospital, Triplicane, Madras. 
28-9-04 L : ^Stapleton, Henry Ernest, m.a.,, i.e.s., f.a.s.b., 
Late Director oj Public Instruction, Bengal, St. Brelade, 

; Jersey, C.l, England. 

5- 11-28 N ■ Statham, R. M., c.i.e., b.a., i.e.s., Director of Public 

j Instruction, Travancore. Trivandrum, Travancore. 

6- 5-25 R I Staub, Max, Consul for Switzerland. 100, Clive Street, 

I Calcutta. 

1- 8-23 A ; Stow, Sir Alexander Montagu, k.c.i.b., o.b.e., m.a. 

( Cantab . ) , i. c. s. , Late Chief Commissioner. Delhi. 

1-11-22 R Strickland -Anderson (Mrs.). 1, AlipurPark, Calcutta. 

2- 6-20 R ! Siihrawardy, Hassan, lt.-ool., o.b.e., m.d., f.r.o.s.i., 

! D.P.H., Chief Medical Officer, E.B. By., Vice-Chancellor, 

\ Calcutta University. 3, Suhrawardy Avenue, Park Circus, 

4-4-27 R Suhrawardy, Sir Z. R. Z., kt.. Late Judge, High Court, 
61, Ripon Street, Calcutta. 

3- 3-20 N Sundararaj, Bunguru, m.a., ph.d.. Director of Fisheries, 

Chepauk, Madras. 

7-11-32 L j Suvarna, Shumser Jung Bahadur Rana, Major-General 
I in the Nepalese Army. Singha Darbar, Kathmandu, 

. ^ ' I Nepal. . ■ ■ 

7- 4-30 N I Swami, Vidya Nand. Jasdan State, Kathiawad. 

6- 4-98 R j ‘Tagore, Sib Pradyot Coomar, kt., maharaja bahadub. 

I ‘Emerald Bower’, 56, Barrackpore Trunk Road, 24- 
■ Pergs. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ . . . ' ■ ' 

7-11-27 R Tarkatirtha, Bimalananda, Kaviraj, Punditbhusan, Bya- 
, haranatirtha. 90/3, Grey Street, Calcutta- 
31-8-93 L Tate, George Pas.sman. 56, Cantonment, Bareilly, U.P. 

Proceedings A,8,B. for 1932 . 

Date of I , 

Election. I 

2-5-32 K Thakur, Amaheswar, m,a., ph.d., Lecturer, Calcutta 
I University, Hon, Secretary, Sanskrit Publication DeparUnent, 

Metropolitan Printmg and Puhlisliing House. ^Qj’Dh.iiTtum- 
I toliah Street, Calcutta. 

2-12-29 R Thomas H. "W., Senior Partner and Chair- 

man of the Managing Directors, Messrs, Smith ..Stanistreei 
Go, Stanistreet House, 18, Convent Road, Entally, 

1.6-04 L ‘‘‘Tipper, Geobge Howlbtt, m.a., p.g.s., m.inst.m.m,, 
F.A.s.B. ‘The Laurels’, Gleb© Road, Cambridge, 

4- 3-29 N Travers, Sir Walter Lancelot, kt., c.i.e., o.b.e., m.l.c.. 

Tea Planter, Baradighi Tea Estate. Baradighi P.O. , 

1 B.D.R., Jalpaiguri. 

7-5-28 Tucci, Guiseppe, ph.d.. Late Professor of Beligions and 
Philosophy of India and the Far East, University of Pome ; 
Professor of Chinese, University of Naples, Naples, 

5- 7-26 ^ i Tyson, John Dawson, m.a. (Oxon), i.c.s., j.p., Private 

Secretary to H.E, the Governor of Bengal. Government 
House, Calcutta. 

6- 8-28 ^ Urchs, Oswald, m.d. e/o Messrs. Havero Trading Co., 

Ld. Post Box 642, Bombay. 

7- 3-27 ^ Urquhart, Rev. W. S., m.a., d-.d., d.litt.. Principal, 

Scottish Church College, and Late Vice-Chancellor, Calcutta 
University. 3 & 4, Cornwallis Square, Calcutta. 

4- 7-27 N Vance, R. L., m.b., major, Indian Medical Service. 

Office of the Chief Medical Officer, Western India States 
Agency, Rajkot, Kathiawar. 

6-6-32 E Vere-Hodge, Mrs. E. H., Author. The Causey, Cran- 
; leigh, Surrey, England. 

5- 7-05 R Vidyabhusana, Amulya Charan. 28A, Telepara Lane, 

! Calcutta. 

1- 2-32 R ' Visser, Ph. C., Consul-General for the Netherlands, E-1, 

Clive Buildings, Clive Street, Calcutta. 

6- 3-01 L i *Vogel, Jean Philippe, LiTT.D., F.A.s.B. Noordeindsplein, 

4a, Lieden, Holland* 

27-9-94 L , Vest, William, lt.-ool., i.m.s. Leicester Lodge, 1, 

: Medina Villas, Hove, Sussex, England. 

6-5-25 R Wadia, D. N., m.a.,, f.b.g.s., f.g.s., Geological Survey’ 
of India. Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

5-3-28 N Waight, Harry George, b.a. (Oxon and Lond.), 
District and Sessions Judge, Burdwan* 

2- 1-28 N Wats, R. C., Captain, m,d., d.p.h., d.t.m,, i.m,s. Mhow, 

Indore, C.I. 

2-5-27 A I Watson, Sir Alfred Henry, kt., Late Editor, The 
j ^ Statesman f Calcutta. England. 

2-2-31 R I Wauchope, 'R. S., o.b.e., a.i.c.e.,': f.r.a.i., major, la., 
j 8, Park Chambers, 93, Park Street, Calcutta. 

1-11-26 R I Westcott, , Foss, Most Reverend, d.d. (Cantab.), 
honorary d.d. (Oxon.), Bishop of Calcutta and 
Metropolitan of India, Burma, and Ceylon. Bishop’s Houses 
51, Chowringhee, Galeutta. 

19-9-06 I L I ’“Whitehead, Richard Bertram, f.a.s.b., i.c.s. (retd.). 30^ 

I 1 Millington Road, Cambridge, England. 

Alphabeiical List of Ordinary Members. olv 

Date ol’ 

, 6-5-29 

:■ R 

WIiliams, Henby Fbenoh Fulfoed, m.a., Clare Col- 
lege (Cams.), Chaplain of Barmckpore. Barrackporo. 


i S' 

: i 

Williams, T. Taliesin, m.a., 2, Orchard, Welwyn 
Garden City, Herts., England. 


1 ^ 

^Woollier, Alfred Cooper, c.i.e., m.a., p.a.s.b., Ftce- 
Ohancellor, Punjab University, 53, Lawrence Road, Lahore. 


■ R 

Wordsworth, William Christopher, m.a., i.b.s. (Retd.). 
c/o The ‘ Statesman % Chowringhee Square, Calcutta. 



Wright, Frederic Maitland, Broker. Post Box No. 
72, Bombay. 


! N 


Yazdani, Ghulam, m.a. Epigraphist to the Government of 
India for Persian and Arabic Inscriptions^ Hyderabad. 
Archgeological Survey, Hyderabad, Deccan. 

,1884, . 







5 Mar. 






10 Mar. 





15 Jan. 








25 June 





i 1905. 


Middlemiss, C. S. 

1 July 


Ghosh, A. C. 


i Aug. 


McOay, D. 


Griper, W. R. 

; 1906. 

' Jan. 


Chapman, J. A. 

i Mar. 


Nahar, P. C. 


Pennell, A. P. 


Woolner, A. C. 



Mitra, M. N. 


La Touche, T. H. D. 



Whitehead, R. B. 




Finlow, R. S. 


Ray, Sir Prafulla C. 




Brown, J. C. 



Christie, W. A. K. 


Maclagan, Sir Edward 


Bedding, P. 0- 




Brahmachari, U. N. 






Wordsworth, W. C. 
Bhattacharji, B. 



Tate, Gr. Passman 




Shirreff, A. G. 




Chakra varti, N. 

Vost, W. 


Sarvadhikary, Sir D. 



Bose, Sir Jagadis 0. 



Bentley, C. A. 



Beatson-Bell, Sir 


1 ' 


Bazaz, R. K. 

Nicholas D. 


Bhattacharji, S. N. 


De, K. C. 



Brown, P. 


Briihl, P. 


Burn, Sir Richard 



Gangoli, O. C. 
Christophers, Sir S. R. 



Seth, M. J. 




Dhavle, S. B. 



Dods, W. K. 

Tagore, Sir Pradyot C. 
Mookerjee, Sir R. N. 



Kemp, S. W. 

Gravely, F. H. 




Grieve, J. W. A. 



Insoh, J, 

Law, N, N. 




Mahtab, Sir Bijay 


Khan, H. R. 



Vogel, J. P. 


Lomax, C. E. 


Mann, H. H. 



Chatter jee, K. K. 


Ross, Sir Edward D, 


Hosain, M. H. 




Sewell, R. B. S. 



Shy am Lai. 

Doxey, F. 



Ahmed, K. 



Pilgrim, G. E. 



Kazim Shirazi, A. M. 


Tipper, G. H. 



Harley, A. H. 


Fermor, L. L. 



Misra, C. 


Stapleton, H. E. 



Andrews, E. A. 

( clvi ) 

Ghronological List of Ordinary Members, 




Ghosh, T. 

Singhi, B. S. 




Simonsen, J. L. 




Calder, C, C. 



Majumdar, K. C. 



Fox, C. S. 




Bacot, J. 



Chaudhuri, G. D. 




Law, S. C. 



Law, B. C. 




Ohtani, Count K. 



Gurner, C. W. 



Oleghorn, M. L. W. 



Bas-Gupta, H. C. 



Chatterjee, Sir A. C. 




■ Majumdar, N. K. 



Mahajan, S. P. 



Sarkar, G. 





Awati, P. R. 



Beb, H. K. 



Aiyangar, K. V. R. 



Bhandarkar, B. R. 




Banerji, N. N. 




Ghosh, E. N. 



Manen, Johan van 



Singh, B. M. 



Prashad, B. 



Sinha, B. N. 




Maitra, J. N. 




Yazdani, G. 



Gupta, S. P. 



Friel, R. 



Hemraj, R. 




Pascoe, Sir E. H. 




Mahalanobis, P. C. 


Sundara Raj, B. 



Ghosh, S. N. 



Skinner, S. A. 



Suhrawardy, H. 



Knowles, R. 



Bikshit, K. N. 



Ohakladar, H. C. 



Chanda, R. 



Chatterjee, N. C. 





Connor, Sir F. P. ■ 
Akbar Khan, M, 




Ray, J. 



Jain, Chhote Lall 



Mukerjee, R. 




Mookerjee, S. C. 



Acton, H. W. 



Agharkar, S. P. 



Muzamilullah Khan, 



Ray, H. C. 




Hora, S. L. 




Bhattacharya, V. S. 



Chopra, R. N. 

Raman, Sir C. V. 



Abdul All, A. S'. M. 



Bose, J. C. 



Bhattacharya, S. P. 



Bas-Gupta, S. N. 


1 . 






Labey, G. T. 




Stamp, L. B. 



Shebbeare, E. 0. 



Howard, A. 

. 9 


Hutton, J. H. 



Biswas, K. P. 




Stow, Sir A. M. 



Chopra, B. N. 



Barwell, N. F. 



Jackson, P. S. 



Sen, H. H. Lakshman 




Pande, S. B. 




Mahindra, K. C. 



Banerjee, P, N. 



Kanjilal M. N. 



Mukerji, S. 




Martin, T. L. 



Mitter, Sir P. C. 



Mitter, Sir B, L, 



Mitter, B. N, 



McPherson, J. 




Chatter ji, M. M. 



Sircar, Sir N. N. 



Sircar, Sir N. R. 



Bahl, K. N. 



Chose, K. 


99 . 


Judah, N. J. 

■ 99 


Richards, F. J. 



Haq, M. 



Mitra, J. C. 

99 ■ 

'99 . 

Chose, Sir C. C. 


Proceedings AS. B for 1932, 

7. Rose, G. F. 

,, Bhattaeharya, B, 

2. Ray, A. C. 

,, Mookerjee, S. P. 

6. Chatterji, S. K, 

,, Nyss, Wm. B. S. 

,, Moloney, W. J. 

,, Roy-Chowdhury, B, K. 
,, Davies, L. M. 

5. Chattopadhyay, K. P. 
„ Baidil, A. M. 

„ Sahni, B. 

„ Mookerji, B. N. 

„ Kapur, S. 

3. Das, S. N. 

„ Mookerjee, J. N, 

„ Newman, Chas. F. 

„ Pusbong, E. S. 

„ Rogers, T. E. 

„ Basu, J. N- 
„ Ghose, S. a 
„ Sarkar, C. K. 

,, Hendry, C. A. 

,, Roerich, G. N. 

„ Sen, H. K. 

,, Khan, R. R. 




Guha, B. S. 



Benthall, E. C. 

Das, A. N. 


a ' 

Deb, Kshitindra 



Perier, F. 


Hobbs, H. * 



Laden La, S. W. 


J J 

Sidiq, S. M. 





Sen, B. C. 


Abbasi, M. A. 



Baral, G. C. 



Bose, H. M. 


Jatia, Sir O. M. 




Khanna, V. L. 


Koester, Hans 


Sfcaub, Max. 



Wadia, D. N. 


Datta, S. K. 




Lai, B. B. 


Musa, M. 



Bose, M. M. 



Chhibber, H. L. 


Coyajee, Sir J. C. 



Pruthi, H. S. 



Acharya, P. 

K.’ C, 


Crookshank, H. 


Kimura, R. 



Sharif, M. 


Afzal, S. M. 




Fleming, Andrew 



Gaffar, Abdul 



Hubert, Ofeto 


Murray, H. 




Shortfc, H. E. 


9 9 

Sinton, J. A. 



Stapleton, G. (Mis.s) 


1 . 

Ruthnaswamy, M. 



Rao, T. R. 


1 9 


Kashyap, S. R. 


Ghuznavi, Sir A. K. 


Kingston, H. 



Harris, H. G. 


Ghuznavi, A, H. 



Khambata, R. B. 



McKay, J. W. 



Snaith, J. F. 


Mukherjee, A. N. 



Datta, H. N. 



Basu, N. K. 



Kramrisch, Stella 



Bagnall, J. F. 



Senior-White, R. 


Ghose, B. 0. 



Parker, R. H. 



Bhatia, M. L. 



Mitter, K. N. 


Jones, T. 



Bhagwant Rai. 




Lemmon, R. D. 



Mukhopadhyaya, P. K 



Tyson, J. D. 


it . 

Lyne, H. W. 



Sohoni, V. V. 



J > 

Majumdar, D. N. 


Mukherjee, J. N. 



Khettry, B. 




Jameson, T. B. 



Modi, J. R. K. 



Westcott, F. 



Barhut, T. K. 



Ramanujaswami, P. V. 


Mills, J. P. 


Galstaun, S. 


Chokhani, S. 


Bagchi, P. C. 



Aiyangar, S. K. 



Guha, S. N. 



Roy, A, K. 





Chakravarty, N, 



Bivar, H. G. S. ; ■ 



Imam, A. M. S.,H. 



Cbatterjee. A. 


Captain, D. M. 




Hopkinson, A. J. 



Urquhart, W. S. 


9 9 

Bake, A. A. 


Rankin, Sir G. 


105 Ang, 

1-70 Nov. 


175 Dec. 


180 ’’ 


Chronological List of Ordinary Members, 





Stagg, M. 1 



Basak, S. C. 


Ghosh, P. N. 1 


, , 

Lord Sinha of Raipur 


Abdul Kadir, A. F. M. 


Saha, M. N. 



Fukushima, N. 



Bhadra, S. N. 


Wright, F. M. 


Hobart, R. C. 




Heiland, B. A. 

Narasimham, Y. 




Siihrawardy, Sir 



Bhattasali, N. K. 

Z. R. Z. 



Roerich, N. 



Dewick, E. C. 


Das, P. K. 



Watson, Sir A. H. 


Hosain, Musharraf 



Nandi, Maharaja S. C. 



Jaitly, P. L. 


2 85 



Jain, B. 


Urchs, 0. 



Sinha, S. P. 


Ghuznavi, I. S. K. 



Chatterjee, P. 


Drummond, J. G. 


Chakravarti, C. 

Heron, A. M. 



Vance, R. L. 




Olpadvala, E. S. 





Tarkatirtha, B. 

Bose Mullick, G. N. 


Mukherji, D. 

Ishaque, M. 



Brahmachary, S. C. 

Choprha, G. 



Namgyal, H.H. Sir 

Statham, R. M. 


Reinhart, W. 



Dechhen, H.H. Kun« 

Galstaun, J. C. 





Chowdhury, C. 



Maker jee, S. K. 


7 . 

Basu, S. C. 




Ghose, M. a 




Narain, Hirde 



Basu, N. M. 


Jenkins, W. A. 




de Mello, F, 


Dev, Raja R. 


Puri, I. M. 



Mani, M. S. 




Wats, R. C. 



Travers, Sir W. L. 



Sinha, S. C. 

Mitter, H. K. 



Kewal, G. S. 



De, J. C. 



Ezra, Sir D. 

Basu, B. K. 



Reneman, Nico 



Lunan, A. G. 



> j 

Mukerji, M. N. 


Mullick, P. N. 


Rai, L. N. 


Mitra, J. M. 


Williams, T. T. 



Ghose, D. P. 




Shumsher, Sir Kaiser 



Asadullah, K. M. 



Waight, H. G. 


Rizvi, S. H. H. 



Gooptu, D. N. 


Ginwala, Sir P. 



Neogi, P. 


Sen-Gupta, N. C. 



Biswas, 0. C. 



Sharma, S. R. 


Eberl, Otto 

Williams, H. F. F. 



Roy, S- K. 



Sastri, D. S. B. 

315 . 



MuUick, K. C. 


Pawsey, C. R. 


Bhattaeharjee, N. C. 


Sanyal, S. C. 



Kumar, K. K. 



Dunn, J. A. 




Chowdhury, Rai J. 



Sommerfeld, A. 

' yy 

, > 5 

Harris, L. E. 

1 Nov. 


Berthoud, G. F. 

320 ' 



Mookerjea, B. 


Singh, J, 



Chatterji, K. N. 



Mitra, M. N. 


>>■' , 

Chatterjea, Sir N. R. 


Cotter, G. de P. 

380 ' 


Tucci, G. 


Campbell, G. R. 


Murray,, E. F. 0. 


Parry, N. E. 


9 9 


Moledina, M. H. 


Jarvis, R- Y. 


Gupta, J. N. 

■ 99 

Edwards, L. B. 

. Basu,' N. 

Siddiqi, M. Z. 



Ghoaal, tJ. N. 



Kurup, P. C. K. 

y.y . 

Mallik, S. G. 


Mallya, B- G. 


ProceediTigs A.S.B. for 1932, 

Dec. 2. Fisher, JB\ B. 

„ : ,, ■ Khan, M. R.; 

S90 „ Fawcus, L. R, ■ 

„ „ Thomas, H. W. 




Jain, N. K. 

Haidar, S. K. 

Bassewitz, Count 


H^amilton, Sir D. M. 

Martin, M. P. C. 

Chakraverti, S. C. 



Henderson, A. G. 

3 J 

Mahtab, U. C. 



Korni, M. A. 


Pettigrew, W. 

9 9 

Chakravarti, M. N. 



Mukharji, I. C. 

Ashton, H. S. 




Pessein, J. F, 


Ahmad, S. K. 



Swami, V. N. 



Deo, P. C. Bhanj 


Matthias, 0. G. 


Mallam, G. L, 



Cooper, G. A. P. 



Kenny, D. E. C. 


Oyevaar, J, J. 



Mahudavala, J. J. 




Popper, S. W. 

Raparia, T. C. 



Sahaya, S. 

Austin, G* J. 

Rahman, S. K. 



Newman, C. D. 



Roy, Kumar K. 


Jan. 5. Fooks, H. A. 

„ ,, Bhattaeharji, U. C. 

„ Shnkla, J. P. 

„ „ Chatterji, D. 425 

„ „ Evans, P. 

Feb. 2. Wauchope, R. S. 

„ ,, Douglas, Gr. W. 

,, ,/ Clough, J. 

Mar. 2 . Bose, S. K. 430 

„ „ Kothari, K. L. 

April 6. Bhose, J. C. 

„ „ Prasad, S, 

May 4. Bottomley, J. M. 

June 1. Lort-WilHams, J. 435 

Aug. 3. Barua, K. L. 

Dee. 7. Eliade, M. 




Holme, J. W. 


Visser, Ph. C 



Clendenin, D. L. 




Hughes, A. 



Chakraborty, K. B. 



Darbari, M. D. 



Thakur, A. 



Muhammad, M. 




Vere-Hodge, E. H. 



Chatterjee, S. P. 



Suvarna Shumser 


De,A. C. 



Driver, D. C. 



Sitling, G. T. 



Dutt, N. 


( Chronological, ) 

5^1 i -84 

C« S. Middlemiss 
(30 N.). 

6- 6-88 

A. P. Pennell (88 F.). 

6- 3-89 

T. H. D. La Touche 

11- 1-93 

Sir Edward D. 

Maclagan (94 R.). 


1- 2-93 

P. O Bodding 

(14 N.). 

31- 7-93 

G. P. Tate (23 N.). 

27- 9-94 

W. Vest (94 F.). 

3- 7-95 

Sir Nicholas D, 
Beatson -Bell 
(95 N.). 

19- 9-95 

K, C. De (26 R.). 


3- 6-98 

Sir R. N. Mookerjee 
(29 R.). 


J. W. A. Grieve 
(00 F.). 

6- 2-01 

J. Ph. Vogel (25 F.). 

2- 7-02 

F. Doxey (28 R.). 

1- 6-04 

G. H. Tipper (27 N.). 


28- 9-04 

H. E. Stapleton 
(26 R.), 

2- 8-05 

D. McOay (29 F.). 

3- 1-06 

J. A. Chapman 
(28 N.). 

7- 3-06 

A. C, Woolner 

(28 N.). 

19- 7-06 

R. B. Whitehead 
(26 N.). 


3- 7-07 

J. Coggin Brown 
(28 N.). 

3- 7-07 

W. A. K. Christie 
(29 N.). 

1- 1-08 

XJ. N. Brahmaohari 
(27 R.). 

7- 4-09 

C. A. Bentley (30 N.). 


P. J. Bruhl (28 N.). 


4- 5-10 

S. B. Dhavle (10 N.). 

4- 5-10 

S. W. Kemp (29 F.). 

. l-.'2-ll 

Jas. Insch (28 R.). 

7- 6-11 M. Hidayat Hosaio 
(27 N.). 

5- 7-11 R. B. S. Sewell 
(28 N.). 

1*11-11 Kamaluddin Ahmad 30» 
(24 N,). 

5-3-13 J. L. Simonseii 
(19 N.). 

4- 3-14 J. Bacot (14 F,). 

5- 7-16 G. Sircar (29 N.)* 

6- 2-18 E. N. Ghosh (25 R.)- 

6- 2-18 Johan van Manen 36. 
(25 R.)* 

3- 4-18 B. Prashad (29 R.), 

2- 11-21 S. L. Hora(30N.). 

6- 6-23 A. Howard (30 N.). 

5- 12-23 H.H. Lakshman Sen 

(24 NO* 

7- 5-24 B. Bhattacharya 40^ 

(24 N.). 

6- 8-24 L. M. Davies 

(24 N.). 

3- 12-24 G. Roerich (28 F.). 

6- 6-27 B. D. Jain (28 R.). 

5-12-27 Sir Chhajuram Chow- 

dhurv (27 R.). 

5-12-27 H.H. Sir Tashi Nam- 45^ 
gyal (27 N.). 

5- 12-27 H.H. Kunzang Dech- 

hen (27 N.)* 

6- 2-28 SirD. Ezra (28 R.). 

6- 2-28 Sir Kaiser Shumsher 

Jung Bahadur 
Rana (28 K.). 

2- 7-28 N. Roerich (28 F.). 

5-11-28 W. Reinhart (28 F.)* 50« 

4- 11-29 G. de P. Cotter (32 N.)* 

3- 3-30 H. S. Ashton (30 K.). 

5- 1-31 P. Evans (31 N,). 

7- 11-32 Suvarna Shumser 

Jung Bahadur 
Rana (32 N.). 

( clxi ) 


Date of I 
Election, f 

15-1-84: j A. H. Sayob, Professor of Assyriologtff Queen's College, Oxford, 
j England. 


Date of 


1 - 2-22 

1 - 2-22 





*H. Hosten, Rev., s.j. St. Joseph’s College, Darjeeling. 
fPlERRB JOHANKS, ReV., S.J., B.LITT. (OxON,)^ ProfeSSOT of 
Philosophy, St, Xavier’s College, 30, Park Street, Calcutta. 


visABADA, Lecturer in Sanshrit, GalcuUo, University. 1/3/1, 
Premchand Boral Street, Calcutta. 

*W. IvANOw. c/o Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1, Park Street, 

*Kamalakrishna Smbititirtha, Mahamahopaohyaya. Bhat- 
para, 24-Parganas. 

fN. N. Vastt, Rai Sahib. 20, Visvakosh Lane, Baghbazar, 

Sarat Chanbba Roy, Rai Bahadur, m.a., b.l., Editor, 
‘ Man in India \ Church Road, Ranchi. 

* Re-elected for a further period of five years on 4-2-1929 under 
Rule 2c. 

t Re-elected for a further period of five years on 7-3-1932 under 
Rule 2c. 


Date of n,r— 







The Legatum Warnerianum (Oriental Department), University 
of Leyden, Leyden, Holland. 

The Adyar Library, Adyar, Madras S. 

The Benares Hindu University, Benares. 

The Ohtani University Library, Kyoto, Japan. 

The Annamalai University Library, Annamalainagar, Chidam- 
baram, S. India. 


Date of I " 

Election, i 

2-2-10 1 T. H. D. La Touche, b.a„ f.g.s. 

2-2-10 ! Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray, kt., c.i.e., m.a., 

( clxii ) 

Honorary Fellows, 


Date of 

2- 2-10 Sir E. D. Ross, KT., G.I. 13 ., PH.D. 

7-2-12 Sir J. C. Boso, kt., o.s.i., o.i.e., m.a..,, f.h.s. 

7-2-12 P, J. Briihl, I.S.O., B’.a.s., PH.D., F.c.s. 5 

7-2-12 Sir Samuel R. Christophers, kt., o.i.e., o.b.e., i.m.s., f.r.s. 

7-2-12 0. S. Middlemiss, o.i.e., b.a., f.g.s., f.r.s. 

5-2-13 J. Ph. Vogel, ph.d., litt.b. 

5- 2-13 S. W. Kemp, B.A.,, F.'K.s. 

3- 2-15 G. H. Tipper, m.a.,f.g.s., m.inst.m.m. 10 

2-2-16 Sir Richard Bum, kt,, o.s.i., i.o.s. 

2-2-16 L. L. Fermor, o.b.e., a.b.s.m.,, f.q.s., m.inst.m.m. 

7-2-17 F. H. Gravely, 

6- 2-18 J. L. Simonsen,, f.i.o. 

6- 2-18 D. MoCay, m.d., m.k.o.p., i.m.s. 15 

5-2-19 J. Coggin Brown, o.b.e., m.i.m.e., f.g.s. 

5-2-19 W. A. K. Christie,, PH.D., M.INST.M.M. 

5-2-19 D. R. Bhandarkar, m.a., ph.d. 

5- 2-19 R. B. Seymour Sewell, o.i.e., m.a., sc.d., m.b.o.s., e.r.o.p., f.l.s,, 

F.Z.S.. i.m.s. 

2- 2-21 XT. N. Brahmachari, m.a., ph.d., m.d. 20 

1-2-22 Sir Edwin H. Pascoe, kt., m.a.,, sc.d., f.g.s. 

1-2-22 Ramaprasad Chanda, B.A. 

4- 2-25 M. Hidayat Hosain, ph.d. 

4-2-25 i Guy E, Pilgrim,, f.g.s, 

4-2-25 Sir C. V. Raman, kt., m.a.,, ph.d., bl-d., f.b.s. 25 

1- 2-26 P. O. Bodding, m.a. 

7- 2-27 R. Knowles, b.a., m.r.c.s., b.b.c.p., i.m.s. 

7-2-27 i Johan van Manen, o.i.e. 

7-2-27 B. Sahni, 

7-2-27 A. C. Woolner, o.i.e., m.a. 30 

6- 2-28 H. E. Stapleton, m.a.,, i.e.s. 

6-2-28 B. Prashad,, f.z.s., f.b.s.e. 

6-2-28 C. A. Bentley, o.i.e., m.b., d.p.h., d.t.m. & h. 

4-2-29 A. Howard, o.i.e., m.a. 

4-2-29 J. H. Hutton, o.i.e., m.a.,, i.o.s. 35 

4-2-29 I Sir Edward D. Maclagan, k.c.s.i., k.c.i.e. 

3- 2-30 H. W. Acton, o.i.e., m.b.o.s., l.r.c.p., i.m.s. 

3-2-30 G. de P. Cotter, b.a., so.d., m.inst.m.m., f.g.s. 

3-2-30 S. L. Hora,, f.z.s., f.b.s.e. 

3-2-30 J. P. Mills, I.o.s., m.a., j.p. 40 

3-2-30 Meghnad Saha,, f.b.s. 

2- 2-31 S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar, m.a., ph.d., f.b.hist.s. 

2-2-31 R. N. Chopra, m.a., m.b., i.m.s. 

2-2-31 R. B. Whitehead, i.o.s. {retired). 

1-2-32 J. Bacot, 45 


Date of 

5-2-06 Gharbes Rookwbll Lanman. 9, Farrar Street, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, U.S. A. 

2-3-04 SiK George Abbaham Grierson, k.g.i.e.v O.m., ph.d., d.bitt., 
BL.D., F.B.A., i.o.s, {retired). Rathfarnham, Camberley, 
Surrey, England. 

Proceedings A.S.B, for 1932 . 


Date of I 
Election. I 


6- 9-11 

5 5-8-15 





10 4-2-20 





15 4-2-20 



7- 6-22 


20 7-1-25 


4- 7-27 


25 2-12-29 

5- 5-30 



Alfred William Aloock,, m.b., ll.d., p.b.s. Heath- 
iatids. Belvedere, Kent, England. 

Kamakhyanath Tarkavagisa, Mahamahopadhyaya, 111/4, 
Shambazar Street, Calcutta. 

Sir Joseph John Thomson, kt., o.m., m.a., so.d.,, ll.d,, 
PH.D., p.R.s. Trinity College, Cambridge, ESngiand. 

G. A. BotTLENGER, P.R.S., LL.D. Jardiu Botaaique du L’Etat, 

Herbert Allen Giles, m.a., ll.d., d.litt., Professor , 10, 
Selwyn Gardens, Cambridge, England. 

Sylvain Levi, d.litt. College de France, rii© Guy-de-ia-Bross© 
9, Pads, Ve. 

Sir Aurbl Stein, k.o.i.e., ph.d., d.litt.,, d.o.l., p.b.a. 
c/o The Librarian, School of Geography, Mansfield Road, 

A. Foucher, d.litt. Boulevard Raspail 286, Paris, XVIe. 

Sir Arthur Keith, m.d., f.r.c.s., ll.d., f.r.s. Royal College of 
Surgeons of England, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London, W.C. 2. 
R. D. Oldham, p.r.s., f.g.s., f.r.g.s. 1, Broomfield Road, 
Kew, Surrey, England. 

' Sir David Prain, kt., o.m.g., g.i.e., m.a., m.b., ll.d., f.r.s.e., 
F.L.S., F.R.S., F.Z.S., M.R.i.A. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
Surrey, England. 

Sir Joseph Larmor, kt., m.p., m.a.,, ll.d., d.o.l., f.r.s., 
F.R.A.s. St. John’s College, Cambridge, England. 

Sir James Frazer, kt., d.o.l., ll.d., litt.d. Trinity College, 

J. Takakusu. Imperial University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 

F. W. Thomas, o.le., m.a., ph.d., Boden Professor of Sanskrit, 
University of Oxford, 161, Woodstock Road, Oxford, England. 
Sir Thomas Holland, k.c.s.i., k.c.i.b.,, f.r.s. Imperial 
College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, London, 
S.W. 7. 

Sir Leonard Rogers, kt., o.i.e., m.d., b.s., f.r.o.p., f.r.s., 
i.M.s. 24, Cavendish Square, London, 4. 

Sten Konow. Ethnographisk Museum, Oslo, Norway. 

The Rt. Hon’blb The Earl of Lytton, p.c., g.o.s.i., g.o.i.e. 
Knebworbh, Herts, England. 

C. Snouok Hurgronjb. Rapenburg 61, Leiden, Holland. 
Lt.-Col, Sir T, Wolseley Haig, k.o.i.e., c.s.i., o.b.e., m.a., 
O.M.G. 34, Gledstanes Road, West Kensington, London, W. 14. 
Sir Rajendra Nath Mookerjee, k.c.le., k,o.v.o. 7, 
Haringbon Street, Calcutta. 

Dr. Charles J. H. Nioollb, Direcior. Pasteur Institute, Tunis. 
Dr. R. Robinson,, p.r.s. Department of Chemistry, Uni- 
versity of London, University College, Gower Street, London, 
W.C. 1. 

Dr. H. Jaoobi. 59, Niebuhrstrasse, Bonn, Germany. 
Shams-ul-Ulema Sir J. J. Modi, kt.,2U, Pilot Bunder Road, 
Colaba, Bombay. 

Loss OF Members dobing 1932. 
By Retirement, 

Ordinary Members, 

1. S. N. Sur, (1926,) 

2. T. J. Fitzgerald. (1927.) 

3. Kisor Ghosh. (1927.) 

4. Rev. L. E. Browne. (1924.) 

5. Raja Prithwipal Singh. (1909.) 

6. Kiran Chandra Dutt. (1926.) 

7. Charu Chandra Bose. (1918.) 

8. Mrs. F. Campbell Forrester. (1929.) 

9. I. B. Brahmachari. (1926.) 

10. W. C. Banerji. (1926.) 

11. S. N. Bai. (1919.) 

12. A. Siddiqi. (1924.) 

13. M. Hurlimann. (1927.) 

14. A. a Ukil. (1925.) 

15. R. M. Tagore. (1928.) 

16. A. N. Chowdhury. (1928.) 

17. H. N. Mukherji. (1927.) 

18. Sir J. P. Thompson. (1909.) 

19. H. S. Rao. (1924.) 

20. P. C. Sen. (1929.) 

21. H. C. Ray-Chaudhuri. (1920.) 

22. R. A. Melhuish. (1928.) 

23. Rev. B. M. Maynard, (1929.) 

24. M. T. Titus, (1929.) 

25. D. P. Goii. (1929.) 

26. A. S. M. L. Rahman. (1928.) 

27. S. N. Maliik. (1928.) 

28. C. E. van Aken. (1929.) 

29. W. W. Winfield. (1926.) 

30. S. B. Setna. (1926.) 

31. G. Matthai. (1919.) 

32. A. P. Boral. (1929.) 

33. Mrs. R. J. B. Ward. (1927.) 

34. K. K. Mitter. (1926.) 

36. B. M. Das. (1924.) 

36. B. B. Brahmachari. (1926.) 

37. Subodh Mitra. (1928.) 

38. M. Vinayek Rao. (1925.) 

39. Y. T. Korke. (1923.) 

40. Kedar Hath Das. (1928.) 

41. Mnralidhar Banerji. (1905.) 

42. MMe. Edith de Gasparin. (1929.) 

43. P'.G. Bridge. (1927.) k- 

44. J. G. Ghosh. (1927.) 

45. W. A. K. Fraser. (1931.) 

46. Vishwanath Singh. (1894.) 

47. S. 0. Mahalanobis. (1906.) 

48. J, Chaudhuri. (1925.) 

( cixv ) 


Procmdings A,S,B, for 1932 . 

By Death. 

Ordinary Members. 

1. Kumar Krishna Butt. {1920.) . 

2. Geo. B. McNair. (1930.) 

3. R. Douglas. (1930.) (Assasinated.) 

4. J. D. Ratnakar. (1918.) 

5. Vepin Chandra Rai. (1880.) 

Honorary Fellow. 

L Dr. W. Caland. (1930.) 

Under Rule 38. 

1. Kalidas Bhanot. (1923.) 

2. Ram Chandra Kapur. (1929.) 

3. A. Subba Rao. (1926.) 

4. Khan Bahadur Asaduzzaman. (1924.) 

5. D. N. Gupta. (1920.) 

6. Pt. Hargopal. (1928.) 

7. S. C. Mookerjee. (1926.) 

8. V. Narayanaswami. (1926.) 

9. Bhabendra Chandra Ray. (1924.) 

10. Sir A. A. Suhrawardy, (1907.) 

11. B. B. Banerji. (1929.) 

12. B. M. Barua. (1921.) 

13. J. L. Bhatnagar. (1925.) 

14. T. L. Bomford. (1912.) 

15. R. K. Chaube. (1928.) 

16. P. N. Deb. (1929.) 

17. G.L. Hawes. (1928.) 

18. M. H. Mehta. (1928.) 

19. G. N. Mukherji. (1908.) 

20. G. P. Pillai. (1929.) 

21. Joggeswar Srimani. (1929.) 

Under Rule 40. 

1. I. A. Mohammed. (1925.) 

2. L. P. B, Pugh. (1926.) 

3. Sir Basil Blackett. (1922.) 

4. Baron L. Plessen. (1928.) 

5. E. B. Shaw. (1928.) 

6. P.L. Evans. (1928.) 

7. H. P. Holler. (1923.) 

8. G. M. Fullerton. (1928.) 




1893 Chandra Kanta Basu. 

1895 Yati Bhusana Bhaduri. 

1896 Jnan Saraii Ghakravarti. 

1897 Sarasi Lai Sarkar. 

1901 Sarasi Lai Sarkar. 

and. ( Sarasi Lai Sarkar. 

I Surendra Nath Maitra. 

1907 Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar. 
ion I Nath Rakshit. 

I Jatindra Mohan Batta. 
r Rasik Lai Datta. 

1 Qi ‘3 ySaradakanta Ganguly. 
j Nagendra Chandra Nag. 

(. Nilratan Dhar. 

1918 Bibhutibhushan Butta. 

1919 Jnanendra Chandra Ghosh. 

1922 Abani Bhusan Batta. 

1923 Bhailal M. Amin. 

1926 Bidhu Bhusan Ray. 

1927 Kalipada Biswas. 

1931 TO. N. Singh. 

1932 P. N. Das-Gupta. 



1901 E. Ernest Green, 

1903 Sir Ronald Ross, kt,, k.o.b., o.i.e., k.c.m.g., m.e.o.s., 
F.K.O.S., D.F.H., nii.I)., D.SO., M.D., F.R.S. 

1905 B. B. Cunningham,, p.e.s. 

1907 A. W. Alcock, O.I.E., m.b., ll-d., f.b.s. 

1909 Sir Bavid Prain, kt., o.i.e., o.m,g., m. a., m.b., f.r.s.e,, 

F.L.S., F.Z.S., M.R.I.A., P.B.S. 

1911 Carl Biener. 

1913 William Glen Liston, 0.1.1!., M.D., D.p.H. 

1915 J. S. Gamble, H. A., F.B.S. 

1917 H. H. Godwin -Austen, P.B.S., F.z,s., f.b.g.s. 

1919 N. Annandale, c.i.B., i>-so., c.m.z.s., f.b.s., f.b.s., f.a.s.b. 
1921 Sir Leonard Rogers, kt., o.i.b., m.b., b.s., f.r.o.f., f.r.o.s., 
^ F.B.B. 

1923 Sir Samuel Christophers, o.i.s,, o.b.e., f.b.s., f.a.s.b., m.b., 
LT.-OOL., I.M.S. 

1925 J. Stephenson, o.i.i3.,, m.b., ch.b., f.b.g.s., f.b.s.e., 


1927 S. W. Kemp, B.A., D.SO., F.A.S.B. 

1929 Albert Howard, c.i,e., m.a., f.a.s.b. 

1931 R. B. Seymour Sewell, O.I.E., m.a., so.b. (Cantab.), 
M.R.C.S , L.B.O.P., F.Z.S., F.I..S., F.A.S.B., Lt.-COL., I.M.S. 

( clxvii ) 


Proceedings A.8.B, for 1932« 



1927 Sir Malcolm Watson, kt., IiL.b. (koitOj m.d., o.m., d.p.h. 

1928 Sir George A. Grierson, k.c.i.e., o.m., ph.b., d-litt., ll.b.,. 

F.B.A., Hon, F.A.S.B., i.c.s. {retired). 

1930 Dr. Felix H. D’Herelle. 

1932 Dr. G. Snouck Hurgronje. 



1927 Fritz Sarasin. 

1930 Dr. Charles Gabriel Seligman, m.b., p.b.g.p,, F.B.S. 



1929 Max Weber. 

1932 Dr. Ernst J. O. Hartert, ph.b. 



1931 Rev. Ethelbert Blatter, s.j. 

MEETINGS, 1932. 

JANUARY, 1932. 

No Meeting, 

FEBRUARY,. 1932. 

An Ordinaiy Mon^ of the Asiatic Society of 

Bengal was lielcl on Monday, the 1st, immediately after the 
termination of the Annual Meeting, . 


The Hon’blb Me. JtrsTicB:C. 0. Ghose, Kt., Baeristeb- 
at-Law, President, in the Ohair. 

Memhets : 

Agharkar, Dr. S. P. 
Bhose, Mr. J. 0., • 

B ottomley , Mr. . J . M . 
Brown, Mr. Percy 
Chatterjee, Mr. P. P. 
Ohatterji, Mr. M. M. 
Chopra, Lt.-Coi. R, N. 

Fermor, Dr. L. L. 
Hobbs, Mr. Harry 
Hora, Dr. S. L. 

Insch, Mr. James 
Jenkins, Dr. W. A. 
Manen, Mr. Johan van 
Ray, Dr. Hem Chandra 
Ray-Chaudhuri, Dr. H. C. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The General Secretary announced that the presentations of 
books,: etc., received daring the last month would be exhibited 
at the next Monthly Meeting. . ■ 

The following candidates were balloted for for election as 
Ordinary Members 

(1) Molm&f James William, M.A., Principal, La Martiniere, 11, London 
Street, Galctitta. 

...Proposer : J. M. Bottomley.;, 

Seconder : A. M. Heron. 

(2) Khan, G, Ahmed, Census Commissioner, Begumpefc P.O., 
Hyderabad, Deccan. 

Proposer : M. Mahfuz-ul Haq. 

Seconder : S. L. Hora. 

( cixix ) 


Proceedings for 

(3) Visser^ Ph, C., Consul-General for the NetherlandSj 7^ Alipore 
Park Road, West, Calcutta. 

Proposer : TJpendra Nath Brahmachari. 

Seconder : J ohan van Manen. 

(4) Glendenin^ David Lawrence, B.A. (Yale, 1928), 32, East 64 Street, 
New York City, U.S.A. (St. Paul’s College, 33/1, Amherst Street, 
Calcutta. ) 

Proposer: P. G. Bridge. 

Seconder : Johan van Manen. 

The General Secretary reported the loss of membership, 
since the previous meeting, by resignation of : — 

K. S. Kolah (An Ordinary Member, 1925). 

H. H. Haines (An Ordinary Member, 1907, Fellow, 1915). 

B. S. Feegrade (An Ordinary Member, 1927). 

H. Cooper (An Ordinary Member, 1927). 

A. D. Derviche- Jones (An Ordinary Member, 1928). 

J. P. P. Quirke (An Ordinary Member, 1930). 

Alexander Jardine (An Ordinary Member, 1928). 

B. Shaha (An Ordinary Member, 1928). 

J. M. Ray (An Ordinary Member, 1930). 

N. N. Mukherjee (An Ordinary Member, 1924), 

A. L. Collet (An Ordinary Member, 1926). 

B. B. Ghosh (An Ordinary Member, 1924). 

E. J. Bradshaw (An Ordinary Member, 1925). 

K. Ramunni Menon (An Ordinary Member, 1925). 

The Hon’ble S. K. Sinha (An Ordinary Member, 1930). 

W. L. Harnett (An Ordinary Member, 1923). 

C. S. Fox (resignation since withdrawn). 

In accordance with Rule 38, the General Secretary 
announced that the names of the following members, who 
had, since the last Ordinary Monthly Meeting, been suspended 
as defaulters within the Society's building, had now been re- 
moved as defaulters from the Society’s registers for non-payment 
of dues : — 

Kalidas Bhanot. Pt. Hargopal. 

Ram Chandra Kapur. S. C. Mookerjee. 

A. Subba Rao. V. Narayanaswami. 

Klhan Bahadur Asaduzzaman. Bhabendra Chandra Ray, 

B. N. Gupta. Sir Abdulla Suhrawardy. 

In accordance with Rule 2 (c), the General Secretary 
announced that the Council recommends for re-election for a 
further term of five years the following gentlemen as Associate 
Members of the Society : — 

Rev. Fr. Pierre Johanns (Sanskritist). 

MM. Anantakrishna Sastry (Sanskritist). 

Mr. N. N. Vasu (Sanskritist). 

The General Secretary stated the grounds on which the 
recommendation had been made. 

The President announced the result of the ballot for the 
election of the Ordinary Members and declared all candidates 
duly elected. 

Ordinary Monthly Meetings, 


The President announced that a meeting of the Medical 
Section had been arranged to be held on Monday, the 8th 
February, at 5-30 p.M. , 

Speaker : Lt.-CoL R. Knowles, I.M.S. 

Subject : The Casualities of the Great War. 

MARCH, 1932. 

An Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal was held on Monday, the 7th, at 5-30 p.m. 


The Hoh’ble Mb. Justice C. C. Ghose, Kt., Babeisteb* 
at-Law, President, in the Chair. 

Members : 

Asadullah, Mr. K. 
Bhattacharya, Mr. Bisveswar 
Bose, Mr. M. M. 

Chatterji, Mr. M. M. 
Das-Gupta, Mr. H. C. 

De, Lt.^Col. J. C. 

Deb, Mr. H. K. 

Fawcus, Mr. L. R. 
Fermor, Dr, L. L. 
Hobbs, Mr. Harry 
Manen, Mr. Johan van 
Siddiqi, Dr. M. Z. 
Sarvadhikary, Sir D. P. 
Wadia, Mr. D. N. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The General Secretary reported receipt of thirty-six pre- 
sentations of books, etc., which had been placed on the table for 

The following candidates were balloted for for election as 
Ordinary Members : — 

(5) Hughes^ Arthur^ B.A. (Manchester), Indian Civil Service, Assistant 
Settlement Officer, Malda, Bengal. 

Proposer : Sir G. C. Ghose. 

Seconder ; Johan van Manen. 

(6) Chakrabortif, Khirode Behari, Engineer and Manufacturer, 7, 
Hindusthan Park, Rash Behari Avenue (Ballygunge Avenue), Calcutta. 

Proposer : Upendra Nath Brahmachari. 

Seconder : S. N. Bal. 

(7) Ghose, Anu, Mine Owner and Geologist, 19, Dum Dam Road, 

Calcutta.: ■ . , 

Proposer : L. L. Fermor. 

Seconder : Johan van Manen. 

(8) Darbari, M, D., Chartered Accountant, lOO, Clive Street, Calcutta. 

Proposer : M. Mahfuz-ul Haq. 

Seconder : M. Hidayat Hosain. 

The General Secretary reported the death of : — 

Kumar Krishna Dutt (An Ordinary Member, 1920). 


Proceedings for 1932, 

The General Secretary reported the loss of membership, 
since the previous meeting, by resignation of 

S. N. Sur (An Ordinary Member, 1926). 

T. Fitzgerald (An Ordinary Member, 1927). 

Kisor Grhosh (An Ordinary Member, 1927). 

Rev. L. E. Browne (An Ordinary Member, 1924). 

Raja Pritbwipal Singh (An Ordinary Member, 1909). 

Earan Ghandra Entt (An Ordinary Member, 1925). 

Charu Chandra Bose (An Ordinary Member, 1918). 

The General Secretary reported the constitution of the 
various standing Committees of the Society for 1932-33 to be as 


Finance Committee : 

President. \ 

Treasurer. > Ex-officio, 

General Secretary, j 
Mr. J. C. Mitra. 

Library Gommiitee .* 

President. ' 


General Secretary. 

Philological \ 

Jt. Philological i \ zn • 

Biological (Secretaries. / ^-officio. 

Physical Science f 



Library ) ! 

Publication Committee : 

President. \ 

Treasurer. j 

General Secretary. ! 

Philological \ j 

Physical Science > Secretaries. 
Anthropological I 

Medical I 

Library J J 

In accordance with Rule 48 (a), the General Secretary 
reported that the Council had adopted the following regulations 
regarding the award of the ' Paul Johannes Bruhl Memorial 

The Medal shall be awarded every three years at the 
Ordinary Annual Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, in 

The Medal shall be bestowed on a person who, in the 
opinion of the Council, has made conspicuously important 
contributions to the knowledge of Asiatic Botany. 

The Council shall, at a meeting preceding the Ordinary 

Ordmary Monthly MeeMngs. 


Moiitlily Meeting in November, appoint an Advisory Board 
consisting of not less than three members. 

The Advisory Board shall be termed ‘ The Paul Johannes 
Bruhl Memorial Medal Advisory Board ’ and shall include the 
Biological Secretary. The Board shall appoint a Chairman 
from amongst its members who shall have a casting vote (in 
addition to his own vote) in the event of the number of votes 
being ecj_iially divided. 

The C4enerai Secretary shall call a meeting of the Advisory 
Board on the first convenient date subsequent to the first 
Monday of December, at the same time requesting Members to 
bring with them to the meeting detailed statements of the work 
or attainments of such candidates as they may wish to propose. 
The Cieneral Secretary shall also place before the Board for con- 
sideration detailed statements of the work or attainments of 
any other candidate submitted by any Bellow^ of the Society. 
The Board shall make such arrangements as may be necessary 
for the selection of a name to be submitted to the Council 
at its December meeting. 

Notwithstanding anything determined in these Begixlations 
it shall be within the competence of the Board to abstain from 
the selection of any name to be submitted for the year and to 
report accordingly to the Council, in which ease, provided the 
Council concurs, the aw^ard for the year shall lapse. 

In accordance with Buie 2 (c), the President called for a 
ballot for the re-election as Associate Members for a further 
period of five years of the following : — 

Bev. Fr. Pierre Johanns, S.J., 

MM. Ananta Krishna Sastry, 

Bai Sahib K. N, Vasii, 

proposed for re-election in the last Ordinary Monthly Meeting. 

The following paper w^as read : — 

1. Db, M. Z. Sibdiqi.— Science oj Medicine under the Ahhasidea, 

The following communication was made : — 

1. Johan van Manen.— Derivation and Meaning of the Name 

The President announced the results of the ballot for the 
election of Ordinary Members, and the re-election of Associate 
members and declared all candidates duly elected. 

The President announced that a General Lecture had been 
arranged for to be held on Wednesday, the 16th March, 1932, 
•at, 6 p.m. ' ' 

Lecturer : Mr. Ph. C. Visser, Consul-General for the Nether- 
lands at Calcutta. 

Subject : To the unknown Karakorum Mountains. 


Proceedings A.8.B. for 1932. 

The President invited the 'members to cGnimunicate to the 
General Secretary the names and addresses of iion-nieinbers to 
whom they wished invitations to be issued for the lecture. 

APRIL, 1932. 

An Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal was held on Monday, the 4th, at 5-30 p.m. 


C. W. Gxjrner, Esq., I.C.S., Philological Secretary, in the 

Members : 

Bhattacharya, Mr. U. C 
Bose, Mr. M. M. 

Brahmachari, Dr. XT. N. 

Brown, Mr. Percy 
Darbari, Mr. M. D. 

Deb, Kumar H. K. 

Ezra, Sir David 

Visitors : 

David, Mrs. E. Ezra, Mr. Ellis 

Sackioth, Mr. R. P. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The General Secretary reported receipt of ten presenta- 
tions of books, etc., which had been placed on the table for 

The General Secretary reported the loss of membership, 
since the previous meeting, by resignation of : — 

Mrs. F. Campbell Forrester (An Ordinary Member, 1929). 

I. B. Brahmachari (An Ordinary Member, 1926). 

W. C. Banerjee (An Ordinary Member, 1926). 

S. N. Bal (An Ordinary Member, 1919). 

A. Siddiqi (An Ordinary Member, 1924). 

Martin Hurliman (An Ordinary Member, 1925). 

A. C. Ukil (An Ordinary Member, 1927). 

R. M. Tagore (An Ordinary Member, 1928). 

A. N. Chowdhury (An Ordinary Member, 1928). 

H. 3Sr. Mukherjee (An Ordinary Member, 1927). 

Sir John Thompson (An Ordinary Member, 1909). 

The following papers were read : — 

I. Harit Krishna Dish. — The Hindu Calendar and the earlier 

2. M. C. Cherian. — South Indian Acarina, 

Fermor, Dr. L. L. 
Hobbs, Mr. Harry 
Haq, Mr. M. Mahfiiz-ul 
Insch, Mr. James 
Manen, Mr. Johan van 
Rahman, Mr. S. K. 
Wadia, Mr. D. N. 

Ordinary Monthly Meetings, 


Tile following communication was made : — 

1. M. Mahfuz-uL'Haq . — A note on a new Manuscript of the Etibd'i- 
ydt of Umar-i-Khayydm, dated A,H. 826 {A.D. 1423). 

The following exhibit was showm and commented upon i-— 

1. Johan van Manen. — set of Tibetan Banners depicting ilw 
sixteen Sthaviras, 

The Chairman announced that a meeting of the Medical 
Section had been arranged to be held during the month, of 
which notice would be issued in due course. 

Lecturer : Dr. U. N. Brahmachari. 

Subject : Treatment of Kala-Azar with intramuscular 
Injection of Sodium Sulphomethyl Stibanilate. 

MAY, 1932. 

An Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal was held' on Monday, the 2nd, at 5-SO p.m. 


Pekcy Beown, Esq., A.E.C.A., Member of Council, in 
the Chair. 

Members : 

Asadiillah, Mr. K. M, 

Baeot, M. J. 

Bose, Mr. M. M. 

Chopra, Dr. B. N. 

Deb, Kumar H. K. 

Hobbs, Mr. Harry 
Hora, Dr. S. L. 

Manen, Mr. Johan van 
Prashad, Dr. Baini 
Pruthi, Dr. H. S. 
Wadia, Mr. D. N. 

Visitors : 

Bhaduri, Mr. J. Das, Mr. K. N. 

Mukerji, Mr. D, D. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed.. 

The General Secretary reported receipt of fourteen presenta- 
tions of books, etc., which had been placed on the table for 

The following candidates were balloted for for election as 
Ordinary Members : — 

(9) Thahur, Ama7^eswar, M.A., Ph.D,, Lecturer, Calcutta University,. 
Hon. Secretary, Sanskrit Publication Department, Metropolitan Printing,, 
and Publishing House, 56, Dharamtala Street, Calcutta. 

Proposer : Chxntaharan Chakravarti. 

Seconder : Ekendranath Ohosh. 


Proceedings A:8,B. for 

(10) Muhammad^, Mirza, Khan Bahadur, C.I.E., LL.B.j M.R.A.S.j 
. Advocate, Strand Road, Basrah. 

Proposer : Baini Prashad. 

Seconder : M. Mahfnz-nl Haq. 

The General Secretary reported the death of 

Prof. Dr. W. Caland (An Honorary Bellow, 1930). 

The General Secretary gave a short life sketch of Dr. Caland, 
detailing his chief publications and his relationship with the 

The General Secretary reported the loss of membership, 
since the previous meeting, by resignation of : — 

H. Srinivasa Rao (An Ordinary Member, 1924). 

P. C. Sen (An Ordinary Member, 1929). 

H. C. Ray-Chaudhnri (An Ordinary Member, 1920). 

R. A. Melhiiish (An Ordinary Member, 1928). 

The General Secretary addressed on behaH of the Society, 
a few words of cordial welcome to M. J. Bacot of Paris, a 
Fellow of the Society, and a Life-Member, who w^as present at 
the meeting. 

The following paper was read : — 

I. A. C. The Genitalia of the Common Indian Coclcroach 

(Periplaneta americana Xmn.). 

The following communication was made : — 

1. Baini Prashad. — Preparation of Musetm Exhibits with particular 
reference to the newly opened hall of south Asiatic Mammals in the New 
York Museum of Natural History. 

The Chairman announced the result of the ballot for the 
election of Ordinary Members and declared both the candidates 
duly elected. 

JUNE, 1932. 

An Ordinary Monthly Meeting of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal was held on Monday, the 6th, at 5-30 p.m. 


The Hoh'ble Mr. Justice' C. C. Ghose,' Kt., Babeisteb- 
at-Law, President, in the Chair. 

Members : 

Bhattaebarya, Mr. B. 
Bbattacharya, Mr. XT. C. 
Bose, Mr. M. M, 

Brown, Mr. Percy 
Chakraborti, Mr. K. B. 
Chatter ji, Dr. S. K. 

Deb, Kumar H. K. 
Hora, Dr. S. L. 

Insch, Mr. James 
Jain, Mr. C. L. 

Manen, Mr. Johan van 
Wadia, Mr. D. N. 

Ordinary Monthly Meetings. 


Visitors : 

Bogdanov, Mr. L. ' ' Maker ji, Mr. D. D.' 

Vissiere, M. 

Tile minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The General Secretary reported receipt of seventeen pre- 
sentations of books, etc., which had been placed on the table 
for inspection. 

The following candidate was balloted for for election as 
an Ordinary Member : — 

(11) V ere- Hodge, E. H., Author, The Caasey, Cranleigh, Surrey, 


Proposer ; James Insch. 

Seconder : Percy BroviTi. 

The General Secretary reported the death of - 

Geo. B. McKair (An Ordinary Member, 19